|Publication number||USRE28544 E|
|Publication date||Sep 2, 1975|
|Filing date||Aug 2, 1974|
|Priority date||Jul 7, 1971|
|Publication number||US RE28544 E, US RE28544E, US-E-RE28544, USRE28544 E, USRE28544E|
|Inventors||Jay A. Stein|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (175), Classifications (12), Legal Events (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent Stein et al.
[ Reissued Sept. 2, 1975 RADIANT ENERGY IMAGING WITH SCANNING PENCIL BEAM Inventors: Jay A. Stein, Newton; Roderick Swift, Belmont, both of Mass.
Assignee: American Science & Engineering,
Inc., Cambridge, Mass.
Filed: Aug. 2, 1974 Appl. No.: 493,868
Related U.S. Patent Documents Reissue of:
 Patent No.: 3,780,291
Issued: Dec. 18, 1973 Appl. No.: 160,363
Filed: July 7, 1971  U.S. Cl ..250/369;250/358; 250/363  Int. Cl. G01T 1/20  Field of Search 250/358,363,359,360,
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS Oldcndorf 250/360 3,146,349 8/1964 Jordan 250/391 3,151.245 9/1964 Wilson, Jr... 250/105 3,790,799 2/1974 Stein et al 250/363 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 519,594 10/1937 United Kingdom Primary Examiner-Davis L. Willis Attorney, Agent, or FirmCharles Hieken; Jerry Cohen  ABSTRACT A pencil beam of -X-rays scans an object along a line of direction before an X-ray detector to produce an image of the line along a picture tube. By relatively displacing the object scanned and the line of scan in a direction transverse to the line of scan, a sequence of lines appear on the display to produce an image of concealed objects, such as guns.
1 1 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures Reissued Sept. 2, 1975 Re. 28,544
INVENTORS JAY A. STEIN RODERICK SWIFT ATTORNEYS RADIANT ENERGY IMAGING WITH SCANNING PENCIL BEAM BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates in general to radiant energy imaging and more particularly concerns novel apparatus and techniques for displaying a visual image of concealed objects with sufficient resolution to identity the object while keeping the intensity of radiation relatively low. The system is reliable, relatively economical and may be operated by relatively unskilled personnel.
The problem of detecting contraband concealed in packages and on persons is a serious one. Xray equipment is useful for assisting in the discovery of concealed contraband. Conventional Xray equipment is costly, requires operation by skilled personnel and may well subject personnel and parcels to undesired excessive dangerous radiation.
Accordingly, it is an important object of this invention to provide an Xray imaging system that overcomes one or more disadvantages of conventional systerns.
It is an important object of this invention to provide an Xray imaging system for displaying an image of concealed devices without exposing personnel or parcels to excessive radiation.
It is a further object of the invention to achieve one or more of the preceding objects with apparatus that is relatively inexpensive and capable of being operated by relatively unskilled personnel.
It is a further object of the invention to achieve one or more of the preceding objects with apparatus that operates reliably and is relatively easy to manufacture.
SUMMARY oF THE INVENTION According to the invention, there is means for scanning a radiation sensitive detector along a curve with a pencil beam of radiation to provide a line image signal characteristic of radiant energy response between the source of the pencil beam and the radiation sensitive detector, and means for displaying the image represented by the image signal. The radiation sensitive detector and the source are in fixed relationship. The detector may be positioned for receiving direct and/or reflected or scattered radiation. Preferably there is means for relatively displacing the curve scanned and an object to produce a sequence of image signals representative of the radiant energy response of the object in two dimensions. There is means for relatively displacing the region embracing the object and an assembly comprising the source and radiation sensitive detector or detecting means to establish relative translating motion in a direction transverse to a line joining the source and the detecting means. Preferably the curve is a line with the relative displacement between object and line being in a direction orthogonal to the line. Preferably the detector comprises a sodium iodide or cesium iodide crystal that produces a visible manifestation of the intensity of the incident radiation that may be sensed by a photodetector to provide a characteristic electrical output signal that may be applied to a television display system that may incorporate a storage tube.
Numerous other features, objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following specification when read in connection with the accompanying drawing in which:
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. 1 is a pictorial representation of a parcel inspection system according to the invention; and
FIG. 2 is a pictorial representation of an exemplary embodiment of the invention for inspecting personnel.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS With reference now to the drawing and more particularly FIG. 1 thereof, there is shown a pictorial representation of a system according to the invention for scanning parcels. A parcel 11 is scanned by the invention to produce an image 12 of contraband on the video storage and display unit 13. An Xray tube 14 provides a generally conical beam of X-rays 15 that are collimated into a fan beam 16 by slit collimator l7 oriented generally vertically as shown and incident upon the rotating collimation disc 18 formed with an array of peripheral radial slits, such as 21, for intercepting fan beam 16 to produce pencil beam 23. Pencil beam 23 scans parcel 11 and radiation sensitive detector 25 from top to bottom as rotating disc 18 rotates in the direction of arrow 24 to provide an image signal over output line 26 that is transmitted to video storage and display unit 13 to produce the image 12 of the parcel scanned as conveyor 27 carries parcel 11 in the direction of arrow 28 across the line being scanned.
Sincemost specific elements of the system are known to those skilled in the art who can practice the invention from an examination of FIG. 1 and the accompanying description, minute specific details are omitted so as to avoid obscuring the invention.
