Mechanical connecting means
US RE23586 E
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 18, 1952 MERRMAN Re. 23,586
MECHANICAL CONNECTING MEANS Original Filed June 18, 1947 2 Sl-EETS-SHEET 1 2| 27 I H l3 NOY. 18, 1952 MERRMA'N Re. 23,586
MECHANICAL CONNECTING MEANS 2 SHEETS-SHEET 2 Original Filed June 18, 1947 Reissued Nov. 18, 1952 R 2 3,586:
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE MECHANICAL CONNECTING MEANS Henry H. Merriman, Jackson, Mich., assignor to Aeroquip Corporation. Jackson, Mich., a corporation oi Michigan Original No. 2,489,919, dated November 29, 1949, Serial No. 755,387, June 18, 19.47. Application for reissue July 8, 1950, Serial No. 172,642
enclosed in heavy brackets I: appears in the original patent but forms no part offlils reissue specification: matter printed in italics indicates the additions made by reissue.
This invention relates to connecting means for connecting one mechanical part to another by a.
rotary movement 01' one part relatively to the other and in which a locking device is provided in orderto prevent an unintentional or accidental retrograde or disconnecting movement of the rotated part from its connected position.
The rotated part is normally formed to have a screw-threaded connection with the part to which it is required to be secured and may be in the form of an interiorly screw-threaded cap or sleeve, which latter may constitute, for example, a coupling nut, while the cap may-constitute the closure cap for the filling or outlet opening of a tank or like vessel, such for instance, as the closure cap tor a radiator or fuel reservoir, i or chamber, on a motor vehicle.
When employed in the form of a coupling nut, the invention may be applied for the coupling together, or disconnecting, of two fluid conductors, or oi one fluid conductor to a fixture or to a Junction piece or the nut may be more generally applied as a connecting means for use, for instance, on electric cables or like lines, which may be flexible, or rigid, and hollow, or solid.
This invention also relates to couplings, such as are employed for coupling together hose or pipe sections to form a continuous pipe line or conduit and of the kind which comprise a pair 01 complementary coupling or hollow body parts which are adapted to be connected together in coupled relationship by means of a common encircling coupling sleeve or nut.
The invention has for one of its objects to provide an improved coupling of the above kind in which, in the coupled condition of the parts, the coupling sleeve or nut is locked against unintentional or accidentalz-retrograde or uncoupling movement but is automatically unioeked when the coupling sleeve or nut is positively operated to break the coupling.
The invention also has'for its object to provide a coupling of the above character in which the common coupling sleeve or nut carried upon the one coupling part is provided with a series o! ratchet teeth which are engaged by spring finger means carried upon the other coupling part, such that these spring finger means engage with the ratchet teeth with a pawl-like action to form a-unidirectional lock to prevent retrograde movement of the sleeve Or nut when the latter is rotated to eflect coupling, and in which the sleeve or nut is also iormed to provide, when the sleeve or nut is positively or intentionally operated in the reverse sense to efiectuncoupling,
that the said spring finger means are automatically forced out of engagement with the ratchet teeth so as to release the lock and thereby permit such uncoupling operation to be efl'ected.
The invention also has for its object to provide an improved construction of ring member carrying spring finger means engageable with a coupling sleeve 0r nut to form a unidirectional lock to prevent retrograde ,movement of the sleeve or nut when the same is actuated to effect coupling, the said ring member being easy toflt in position upon its respective coupling part and permitting the spring finger means also to be readily located in their operative positions tohave the desired locking engagement with the coupling sleeve or nut.
The invention also has for its object to provide a rotary connecting means for connecting two mechanical parts together in such manner that whereas locking means is automatically operative, upon the making of the connection, to prevent an accidental or unintentional retrograde or disconnecting movement 01' the rotated part the said means is rendered inoperative, also automatically, upon the rotary part being doliberately actuated to disconnect the parts.
These and the other objects residing in the combination, arrangement and construction of the parts will be apparent from a consideration of the following description in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which Fig. I is a half longitudinal section and half elevational view illustrating one application of the invention, as applied to the coupling together of a pair of fluid conductors, which latter are shown coupled together,
Fig. II is a view looking on the right hand end of the malecoupling part when separated from the coupling nut,
Fig. III is a detail view of the coupling nut employed in the construction shown in Figs. I and II, the top half of the figure being in elevation and the bottom half in section, this figure being also representative of a coupling nut per se as provided in accordance with the invention,
Fig. IV is a detail plan view, showing the ring member provided in accordance with the invention and carrying the spring latching fingers,
Fig. V is an edge view of Figure IV,
Fig. VI is a view, halt in vertical section and half in elevation, of another application oi the invention, in this instance in the form of a closure cap, and
Fig. VII is a view, halt in longitudinal section and half in elevation, oi yet another application cases --of the invention, inth sinstance i the form of a ball and soketconnection.
