|Publication number||USRE24357 E|
|Publication date||Sep 17, 1957|
|Filing date||Dec 18, 1953|
|Publication number||US RE24357 E, US RE24357E, US-E-RE24357, USRE24357 E, USRE24357E|
|Inventors||John H. Emerson|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Sept- 17 1957 J. H. EMERSON v Re. 24,357
CHEST RESPIRATCR Original Filed Dec. 18,. 1953 Fg. z.
. Inventor, i Jaim HEmerson A'ys.
. usuari-r. auf?" United States Patent CHEST RESPIRATOR John H. Emerson, Arlington, Mass.
Original No. 2,707,948, dated May 10, 1955, Serial No. 398,975, December 18, 1953. Application for reissue May 8, 1957, Serial No. 658,905
7 Claims. (Cl. 12S-30) Matter enclosed in heavy brackets appears in the original patent but forms no part of tln's reissue specification; matter printed in italics indicates the additions made by reissue.
The present invention relates to chest respirators for producing artificial respiration in a patient.
An object of the present invention is to provide a light, portable, low-cost chest respirator, which is easily applied to and removed from a patient, and the shape of which is adapted to be easily adjusted byhand to lit patients having a variety of chest sizes andshapes.
A further object is to provide such a resiprator which will afford the patient a maximum of convenience, comfort and freedom of movement, and which, during alternate pressure periods, does `not exert any substantial pressure against any part of the patients body. v
Other and further objects and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the followingV description and by `reference to the accompanying drawings, where- Figure 1 is a longitudinal section of 'a respirator ernbodying the present invention applied to a patient who is resting upon a support.
Fig. 2 is a section taken on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a perspective of the cage portion of the respirator shown in Figs. l and 2.
Fig. 4 is a top view of the flexible sheet which forms the outer wall of the respirator shown in Figs. 1 and 2.
Fig. 5 is a section taken on the line 5 5 of Fig. 4.
Referring to Figs. 1 to 5, the chest respirator of the present invention comprises a rigid but malleable cage or shield 1 which is generally U-shaped in cross section and is adapted to be positioned in spaced relationship to the patients chest and sides, as shown in Figs. 1 and 2. The cage 1 is preferably made of expanded metal, dipped in Vinylite or other plastic material so as to cover any sharp edges of the metal. The cage 1 is malleable, and may be bent by an attendant to any cross sectional shape so it will fit the size of the patient to be treated, and be spaced from his body as shown in Figs. 1 and 2. For example a minimum of two inches may be provided above his chest and three quarters of an inch at each side. Any type of malleable material may be used for the case, but expanded metal is preferred because it is cheap. A border 2 having a plastic coating surrounds the edges of the expanded metal cage proper. The plastic coating may be omitted, if desired. Y
The pad 4, comprises a piece of rigid materialsuch as rigid plastic, metal or wood, having a hollow conical portion 6, the lower, larger end of which extends into flanges 5 having bottom surfaces which iit the contour of the top of cage 1. This pad is adapted to be attached to the top of cage 1 as shown, by means of `strings 7 passing through holes 8 in each corner of flange portion 5 and thence around an expanded metal strand of the cage 1. Although the use of strings is shown, the pad4 may be attached to the top of cage 1 in the position shown in I'any manner desired.
A rubber grommet 9 is attached to the edge of the perforation which is provided at the center of the top of the hollow conical portion 6 by means of the groove 21 in the outer face of the grommet, the edge of the perforation extending into said groove, as shown in Fig. l.
The lower portion 11 of the rigid tube 10 is adapted to be snugly received by the grommet 9 in an air-tight manner. The hose 12a has one end secured to the tube 10 and the other end adaptedrto be connected to any conventional means for creating alternating negative and atmospheric or positive pressures. n
The sheet 12 may be made from any light, flexible air impervious material, such as a thin, vinyl plastic sheet. In the preferred embodiment, the middle portion 13 of the sheet is stretched longitudinally of the sheet and the two unstretched portions 14 extend longitudinally at opposite sides thereof. A perforation or passage 15 is provided at approximately the center of sheet 12.