The geometry and timing of the system is arranged so that each slit 21 causes a new pencil beam to strike the top of detector 25 just after the previous pencil beam has swept past the bottom of the detector. That is to say, the height of fan beam 16 corresponds substantially to the separation between adjacent ones of slits 21 at substantially the maximum radial distance from the edge of disc 18 where the slits intercept fan beam 16. While FIG. 1 shows the elements that provide the scanning pencil beam source in exploded form to better illustrate the principles of the invention, the elements l4, l7 and 18 are preferably housed relatively close together in an enclosure that shields radiation so that the only significant radiant energy that escapes is that in pencil beam 23.
As parcel 1 1 move past the line being scanned, it differentially attenuates the X-rays in pencil beam 23 incident upon detector 25 so that the electrical signal provided on output line 26 is amplitude modulated in proportion to the instantaneous Xray flux incident upon it. This signal thus corresponds to a vertical line image of the transmissivity of parcel 11 and is analogous to one scan line of a television video signal. As parcel 11 moves horizontally past the line being scanned, sequential pencil beams intercept slightly displaced regions of parcel 11 so that the corresponding electrical signals from detector 25 may be appropriately displayed lineby-line to produce a two dimensional image of parcel 11 in X-rays analogous to the display of a picture on a television monitor as formed by line-by-line images. The output of detector 25 may thus be processed in accordance with the same storage and display techniques used in conventional video systems to store and display single raster images. Since these techniques are well known in the art, further discussion of them is unnecessary here.
Although detector 25 is shown behind the object being scanned for responding to the radiant energy transmitted through the object being scanned, it is within the principles of the invention to position the detector in the region between the radiant energy source and the object being scanned to respond to the scattered energy. This arrangement helps the apparatus detect concealed objects having different scattering characteristics from their surrounding. Moreover, a system according to the invention may include both detecting means before and behind the object being scanned for simultaneously providing signals representative of both radiant energy transmission and scattering. Appropriately combining such signals may help increase the ability of the system to detect a wide variety of concealed objects.
Referring to FIG. 2, there is shown a pictorial diagram illustrating the logical arrangement of a system according to the invention for personnel inspection. This system embodies the principles of the system of FIG. 1; however, the pencil beam scans horizontally, and the scanning system and person relatively move vertically to produce a two dimensional image of the person. Like elements in the system of FIG. 2 are designated by corresponding reference numerals.
A vertically movable platform 41 supports the pencil beam source comprising X-ray tube 14, fan beam collimator l7 and rotating collimation disc 18 to scan person 42 along a sequence of horizontal lines as detector 25 and platform 41 move down together. Detector 25 is also supported for vertical displacement.
Details of specific means for vertically displacing detector 25 and platform 41 are well within the skill of one having ordinary skill in this art and are omitted so as to avoid obscuring the principles of the invention. They might, for example, be guided by vertical shafts, at least one of which was a rotating feedscrew supporting detector 25 and platform 41 rotating in synchronism so that platform 41 and detector 25 move together. Numerous other techniques could be employed for effecting vertical scanning. For example, the person being scanned could be placed upon a platform that was raised and lowered. This approach would be especially convenient where a person entered the scanning area on one level and left it on another, an especially convenient arrangement, where, forexample, an airline passenger might enter at ground level and leave closer to boarding ramplevel. Video storage and display unit 13 then displays image 12 which, in this embodiment, is an image formed of a sequence of horizontal lines as distinguished from the sequence of vertical lines forming the image in FIG. 1.
Considering now specific parameters for a parcel examining system of FIG. 1, such a system could examine parcels with dimensions up to 32 X X 16 inches provided that parcels with dimensions exceeding 20 inches are oriented with their long axes parallel to their direc tion of travel and all parcels are guided close to detector 25 with a distance between source and detector of approximately 6 feet and the height of detector 25 about 24 inches. Then the maximum distortion caused by differences in magnification of the front and back surfaces of parcels will never exceed :L 19 percent from the average magnification and would occur only rarely. Objects with overall depths less than 20 inches along the direction of the scanning beam would have proportionately less distortion.
Resolution capabilities of l millimeter square are readily obtainable for identification of most objects having characteristic dimensions of several inches. With 1 mm resolution a 20 inch object could be covered in 500 scans without gaps or overlap, larger parcels being covered by more scans or greater spacing between scans. In either case the image could be displayed on a standard 5l2-line television monitor with negligible loss of detail.
For a nominal conveyor speed of 10 inch/second (250 mm/second), 250 scans/second (or 4 milliseconds/scan) achieves l millimeter resolution where each scan covers the full 24 inches height of the detector so that a 20-inch long parcel could be scanned in 2 seconds.
With X-ray tube 14 conventional and operating at moderate voltage and current (60l00 kv, l0 ma,) it typically produces a flux at 6 feet (the distance to detector 25) of millions of X-rays per mm per second. A filtered tungsten target tube operating at 100 kv and 15 ma provides typically an X-ray flux at detector 25 of about 10 X-rays/mm /sec. with a broad energy spectrum extending from 20 to 100 kev. Generating 250,000 resolution elements in 2 seconds results in each resolution element being irradiated for about 2/250,000 seconds or 8 microseconds. With an X-ray flux at the detector 25 of 10 X-ray min /second, each resolution element would (in the absence of an X-ray absorbing object) receive about X-rays per exposure. Taking into account the absorption by packing material of low energy X-rays, l0-20 X-rays/resolution element would typically be detected during a 2 second total exposure, about the statistically significant number of X-rays required to distinguish white from black in adjacent resolution elements so that the proposed 2-second exposure time is appropriate to achieve 1 X 1 mm resolution.