Referring to the drawing. and first to Figures 1 to V. there is shown therein a coupling which comprises a hollow body part I which forms the male coupling part and has a male coupling portion 2 secured thereto by a screw-threaded Joint I and which male coupling portion 2 is provided with an exteriorly screw-threaded portion 4 for receiving the correspondingly interior screwthreaded portion I (FigJIH) of a coupling nut, which latter has an interior portion I and an exterior concentric portion I, the purpose of which will be described later.
The male body parts i and 2 of the coupling have arranged therein a valve 8, supported at one end of a coil spring 9, one end of which spring bears against one end of an annular shoulder ID in the body part I and the other end of which spring bears against an annular shoulder II on the valve 8. The valve 8 engages with an annular valve seat l2 when the coupling parts are separated and thereby serves to seal the end of the male coupling part. as constituted by the hollow body parts I and 2.
The other and female body part of the coupling comprises a hollow body portion it which is adapted to be coupled to the male body portion 2 and carries the female coupling nut. 6, 1, the interior portion 6 of which has the internal multiple threaded portion by which the nut, as a whole, is threaded upon the exterior screwthreaded part 4 of the male coupling part 2 when it is desired to eflect a coupling of the male and female coupling parts together as shown in Fig. I. Arranged within the female body part I3 is a valve sleeve ll, normally urged outwards, under the action of the coil spring l5, into engagement with its valve seat It, but shown in Fig. I in the retracted position, brought about by the screwingup of the coupling nut to effect the coupling of the coupling body parts together and in which retracted position of the valve sleeve is, the ports [I in the valve seat are opened to the passage of fluid through the coupled body parts.
In the uncoupled condition of the coupling body parts these ports II are closed by the valve sleeve being then urged by its spring I! into engagement with the valve seat ll. Likewise, in
this separated condition of the coupling parts, fluid flow through the male coupling part is prevented by its valve I bearing against its seat l2 on the interior of the body part 2.
4 engagement of spring latch fingers II in ratchet .teeth II provided around the edge of one end of the inner coupling nut portion I. These ratchet teeth and spring latch iingers are. so arranged as to aflord a kind of free-wheel action during the rotation of the coupling, nut as a whole in the direction to effect coupling but pro- The male and female coupling parts are connected together by moving the same into engagement with each other so that the flat end face of the valve 8 bears against the flat end face of the valve seat It and so that the screwed-interior l of the coupling nut engages the screwthreading s, whereupon. as the nut is screwed-up the valve I is forced oi! its seat It against the action of its spring 9 and thus opens up the male coupling part to the flow of fluids therethrough. At the same time, the annular boss is on the male body part 2 engages with the shoulder is of the valve sleeve It to urge the same against the action of its coil spring lli, away from its seat It and thereby opens-up the ports l1 so that there is a clear fluid-flow passage through the entire coupling.
This occurs when the coupling nut is screwed in the direction to effect coupling. At the termination'of its said coupling rotation, the nut is automatically held against any unintentional or accidental retrograde or reverse rotation by the vides a lock against rotation of the nut in the reverse direction due to the engagement oi thefree extremities of the spring latch flngers between those ratchet teeth against which they happen to be opposite when'the coupling nut is screwed home upon the coupling part I. The spring latch fingers are also so arranged, and are of such width, that whereas their inner edge portions are located for engagement with the ratchet teeth 2!, their outer edge portions are left free and are located in the path of movement of the outer nut portion 1 for actuation by the latter when desired. A
It will be seen therefore that these ratchet teeth and spring latching fingers give an automatic locking of the coupling nut against undesired un-coupling movement and such as might be produced by excessive vibration, for instance.
At the same time it is an advantage to provide that this automatically locked condition of the coupling nut should be capable of being broken, also automatically, when the coupling nut is subjected deliberately to a turning force for rotating the nut in the reverse direction to effect un-coupling.