In use the patient is placed upon his back upon a support 16, for example, a bed. The cage 1 is then positioned over the patients chest, as shown, with its longitudinal edges resting upon the patient support 16, and preferably with no part of the cage contacting the patients body. The sheet 12 is then spread over the cage 1 with the perforation 15 axially aligned with the opening in the grommet 9 with one unstretched side portion 14 extending from one end of the cage toward the patients head and the opposite unstretched side portion 14 extending from the oposite end of the cage toward the patients feet, and the stretched portion 13 fitting over the cage proper. The ends 20 and 17 of the sheet then lie loosely upon the patient `support at opposite sides of the cage. The edge of the perforation 15 of the sheet is then placed so as yto register with or about the periphery of the grommet 9 as shown in Fig. 1. The end 20 of the sheet is then passed under the adjacent longitudinal edge of the cage and tucked between the patients back and the patient support and then the other end 17 of the sheet is similarly arranged as in Figs. 1 and 2. With both ends of the sheet tucked between the patient and the patient support in the manner shown, two smooth layers of plastic are provided between the patients back and the support. However, the number of folds or layers between the patients back and the support is not critical so long as a` substantially air-tight chamber 18 is provided between the patient and the sheet 12.
` After the sheet 12 has been arranged over cage 1 and under the patient, as described, the tube 11 is inserted in the passage in the grommet 9 and the means for creating alternating periods of negative and atmospheric or positive pressure is turned on.
When a period of negative pressure is thus created in the chamber 18, the unstretched side portions 14 of the flexible plastic sheet 12, which contact the patients body at opposite sides of the cage, are sucked even more slightly against the patients body and their flexibility permits them to readily contact the surface of the patients body, thereby insuring a substantially air-tight seal. Furthermore, the edges of hole 15 are sucked tightly against the exterior surface of portion 6 and grommet 9 so as to prevent the entrance of air into the cage interior 18. The charnber 18 remains substantially air-tight during the ensuing period of atmospheric or positive pressure. Consequently an inhalation is induced during each period of negative pressure and an exhalation during each period of atmospheric or positive pressure. When positive pressure of suicient intensity is used, it has been found to be desirable to use elastic bands along the longitudinal sides 14 of the sheet to hold the edges against the patients body and prevent leakage during periods of positive pres- Sure. 1' .-if;
It will be observed that no rigid portion of the respirator presses against the patients body at any time during operation. The external pressure created during periods of negative pressure is applied to the top of the cage from whence it is transferred to the longitudinal edges of the cage and thence to the bed or support'.
The apparatus is inexpensive to manufacture, readily portable and may be, easily andL quickly/applied. tothe patient, Whether in a hospital or inthe ield. In:the..iield the patient may ber supported on the ground.
Although the sheet 12y has been described` as having a stretched middle portion, this is not essentialgt-o the pigesent invention and an unstretched vliexible sheet; may be used. Furthermore, the longitudinal sides 1.45- ofthe sheet may be folded one or mon: times npon the patients body before the ends and' 17v aretucked beneath the patient.
The important characteristics of the sheet 12V` are that it be made of air impervious material which is sutciently llexible that itwill readily conform to the contour of the patients body.
The respirator of thisinvention is readily convertible to one which may be used by an ambulatory patient. This is done by supplying a llat ybacking plate of expanded met-al or other material which is large enough to bridge the gap between the longitudinal edges of the U- shaped cage 1 and by Vdetachably securing said longitudinal edges to the backing plate, for example, with strings passing through holes in the cage and the backing plate. In use this backing plate is adjacent to the patients back and the .cage extends forwardly from the backing plate with its legs adjacent to `the patients sides and the forward part bridging the patients chest. The sheet 12 is then wrapped about the respirator and the patient as described above, thus enclosing both the backing plate and the cage to form a chamber about the patients chest like lthe chamber 18. Strings or elastic bands encircling the side portions 14 of the sheet 12 may be used to detachably hold said side portions in contact with the patient. B'y ycarrying lthe device which creates the variations in pressure,A the patient Vmay Walk about and if he desires he may recline on a bed without` removing the backing plate which then rests upon the bed. Instead of stringsfor detachably securing the backing plate to the legs of the cage, the backing plate may be provided with flanges at its longitudinal sides and the longitudinal edges of the cage may be bent outwardly to engage the inner sides of vthe anges, thus detachably securing the cage to the backingvplate by the friction between the flanges and the lon; gi-tudinal edges of the cage.
In the foregoing description and the annexed claims the device has been referred to as a chest respirator. It is operative if it encloses the lower part of the patientfs chest and none ofk his abdomen. It is also operative if it encloses the patients abdomen and none of'his chest. It is also operative, and is believed to be most elfective, if it Vencloses the lower part of the patients chest andthe upper part of his abdomen. The words chest respirator are used in the art to. include a respirator capable of use in any and all of these positions and those words are4 used with the same scope -in this specification and -in the claims.