A feature of the invention is that the X-ray detection process is ideal. The X-ray quantum efficiency of the detector 25 is close to I00 percent. X-rays will produce output pulses several times larger than photomultiplier noise (dark) pulses so that the latter can be completely eliminated by threshold discrimination. Moreover, since the detector can be made very narrow, the background contribution from radiation scattered by a parcel is negligibly small so that the invention may use minimum X-ray dosage for 1 mm resolution, typically less than 0.003 mrads per image compared with the daily dosage received from cosmic rays and naturally occurring radio activity of about 0.3 mrads and to the dosage required to expose X-ray film to a barely detectable 0.01 density unit above background fog which requires at least 0.1 mrads. Thus, the invention may be safely used for inspecting personnel and parcels without using harmful radiation levels.
Preferably the X-ray tube and associated power supply are conventional. Preferably X-ray tube 14 is operable at variable voltages up to l50 kv to optimize image quality. Preferably X-ray tube 14 is operated water cooled with a peak voltage of 150 kv, peak current 5l0 ma, a 100 percent duty cycle, the power being at constant potential and the focal spot size of 0.4 mm, all these characteristics being readily available.
For the dimensions discussed above and a source spot size of 0.4 mm, a slit 21 width of 0.3 mm will provide 1 mm resolution. If disc 18 were moved closer to detector 25, a wider slit could be used, but the disc diameter would increase proportionately. Conversely, a smaller disc could be used if it were moved closer to X-ray tube 25, but the slit size would have to be reduced. A 2-foot diameter disc with 0.3 millimeter slits located midway between tube 14 and detector 25 is a satisfactory compromise between rotation of a larger disc at higher speeds and fabrication of smaller slits. The slits themselves are shaped to collimate the beam along all pencils comprising the fan and may be fabricated from tungsten inserts installed in the disc. The rate of rotation of disc 18 is related to the time available for a full exposure. For 500 scan lines in 2 seconds, disc 18 generating six scans per revolution rotates at 250/6 revolutions per second or 2,500 rpm, a rate readily achieved with standard motors.
A preferred form for detector 25 comprises a sodium iodide crystal that detects X-rays below 200 kev with 100 percent efficiency. Such a detector with dimensions l X l X 24 inches can be readily fabricated from two or three shorter pieces of standard material. The energy of each X-ray interacting in sodium iodide is converted to light sufficiently large to be easily detected by a photomultiplier. By optically coupling a 1 inch end window photomultiplier to each end of the sodium iodide crystal, there is complete and uniform light collection for X-ray interactions occurring at any position along the length of the detector. The summed currents from the two photomultipliers are proportional to the instantaneous X-ray flux striking the detector to produce an image signal analogous to an ordinary video signal that, after amplification, may be stored and displayed by techniques known in the art.
lt is preferred that the amplifier for the summed photomultiplier output currents have a bandwidth from d-c to about lMHz to retain all information in a 500 scan exposure that may be completely transparent (or opaque) to X-rays for one parcel and may contain structure at the limits of resolution (at 8 microseconds per resolution element) for another parcel, preferably being low noise so as to not limit system sensitivity and providing an output signal at high enough level to be stored. By utilizing as much amplification as practical I from the photomultiplier itself, many commercially available amplifiers, such as commonly available oscilloscope preamplifiers are adequate.
In an actual working embodiment of the invention, the X-ray image was reconstructed by employing 'suitably triggered time-base units to provide successive vertical sweeps, each slightly displaced from its neighcontinuously displayed television picture that is updated at every successive radar scan.-
The invention has numerous uses, including medical applications, and may take many different forms. For example, there may be a number of detectors and fan beams arranged for providing a multiplicity of scanning beams. Other techniques may be employed for providing the scanning beams of radiant energy and for detecting transmitted and/or scattered energy.
There has been described a novel radiant energy imaging system characterized by relatively high resolution, low radiation dosage, ease of operation and numerous other features. It is evident that those skilled in the art may now make numerous uses and modifications of and departures from the specific embodiments described herein without departing from the inventive concepts. Consequently, the invention is to be construed as embracing each and every novel feature and novel combination of features present in or possessed by the apparatus and techniques herein disclosed.
What is claimed is:
l. Radiant energy imaging apparatus comprising a source of a pencil beam of X-ray radiant energy radiant energy detecting means defining a curve in fixed relationship to said source,
means for scanning with said pencil beam said radiant energy detecting means along said curve to provide an image signal representative of the radiant energy response of the medium in a region traversed by said pencil beam along a path to said detecting means,
means for relatively displacing said region and an assembly comprising said source and said detecting means to establish relative translating motion in a direction transverse to a line joining said source andsaid detecting means to produce a sequence of image siganls representative of the radiant energy response of said region in two dimensions,
and means responsive to said image signals for producing an image representative of said response.