It is for this purpose that the coupling nut is tamed by the two concentric parts 6' and I, which are connected with each other by quickaction screw-threading 22. which is opposite hand to the screw-threading I, and the end of which outer nut portion 1 is formed with an inwardly directed radial flange or bead 23 located to partake of limited axial travel, relatively to the inner nut portion 8, within an annular recess 2| in the corresponding end of the latter remote from the end thereof having the axially extending ratchet teeth.
The construction and arrangement is such that when the nut as a whole is rotated in the direction (clock-wise as shown) to effect coupling the outer nut part 1 mt rotates relatively to the inner nut part 8 until the internal shoulder 25 on the outer nut part abuts against an outwardly directed radial flange lion the inner nut part. This relative movement takes the free end edge 21 of the outer nut part clear of the ratchet teeth2i tothepositionasshowninFlguresIand III and when such position is obtained the two nut portions then rotate as one to effect the desired coupling operation.
when, however, the coupling nut is deliberately rotated in the reverse direction to effect uncoupling (such direction being anti-clockwise), and at the very commencement of such rotation, the outer portion 1 of the coupling nut will again travel axially relatively to the inner nut portion 6 but in the reverse direction (1. e. to the left as shown in Figure 1) until the flange 23 is brought up against the flange it, when the two coupling parts will then rotate as one, but at this time the spring latching fingers 20 will have been pushed out of engagement with the ratchet teeth 2 I, due to their having been engaged by the said free end edge 21 of the outer nut portion, and will be so pushed as the outer nut portion is moved axially to the left and relatively to the inner nut part, as Just described.
The entire operation of both locking the coupllng nut against unintentional or accidental retrograde rotation and of freeing the lock when required isthus performed automatically, which is highly advantageous and makes for ease 'of operation consistent with efilciency.
Referring now to Figures IV and V, in particular, there is shown therein a preferred and convenient construction of ring attachment carrying the spring latching fingers 20, which latter are pivoted at one end, at 29, upon one face of a ring 29 and are each of similar and arcuate construction as shown, there being three such latching fingers in the specific example illusbe passed over this screw-threaded portion of the coupling part 2 and be located in the annular groove 30 (Figure I) formed between a squared annular portion 3| of the body part 2 and the adjacent end of the screw-threading 5 and with the ring extending in a plane perpendicular to the plane of said body part.
The ring 29 is formed with a series (three being shown) of flexible ears 32 which are bent back from the inner periphery of the ring to lie perpendicular to the plane of the ring and are capable of having gripping engagement over the said squared surface 3|, whereby to locate the ring securely in position up against the adjacent radial wall of the annular groove 30, with the ring extending radially beyond the, said squared surface portion of the body part 2.
As will be appreciated, the spring latching fingers 2|] are provided upon the surface of the ring 29 opposite to that from which the said ears 32 extend and these fingers at their pivoted ends, and on their inner peripheral edges, are formed with shallow lips 33 bent out from shallow radial and integral web portions 34 of the ring to project axially towards the adjacent end of the screwthreading 5 and to lie in contact with the base of the said annular groove 30. These lips 33, therefore are located on a somewhat smaller diameter than the externaldiameter' of the said screw-threading 5 and it is for this reason that the spring latching fingers are pivotally mounted upon the ring 29 as this permits assembly of the ring and its spring latching fingers upon the male with its said flexible ears 32 in gripping engagement with the squared surface 3| of the male coupling part 2, whereupon the fiexible latching fingers can be swung inwards into the position shown in Figures 1, II and IV to cause the axially extending lips 33 to engage the base of the annular groove 3|! with their free terminal ends located just behind the last screw thread at the corre- T sponding end of the screw-threading 5. In this position, the outwardly bent or deflected ends .of the spring latching fingers, as shown in Figures I and V, are free to click" into engagement with the ratchet teeth 2| as the coupling nut is rotated clockwise to eflect coupling but prevent a reverse rotation of'the nut until the" said outwardly bent ends of the latching fingers are forced backwards towards the ring 29 by the nut action above described. The latching fingers are retained in their inwardly swung and operative position by their outer peripheral edges being engaged behind intumed lips 35 on the outer periphery of the ring. 29 and by oppositely directed lips 38 on the other peripheral edges of the latching fingers engaging over the outer peripheral edge of the ring. To release the latching fingers from their operative position in the groove 30 the fingers must first be stressed outwardly away from the ring to cause the edge portions thereof retained behind the lips 35 'to be lifted clear of the latter, whereupon the fingers 20 are free to be swung outwardly about their pivots 28. When swung inwardly into their operative position the fingers pass over these lips 35 and fall into position with a snap action. This ring attachment is easy to apply or remove and.
if necessary, can be employed to serve the dual purpose of a carrier for the spring latching fingers and as a means of securing the coupling part to a desired location, since the ring can be provided with holes to receive suitable securing screwsor likerneans and can therefore replace the separate ring 31 normally employed for this purpose.