While I have shown and described one embodiment of my invention, it is to be. understood that this disclosure is for the purposes of illustration only and varionsn changes and substitutions of equivalent elements may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of thel invention as set forth in the appended claims.
l. A respirator comprising a trough-like cage in cross section adapted to be positioned over the trunkof a patient resting against a support with its longitudinal edges resting against said support, one at each side :ofthe patient, a sheet of exible, airimperviousmaterial adapted to be placed over-fthe outsidev surface of said cage, said sheet being of such a width that when it is placed over said cage, and said cage is positioned over the patients trunk while the patient is resting against said support, one side of said sheet will extend from the adjacent end of the cage `toward the patients head a sufficient distance so that a substantial portion of said sheet will rest against the adjacent portion of the patients body, and the opposite side of said sheet will extend from the opposite end of the cage towards the patients feet a .suilicien't distance, so that a substantial, porti-on of said sheet will rest against the adjacent portion of the patients body, said sheet being of a length suiciently longer than said cage, so that each end of said sheet may be folded under the adjacent edge of -the cage and ltucked between the patient and said support, thereby to forma substantially air-tight chamber about the patients trunk, a passage extending through the sheet and adapted to provide communi-cation between the interior and exterior of said chamber.
2. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein said cage comprisesA-afrigid, malleable material, adapted to be bent by hand to change the` cross sectional shape of the cage to accommodate the cage to lthe size of the patient being treated.
3. The apparatus of claim l', wherein said cage cornprises expanded metal.
4. The apparatus of claim l, .wherein the middle portion of said-sheet has been enlargedv by stretching it, and the sidesI off said sheet .which are to rest against the patien'tsA body are unstretched.
5. The apparatus of'clairn l, also comprising a hollow cone shaped pad hfaving anges adapted to rest upon the outer surface of said cage, and a passage 'at the upper portion vofV the cone, the passage in said sheet being concentric with the passage in said cone when the sheet is assembled with the cage.
6. The apparatus of claim 5 wherein 'the passage in the cone shaped pad is formed by a resilient grornrnet which is adapted to detachably hold a hose connection.
7.v A respira/ tor comprising a; trough-like cage in cross section adapted to be positioned over the trunk of apa,- licnt, resting algufnst av` support with its longitudinal edges resting againstfsrzjdsnpport, one at each side of the patient, sheetof jievxilgle,A irvmpervons material adopted toy .bev placed; over the ontsidg,7 surface of s aid ca ge, said shveety vbeing of,- snch, a widthv that when it is placed over sqid cogefand said; cage. isl positioned over the patienftls trunk while. the patient is resting against said support, one side` of saiisheer, will extend; from the adjacent end of the cage.4 towardvthe'patients head n sufficient distance so that asibstqntial. portion of said` sheet will rest. against the. adjacent p0rton,oj= the patent's body, and the opposite side 0f sqidheet will, ext-,end from the' opposite end of the coge, towards the patie'rnts f eeta sncent'distance, so that a substantiel portion ofsqid sheetv will rest against the qdjqccnlgportjon ofthe, pqtientfs body, said sheet being ojo lengrhlsuicienltly longer than said cage, salhat it may extend nnien eqch adjacent edge of the cage and between. the pqfemfand said. Supporti, lhefeby t0 form a. Substantially oirffight Chamber about the. patient@ trunk, Massage extending throughl fhesheel and adapted fc, provide communication between the interior anriexlerior of said chamber.
References. Cited in the tile of this patent or; the originalV patent UNITED STATESv PATENTS '2,065,982 Nordin Dec. 29,` 1936 2,223,570 M-cMillin Dec. 3, 1'940 2309,47() McCfQIlarn Jan. 2,61943
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US5299599 *||Sep 17, 1992||Apr 5, 1994||Lifecare International, Inc.||Valving arrangement for a negative pressure ventilator|
|US6846294 *||May 10, 2001||Jan 25, 2005||Ppt Llc||External counterpulsation cardiac assist device|
|US8043239||May 23, 2007||Oct 25, 2011||Pptt, Llc||External counterpulsation (ECP) device for use in an ambulance or the like for heart attack patients to limit heart muscle damage|
|US8142372||May 23, 2007||Mar 27, 2012||Jahangir Rastegar||External left ventricular assist device for treatment of congestive heart failure|
|US20020169399 *||May 10, 2001||Nov 14, 2002||Rastegar Jahangir S.||External counterpulsation cardiac assist device|
|US20050137446 *||Dec 10, 2004||Jun 23, 2005||Jahangir Rastegar||External counterpulsation cardiac assist device|
|US20080033228 *||May 23, 2007||Feb 7, 2008||Jahangir Rastegar||External counterpulsation (ECP) device for use in an ambulance or the like for heart attack patients to limit heart muscle damage|
|US20080045866 *||May 23, 2007||Feb 21, 2008||Jahangir Rastegar||External left ventricular assist device for treatment of congestive heart failure|