2. Radiant energy imaging apparatus in accordance with claim 1 wherein said radiant energy comprises X-rays.
3. Radiant energy imaging apparatus in accordance with claim 1 wherein said source of a pencil beam comprises,
a source of said radiant energy,
means for collimating said radiant energy into a slitlike beam,
and means defining an aperture for intercepting said slit-like beam to provide said pencil beam,
said means for scanning comprising means for relatively moving said aperture and said slit-like beam I to efiect said scanning.
4. Radiant energy imaging apparatus in accordance with claim 3 wherein said source of an uncollimated beam of said radiant energy comprises an X-ray tube,
said means for collimating comprises a plate of X-ray opaque material formed with a slit of xsray transparent material,
said means defining an aperture comprises a radial slit that is X-ray transparent in an X-ray opaque disc,
and said means for relatively moving comprises means for rotating said disc to move said radial slit along said first-mentioned slit.
5. Radiant energy imaging apparatus in accordance with claim  1 wherein,
said detecting means comprises means for converting incident Xray energy into light energy,
and photodetecting means responsive to the latter light energy for providing an electrical image signal that is amplitude modulated in proportion to the instantaneous X-ray flux incident upon said detecting means.
6. Radiant energy imaging apparatus in accordance with claim 5 and further comprising a television display system responsive to said image signal for displaying a corresponding image.
7. Radiant energy imaging apparatus in accordance with claim 5 wherein said means is a crystal from the group consisting of sodium iodide and cesium iodide,
and said photodetecting means comprises photomultipliers at each end of said crystal means.
8. Radiant energy imaging apparatus in accordance with claim 6 and further comprising means for relatively displacing a region to be scanned and said curve to display a two-dimensional image of the X-ray response of said region being scanned.
9. Radiant energy imaging apparatus in accordance with claim 7 and further comprising means for rela tively displacing a region to be scanned and said curve to provide a two-dimensional image signal of the X-ray response of said region being scanned.
10. Radiant energy imaging apparatus in accordance with claim 1 wherein said radiant energy comprises X- rays.
said source of a pencil beam comprising,
a source of said radiant energy,
said radiant energy detecting means defining a line,
means including a plate of Xray opaque material formed with a linear slit of X-ray transparent material for collimating said radiant energy into a slitlike beam embracing a plane substantially including said slit and said straight line, an X-ray tube comprising a source of the uncollimated beam of said radiant energy,
an X-ray opaque disc formed with at least one radial slit that is X-ray transparent,
and means for rotatably supporting said disc with its plane generally perpendicular to the plane of said slit-like beam so that rotation of said disc causes said radial slit to transmit contiguous portions of said slit-like beam to said detecting means to effectively provide said pencil beam scanning said straight line from one end to the other.
11. Radiant energy imaging apparatus in accordance with claim 10 wherein said means for relatively displacing comprises means for translating an object to be imaged transverse to and across said plane substantially including said straight line and said slit-like beam.
12. Radiant energy imaging apparatus in accordance with claim 10 wherein said means for relatively displacing comprises means for moving said source and said detecting means together while said region remains sta tionary.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3106640 *||Oct 6, 1960||Oct 8, 1963||William H Oldendorf||Radiant energy apparatus for investigating selected areas of the interior of objectsobscured by dense material|
|US3146349 *||Dec 1, 1961||Aug 25, 1964||Jordan Edward D||Detecting hidden explosives using neutron beams|
|US3151245 *||Nov 21, 1961||Sep 29, 1964||High Voltage Engineering Corp||Chi-ray beam collimating apparatus|
|US3790799 *||Jun 21, 1972||Feb 5, 1974||American Science & Eng Inc||Radiant energy imaging with rocking scanning|
|GB519594A *||Title not available|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US5033073 *||Oct 24, 1988||Jul 16, 1991||Boeing Company||System for radiograhically inspecting a relatively stationary object and related method|
|US5040199 *||Mar 7, 1989||Aug 13, 1991||Hologic, Inc.||Apparatus and method for analysis using x-rays|
|US5044002 *||Mar 7, 1989||Aug 27, 1991||Hologic, Inc.||Baggage inspection and the like|
|US5132995 *||Aug 7, 1990||Jul 21, 1992||Hologic, Inc.||X-ray analysis apparatus|
|US5148455 *||May 28, 1991||Sep 15, 1992||Hologic, Inc.||Bone densitometer|
|US5181234 *||May 22, 1991||Jan 19, 1993||Irt Corporation||X-ray backscatter detection system|
|US5260982 *||May 11, 1992||Nov 9, 1993||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Scattered radiation imaging apparatus|
|US5319547 *||Aug 10, 1990||Jun 7, 1994||Vivid Technologies, Inc.||Device and method for inspection of baggage and other objects|