While the invention has been described as applied to a self-sealing coupling it is by no means limited to such application but may be employed on couplings generally which comprise two body parts adapted to be uncoupled or coupled by a common coupling member, normally in form of a nut. This and other changes in details may be made, such as would occur to one skilled in the art or which are required to meet particular working requirements or practical conditions.
Referring again to Figure III, this discloses a novel form of coupling nut consisting of the inner sleeve 6, having the interiorly screwthreaded portion 5 and provided at its locking end with the ratchet teeth 2| for engagement, automatically, with the latching fingers 20 when the nut, as a whole, is screwed home upon a part, to which it is attached, by rotation of the outer nut part 1. While this nut construction has been shown applied to form a coupling means for connecting together two fluid conductors it will be understood that it is capable of being otherwise applied and of forming a coupling nut for general, application for connecting together two mechanical parts under conditions which require that the nut should be self-locked against unintentional retrograde unlocking movement but shall be automatically unlocked when deliberately actuated for the purpose of disconnection.
Figure VII. for instance, shows an alternative and useful application of a coupling nut in accordance with the invention, with the same parts thereof as shown in the previously described figures of the drawings given the" same reference numerals. In this particular application of the invention, however, the coupling nut B, I is employed to couple together two body parts 33 and 39, which may be hollow, or solid, and flexible, or rigid, and the opposed end of one of which body parts, that is the body part 39, is formed with a ball end 40 engaged in a cup end ll of the other body part 38, when the two body parts are coupled together. Also, in thisxparticular application of the invention. the 29 carrying the latching fingers 29 is secifi'ed about the body part 38 so as to be located in the annular as,sae
recess 42 and preierabiy against the radial wall 43 thereof. The nut I. I is carried upon the end of the other body part 38 and the interior screwthreaded portion i of its interior portion, 8 has screw-threaded engagement with the interiorly screw-threaded annulus 4 of the cupped end of the body part ll. The method of connection and dis-connection of this arrangement will be apparent from what has already been mentioned in cbnnection with the coupling arrangement according to the previously described figures, as also will the method of connection and dis-connection of the further application or the invention as shown in Figure VI.
Referring now, therefore, to Figure VI, this discloses the rotary connecting member as being in the form 01' a closure cap 45, which may be applied over the spout or like part 4B 01' a tank or container (not shown), which spout has an exterior-1y [interiorly] screw-threaded portion 41 with which the correspondingly screw-threaded interior of the inner cylindrical wall or sleeve part 48 and the outer sleeve part 49 correspond also has an outer sleeve part 49, The inner cap part 48 and the outer sleeve part 49 corresponds to the nut parts 6 and 1 respectively as previously described and, as in the previously described construction, the*inner cap part 48, at its free outer edge, remote from the top 45 of the cap, is provided with ratchet teeth 50 with which spring latch fingers on acarrier ring 52 therefor engage in the manner and for the purpose above mentioned. Also the outer sleeve part 49 of the cap is secured to the outside of the inner cap part 48 by means of the opposite-hand screwthreading 53, whereby at the commencement of a screwing-up or unscrewing movement 0! the cap as a whole the outer sleeve part 49 will partake of a limited longitudinal axial movement relatively to the inner cap part 48 as determined by the inturned flange 54 at the upper end of the outer sleeve part 49 and the outwardly directed radial collar 55 on the inner cap part 48. Except that, in this instance the invention is applied to a cap closure the construction and operation of the various parts is substantially the same as above described.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as novel and desire to protectby Letters Patent is:
1. In combination, an inner hollow body part, said body part being internally screw-threaded to permit screwing onto an externally screwthreaded supporting structure therefore incorporating a fixed pawl means, an outer hollow body part substantially enclosing and telescoped upon said inner body part, means connecting said outer body part with said ,inner body part to permit relative rotation and accompanying axial movement of the parts, said means being ar- 8 body part to screw-up or unscrew said inner body part, respectively.