|US5463224 *||Jul 1, 1986||Oct 31, 1995||American Science And Engineering, Inc.||X-ray detector suited for high energy applications with wide dynamic range, high stopping power and good protection for opto-electronic transducers|
|US5490218 *||Dec 10, 1993||Feb 6, 1996||Vivid Technologies, Inc.||Device and method for inspection of baggage and other objects|
|US5493596 *||Jul 7, 1995||Feb 20, 1996||Annis; Martin||High-energy X-ray inspection system|
|US5642394 *||Apr 3, 1996||Jun 24, 1997||American Science And Engineering, Inc.||Sidescatter X-ray detection system|
|US5764683 *||Feb 12, 1997||Jun 9, 1998||American Science And Engineering, Inc.||Mobile X-ray inspection system for large objects|
|US5838758 *||Mar 13, 1995||Nov 17, 1998||Vivid Technologies||Device and method for inspection of baggage and other objects|
|US6252929||May 5, 1999||Jun 26, 2001||American Science & Engineering, Inc.||Mobile x-ray inspection system for large objects|
|US6269142||Aug 11, 1999||Jul 31, 2001||Steven W. Smith||Interrupted-fan-beam imaging|
|US6292533||May 15, 2001||Sep 18, 2001||American Science & Engineering, Inc.||Mobile X-ray inspection system for large objects|
|US6344818 *||May 17, 1999||Feb 5, 2002||Yuri Markov||Apparatus and method for the detection of materials|
|US6473487||Dec 27, 2000||Oct 29, 2002||Rapiscan Security Products, Inc.||Method and apparatus for physical characteristics discrimination of objects using a limited view three dimensional reconstruction|
|US7099434||May 21, 2003||Aug 29, 2006||American Science And Engineering, Inc.||X-ray backscatter mobile inspection van|
|US7103137||Jul 24, 2002||Sep 5, 2006||Varian Medical Systems Technology, Inc.||Radiation scanning of objects for contraband|
|US7162005||Jul 19, 2002||Jan 9, 2007||Varian Medical Systems Technologies, Inc.||Radiation sources and compact radiation scanning systems|
|US7218704||Sep 29, 2005||May 15, 2007||American Science And Engineering, Inc.||X-ray backscatter mobile inspection van|
|US7322745||Aug 9, 2004||Jan 29, 2008||Rapiscan Security Products, Inc.||Single boom cargo scanning system|
|US7356115||Dec 4, 2002||Apr 8, 2008||Varian Medical Systems Technology, Inc.||Radiation scanning units including a movable platform|
|US7369640||Sep 1, 2006||May 6, 2008||Varian Medical Systems Technologies, Inc.||Radiation scanning of objects for contraband|
|US7369643||Jan 12, 2007||May 6, 2008||Rapiscan Security Products, Inc.||Single boom cargo scanning system|
|US7486768||Sep 13, 2004||Feb 3, 2009||Rapiscan Security Products, Inc.||Self-contained mobile inspection system and method|
|US7505556||Dec 11, 2006||Mar 17, 2009||American Science And Engineering, Inc.||X-ray backscatter detection imaging modules|
|US7517149||Nov 30, 2007||Apr 14, 2009||Rapiscan Security Products, Inc.||Cargo scanning system|
|US7519148||Mar 20, 2008||Apr 14, 2009||Rapiscan Security Products, Inc.||Single boom cargo scanning system|
|US7526064||May 4, 2007||Apr 28, 2009||Rapiscan Security Products, Inc.||Multiple pass cargo inspection system|
|US7551715||Oct 23, 2006||Jun 23, 2009||American Science And Engineering, Inc.||X-ray inspection based on scatter detection|
|US7551718||Aug 22, 2007||Jun 23, 2009||American Science And Engineering, Inc.||Scatter attenuation tomography|
|US7593510||Oct 22, 2008||Sep 22, 2009||American Science And Engineering, Inc.||X-ray imaging with continuously variable zoom and lateral relative displacement of the source|
|US7672422||May 6, 2008||Mar 2, 2010||Varian Medical Systems, Inc.||Radiation scanning of objects for contraband|
|US7672426||Jun 10, 2005||Mar 2, 2010||Varian Medical Systems, Inc.||Radiation scanning units with reduced detector requirements|
|US7702069||Feb 27, 2006||Apr 20, 2010||Rapiscan Security Products, Inc.||X-ray security inspection machine|
|US7720195||Jan 7, 2009||May 18, 2010||Rapiscan Security Products, Inc.||Self-contained mobile inspection system and method|
|US7769133||Aug 3, 2010||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Relocatable X-ray imaging system and method for inspecting commercial vehicles and cargo containers|
|US7783004||Oct 31, 2008||Aug 24, 2010||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Cargo scanning system|
|US7796733||Sep 14, 2010||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Personnel security screening system with enhanced privacy|
|US7817776||Mar 3, 2009||Oct 19, 2010||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Cargo scanning system|
|US7826589||Nov 2, 2010||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Security system for screening people|
|US7856081||Dec 21, 2010||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Methods and systems for rapid detection of concealed objects using fluorescence|
|US7860213||Mar 16, 2009||Dec 28, 2010||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Multiple pass cargo inspection system|
|US7876880||Mar 2, 2009||Jan 25, 2011||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Single boom cargo scanning system|
|US7924979||Sep 1, 2009||Apr 12, 2011||American Science And Engineering, Inc.||Scatter attenuation tomography|
|US7929664||Apr 19, 2011||Sentinel Scanning Corporation||CT scanning and contraband detection|
|US7963695||Jun 21, 2011||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Rotatable boom cargo scanning system|
|US7965816||Aug 10, 2009||Jun 21, 2011||Control Screening, LLC.||Scanning X-ray inspection system using scintillation detection with simultaneous counting and integrating modes|
|US7991113||Jun 24, 2010||Aug 2, 2011||Rapiscan Security Products, Inc.||Relocatable x-ray imaging system and method for inspecting commercial vehicles and cargo containers|
|US7995705||Aug 9, 2011||Rapiscan Security Products, Inc.||Self-contained mobile inspection system and method|
|US8000436||Aug 16, 2011||Varian Medical Systems, Inc.||Radiation scanning units including a movable platform|
|US8003949||Oct 31, 2008||Aug 23, 2011||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Multiple screen detection systems|
|US8059781||Nov 15, 2011||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Cargo scanning system|
|US8135112||Aug 4, 2010||Mar 13, 2012||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Personnel security screening system with enhanced privacy|
|US8138770||Jul 20, 2009||Mar 20, 2012||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Methods and systems for the rapid detection of concealed objects|
|US8148693||Mar 14, 2011||Apr 3, 2012||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Multiple screen detection systems|
|US8170177||Nov 22, 2010||May 1, 2012||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Multiple pass cargo inspection system|
|US8194822||Jun 5, 2012||American Science And Engineering, Inc.||X-ray inspection based on scatter detection|
|US8199996||Jun 20, 2008||Jun 12, 2012||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Systems and methods for improving directed people screening|
|US8213570||Jul 3, 2012||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||X-ray security inspection machine|
|US8254517||Mar 14, 2011||Aug 28, 2012||Sentinel Scanning Corporation||CT scanning and contraband detection|
|US8275091||May 21, 2010||Sep 25, 2012||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Compact mobile cargo scanning system|
|US8340245||Dec 25, 2012||Sentinel Scanning Corporation||Transportation container inspection system and method|
|US8345819||Jan 1, 2013||American Science And Engineering, Inc.||Top-down X-ray inspection trailer|
|US8356937||May 16, 2011||Jan 22, 2013||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Rotatable boom cargo scanning system|
|US8385501||Feb 26, 2013||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Self contained mobile inspection system and method|
|US8389941||Dec 22, 2010||Mar 5, 2013||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Composite gamma-neutron detection system|
|US8389942||Jun 11, 2009||Mar 5, 2013||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Photomultiplier and detection systems|
|US8401147||Mar 19, 2013||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Multiple screen detection systems|
|US8428217||Nov 15, 2010||Apr 23, 2013||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Methods and systems for rapid detection of concealed objects|
|US8433036||Feb 25, 2009||Apr 30, 2013||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Scanning systems|
|US8457275||Jun 4, 2013||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Multiple pass cargo inspection system|
|US8491189||Oct 26, 2011||Jul 23, 2013||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Radiation source apparatus|
|US8503605||Jul 12, 2010||Aug 6, 2013||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Four sided imaging system and method for detection of contraband|
|US8532823||Jan 31, 2011||Sep 10, 2013||American Science And Engineering, Inc.||Disruptor guidance system and methods based on scatter imaging|
|US8576982||Mar 14, 2011||Nov 5, 2013||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Personnel screening system|
|US8576989||Mar 14, 2011||Nov 5, 2013||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Beam forming apparatus|
|US8579506||May 20, 2009||Nov 12, 2013||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Gantry scanner systems|
|US8644453||Feb 25, 2009||Feb 4, 2014||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Scanning systems|
|US8654922||Nov 17, 2010||Feb 18, 2014||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||X-ray-based system and methods for inspecting a person's shoes for aviation security threats|
|US8668386||Aug 30, 2012||Mar 11, 2014||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Compact mobile cargo scanning system|
|US8674706||Feb 7, 2012||Mar 18, 2014||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Methods and systems for the rapid detection of concealed objects|
|US8687765||Dec 18, 2012||Apr 1, 2014||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Cargo scanning system with boom structure|
|US8735833||Feb 25, 2013||May 27, 2014||Rapiscan Systems, Inc||Photomultiplier and detection systems|
|US8774357||Apr 4, 2013||Jul 8, 2014||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Scanning systems|
|US8774362||May 15, 2012||Jul 8, 2014||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Systems and methods for improving directed people screening|
|US8824632||Aug 18, 2011||Sep 2, 2014||American Science And Engineering, Inc.||Backscatter X-ray inspection van with top-down imaging|
|US8831176||May 20, 2009||Sep 9, 2014||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||High energy X-ray inspection system using a fan-shaped beam and collimated backscatter detectors|
|US8837669||Nov 28, 2011||Sep 16, 2014||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||X-ray scanning system|