2. In combination, an inner nut-like part internally threaded i'or screwing onto a receiving structure therefore having pawl means positioned for engagement by one end of said part, an outer part comprising a sleeve portion substantially enclosing and telescopically carried upon said inner part, said outer part constituting an actuator'means for rotating the inner part. a quick-action threaded connection between said inner and outer parts and or reverse direction to said interior threading on the inner part, said connection permitting the outer part to be angu larly and axially displaced in opposite directions [direction] by rotation of said outer part, ratchet teeth at one end of said inner part and extending axially therefrom, and means interlocking said inner and outer parts for limited axial movement of the outer part upon the inner part, consequent upon rotation of the former in either direction, which axia1 movement moves the outer part alternately from a position in which said ratchet teeth project beyond the corresponding end or the outer part to a position in which the teeth are disposed entirely within the latter, whereby said ratchet teeth can be automatically engaged with or disengaged from said pawl means consequent upon actuation oif said outer part to screw-up or unscrew said outer part, respectively.
3. The invention as defined in claim 2, said interlocking means comprising a flange on one said part ooncealingly engaged in an elongated groove in the other part.
ranged to cause axial movement of said outer body part [parts] on said inner body part in an; opposite direction to movement of said inner body part on said supporting structure, axially extend- 4. A nut structure comprising, in combination, on inner rotatable hollow body part and an outer rotatable hollow body paint encompassing and substantially enclosing said inner body part, said body parts presenting interior portions defining an axially extending annular space with axially spaced stop means corresponding to the axial ea:- tent of said space, means interconnecting said body parts, said means including means adapted to produce relative axial movement of said body partatocauseanendolonebodyparttobe projected outwardly or retracted inwardly with respect to the corresponding end of the other body part, said stop means limiting the extent of said relative axial movement whereby to am strain the two body parts to rotate in unison, said outer body part constituting an actuator for rotating said inner body part.
5. A nut structure comprising, in combination,
7 an inner sleeve part, said port having internal and external screw-threading with the external threading of quicker and Opposite pitch to the internal screw-threading, one end of said inner sleeve part having axially extending teeth, and an outer sleeve part telesooped upon said inner sleeve part and having internal screw-thrcadina matching and engaging the said external screwthreadina in the inner sleeve part, whereby the outer sleeve part can be rotated relatively to the inner sleeve part in opposite sense thereto and with an attendant relative axial motion, said outer sleeve part substantially enclosing said inner sleeve part, and stop means on said sleeve parts limiting the extent of said axuil motion and constraining the two sleeve parts to be rotated in the some sense as a unit, said relative axial movement being such as to cause the end of the outer sleeve pa'rt co responding to said teeth on or retracted with respect to said teeth.
6. A nut structure comprising in combination, an inner hollow body part, said inner body part being internally screw-threaded, an outer hollow body part substantially enclosing and telescoped upon said inner hollow body part, said body parts having interior portions defining an axially ea:- tending annular space between them, mean interconnecting said inner and outer body parts to permit relative rotation and accompanying axial movement of the body parts within the axial limits of said annular space, said means being arranged to cause axial movement of one said body parton the other body part in an opposite direction to movement of the last mentioned body part, and stop means limiting said relative axial movement of the one said body part from a position in which one end of the other body part is enclosed within said one body part to a position in which said end projects beyond the corresponding end of said other body part, whereby the said proa'ected or enclosed condition of said one body part end takes place automatically consequent upon rotation of the outer body part in one direction or in the opposite direction.
7. A nut structure comprising in combination,
an inner sleeve part internally threaded for screwing onto a receiving part, an outer sleeve part substantially enclosing and telescoped upon the inner sleeve part. said outer sleeve part constituting an actuator for rotating the inner sleeve part, a quick-action connection between said inner and outer sleeve parts and of reverse direction to said interior threading on the inner 10 sleeve part, said connection permitting the outer sleeve part to be angularly and axially displaced in. opposite directions by rotation of said outer body part and said inner sleeve part having an inner sleeve part is either enclosed within or proy'ected beyond said end of the outer sleeve part.
whereupon both sleeve parts rotate as a nit y rotation of said actuator.
HENRY H. MERRIMAN.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent or in the original patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 756,620 Ghiglleri Apr. 5, 1904 2,177,800 Chapman Oct. 31, 1939 2,436,206 Deming Feb. 17, 1948 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date Great Britain Dec. 20, 1939