|US8837670||May 18, 2013||Sep 16, 2014||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Cargo inspection system|
|US8840303||May 20, 2009||Sep 23, 2014||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Scanner systems|
|US8842808||Jun 20, 2011||Sep 23, 2014||American Science And Engineering, Inc.||Scatter attenuation tomography using a monochromatic radiation source|
|US8885794||Apr 25, 2013||Nov 11, 2014||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||X-ray tomographic inspection system for the identification of specific target items|
|US8929509||Apr 17, 2013||Jan 6, 2015||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Four-sided imaging system and method for detection of contraband|
|US8963094||Jan 29, 2013||Feb 24, 2015||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Composite gamma-neutron detection system|
|US8971485||Feb 26, 2009||Mar 3, 2015||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Drive-through scanning systems|
|US8993970||Nov 18, 2013||Mar 31, 2015||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Photomultiplier and detection systems|
|US8995619||Mar 14, 2011||Mar 31, 2015||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Personnel screening system|
|US9020095||Jul 13, 2012||Apr 28, 2015||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||X-ray scanners|
|US9020096||Feb 25, 2013||Apr 28, 2015||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Self contained mobile inspection system and method|
|US9025731||Jun 20, 2013||May 5, 2015||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Cargo scanning system|
|US9036779||Feb 7, 2012||May 19, 2015||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Dual mode X-ray vehicle scanning system|
|US9042511||Apr 8, 2013||May 26, 2015||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Methods and systems for the rapid detection of concealed objects|
|US9048061||Dec 2, 2013||Jun 2, 2015||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||X-ray scanners and X-ray sources therefor|
|US9052403||Dec 12, 2013||Jun 9, 2015||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Compact mobile cargo scanning system|
|US9057679||Jan 31, 2013||Jun 16, 2015||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Combined scatter and transmission multi-view imaging system|
|US9058909||Oct 7, 2013||Jun 16, 2015||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Beam forming apparatus|
|US9113839||Feb 22, 2011||Aug 25, 2015||Rapiscon Systems, Inc.||X-ray inspection system and method|
|US9121958||Jun 2, 2014||Sep 1, 2015||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Scanning systems|
|US9158027||Feb 27, 2009||Oct 13, 2015||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Mobile scanning systems|
|US9182516||Oct 7, 2013||Nov 10, 2015||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Personnel screening system|
|US9218933||Sep 19, 2014||Dec 22, 2015||Rapidscan Systems, Inc.||Low-dose radiographic imaging system|
|US9223049||Feb 11, 2014||Dec 29, 2015||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Cargo scanning system with boom structure|
|US9223050||May 2, 2014||Dec 29, 2015||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||X-ray imaging system having improved mobility|
|US9268058||Jan 27, 2014||Feb 23, 2016||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Methods and systems for the rapid detection of concealed objects|
|US9279901||Aug 14, 2014||Mar 8, 2016||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Cargo inspection system|
|US9285325||Dec 12, 2013||Mar 15, 2016||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Personnel screening system|
|US9285498||Jun 24, 2011||Mar 15, 2016||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Relocatable X-ray imaging system and method for inspecting commercial vehicles and cargo containers|
|US9291741||Nov 3, 2014||Mar 22, 2016||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Personnel screening system|
|US9310322||Jun 5, 2012||Apr 12, 2016||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||X-ray security inspection machine|
|US9310323||Oct 16, 2014||Apr 12, 2016||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Systems and methods for high-Z threat alarm resolution|
|US9329285||Jan 14, 2015||May 3, 2016||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Composite gamma-neutron detection system|
|US9332624||Oct 7, 2013||May 3, 2016||Rapiscan Systems, Inc.||Gantry scanner systems|
|US20040017888 *||Jul 24, 2002||Jan 29, 2004||Seppi Edward J.||Radiation scanning of objects for contraband|
|US20040077849 *||Dec 5, 2002||Apr 22, 2004||Orchid Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals Limited||Process for the preparation of cefadroxil|
|US20050157842 *||Aug 9, 2004||Jul 21, 2005||Neeraj Agrawal||Single boom cargo scanning system|
|US20060023835 *||Jun 10, 2005||Feb 2, 2006||Seppi Edward J||Radiation scanning units with reduced detector requirements|
|US20060056584 *||Sep 13, 2004||Mar 16, 2006||Bryan Allman||Self-contained mobile inspection system and method|
|US20060245548 *||Apr 21, 2006||Nov 2, 2006||Joseph Callerame||X-ray backscatter inspection with coincident optical beam|
|US20070003003 *||Sep 1, 2006||Jan 4, 2007||Seppi Edward J||Radiation scanning of objects for contraband|
|US20070098142 *||Oct 23, 2006||May 3, 2007||Peter Rothschild||X-Ray Inspection Based on Scatter Detection|
|US20070217572 *||Jan 12, 2007||Sep 20, 2007||Andreas Kotowski||Single boom cargo scanning system|
|US20070269005 *||Dec 11, 2006||Nov 22, 2007||Alex Chalmers||X-Ray Backscatter Detection Imaging Modules|
|US20070269007 *||May 4, 2007||Nov 22, 2007||Alan Akery||Multiple pass cargo inspection system|
|US20080049899 *||Aug 22, 2007||Feb 28, 2008||American Science And Engineering, Inc.||Scatter Attenuation Tomography|
|US20080075232 *||Nov 30, 2007||Mar 27, 2008||Neeraj Agrawal||Cargo Scanning System|
|US20080165926 *||Mar 20, 2008||Jul 10, 2008||Andreas Kotowski||Single Boom Cargo Scanning System|
|US20080253514 *||Feb 27, 2006||Oct 16, 2008||Rapiscan Systems Limited||X-Ray Security Inspection Machine|
|US20090010386 *||Mar 13, 2008||Jan 8, 2009||Peschmann Kristian R||Methods and Systems for Rapid Detection of Concealed Objects Using Fluorescence|
|US20090103686 *||Oct 22, 2008||Apr 23, 2009||American Science And Engineering, Inc.||X-Ray Imaging with Continuously Variable Zoom and Lateral Relative Displacement of the Source|
|US20090116614 *||Oct 31, 2008||May 7, 2009||Andreas Kotowski||Cargo Scanning System|
|US20090141860 *||Oct 31, 2008||Jun 4, 2009||Peter Ryge||Multiple Screen Detection Systems|
|US20090161825 *||Dec 19, 2008||Jun 25, 2009||James Carver||Relocatable X-Ray Imaging System and Method for Inspecting Commercial Vehicles and Cargo Containers|
|US20090202037 *||Jan 7, 2009||Aug 13, 2009||Bryan Allman||Self-Contained Mobile Inspection System and Method|
|US20090238336 *||Mar 16, 2009||Sep 24, 2009||Alan Akery||Multiple Pass Cargo Inspection System|
|US20090245462 *||Mar 3, 2009||Oct 1, 2009||Neeraj Agrawal||Cargo Scanning System|
|US20090257555 *||Feb 10, 2009||Oct 15, 2009||American Science And Engineering, Inc.||X-Ray Inspection Trailer|
|US20090274270 *||Mar 2, 2009||Nov 5, 2009||Andreas Kotowski||Single Boom Cargo Scanning System|
|US20100034347 *||Sep 1, 2009||Feb 11, 2010||American Science And Engineering, Inc.||Scatter Attenuation Tomography|
|US20100034353 *||Feb 11, 2010||Kravis Scott D||Scanning X-ray inspection system using scintillation detection with simultaneous counting and integrating modes|
|US20100085066 *||Apr 8, 2010||Peschmann Kristian R||Methods and systems for the rapid detection of concealed objects|
|US20100189226 *||Dec 19, 2008||Jul 29, 2010||Andreas Kotowski||Rotatable boom cargo scanning system|
|US20110004002 *||Feb 27, 2009||Jan 6, 2011||Basf Se||Process for preparing alkyl 2-alkoxymethylene-4,4-difluoro-3-oxobutyrates|
|US20110033027 *||Apr 5, 2010||Feb 10, 2011||Bryan Allman||Self-Contained Mobile Inspection System and Method|
|US20110038453 *||Feb 17, 2011||Edward James Morton||Compact Mobile Cargo Scanning System|
|US20110064192 *||Mar 17, 2011||Edward James Morton||Four Sided Imaging System and Method for Detection of Contraband|
|US20110075808 *||Sep 28, 2010||Mar 31, 2011||American Science And Engineering, Inc.||X-Ray Inspection Based on Scatter Detection|
|US20110081099 *||Apr 7, 2011||Hughes Ronald J||Personnel Security Screening System with Enhanced Privacy|
|US20110098870 *||Feb 27, 2009||Apr 28, 2011||Edward James Morton||Mobile Scanning Systems|
|US20110116597 *||May 19, 2011||Neeraj Agrawal||Cargo Scanning System|
|US20110116599 *||Feb 25, 2009||May 19, 2011||Rapiscan Security Products, Inc.||Scanning Systems|
|US20110116600 *||Feb 25, 2009||May 19, 2011||Edward James Morton||Scanning Systems|
|US20110127426 *||Jun 2, 2011||Alan Akery||Multiple Pass Cargo Inspection System|
|US20110135060 *||May 20, 2009||Jun 9, 2011||Edward James Morton||High Energy X-Ray Inspection System Using a Fan-Shaped Beam and Collimated Backscatter Detectors|
|US20110142203 *||May 20, 2009||Jun 16, 2011||Edward James Morton||Gantry Scanner Systems|
|US20110228896 *||Nov 15, 2010||Sep 22, 2011||Peschmann Kristian R||Methods and Systems for Rapid Detection of Concealed Objects Using Fluorescence|
|USRE39396 *||Aug 28, 2002||Nov 14, 2006||American Science And Engineering, Inc.||Mobile x-ray inspection system for large objects|
|DE2720759A1 *||May 9, 1977||Dec 8, 1977||Tekniska Roentgencentralen Ab||Geraet zum untersuchen eines gegenstandes mittels strahlen|
|DE3719923A1 *||Jun 15, 1987||Dec 23, 1987||American Science & Eng Inc||Roentgenbilderzeuger, insbesondere fuer materialien mit geringer ordnungszahl|
|DE3719923C2 *||Jun 15, 1987||Jul 2, 1998||American Science & Eng Inc||Bilderzeugungsvorrichtung, insbesondere für Materialien mit geringer Ordnungszahl|
|WO1988000698A1 *||Jul 21, 1987||Jan 28, 1988||American Science And Engineering, Inc.||Method and apparatus for producing tomographic images|
|WO2014096705A1||Dec 18, 2013||Jun 26, 2014||Commissariat A L'energie Atomique Et Aux Energies Alternatives||Scanning illuminating device, imaging device comprising same and method of implementation|
|U.S. Classification||378/146, 250/369, 378/57|
|International Classification||G01N23/04, G01V5/00, G03B42/02|
|Cooperative Classification||G01N23/043, G01V5/0016, G03B42/028|
|European Classification||G01V5/00D2, G03B42/02T, G01N23/04C|
|Nov 19, 1990||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: UNITED STATES TRUST COMPANY, 30/40 COURT ST., BOST
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:AMERICAN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, INC., A CORP. OF MA.;REEL/FRAME:005513/0323
Effective date: 19900703