|Publication number||USRE28692 E|
|Application number||US 05/540,147|
|Publication date||Jan 20, 1976|
|Filing date||Jan 10, 1975|
|Priority date||Dec 28, 1965|
|Publication number||05540147, 540147, US RE28692 E, US RE28692E, US-E-RE28692, USRE28692 E, USRE28692E|
|Inventors||Raymond J. Highstone, deceased, Manfred W. Muehter|
|Original Assignee||American District Telegraph Company|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (9), Referenced by (4), Classifications (10), Legal Events (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present invention relates to electrical protection systems, and more particularly to electrical protection systems having apparatus for improving the security of such systems by detecting attempts to compromise the systems.
In direct wire central station burglar alarm systems a number of protected places such as factories, banks and mercantile establishments, are individually connected to a central station by means of separate lines or conductive paths, usually ordinary telephone lines leased for the purpose. Each of the protected premises is typically provided with a protection circuit including one or more devices which are arranged to detect the entry of an intruder into the protected premises by producing an electrical variation in the corresponding line which results in an alarm signal at the central station.
Direct wire central station burglar alarm systems are customarily designed to provide an alarm signal upon a departure of a predetermined magnitude from the normal value of a supervisory line current supplied from the central station through the corresponding conductive path to the protection circuit at the protected premises. Detection devices of various types are located at the protected premises and are so arranged as to break and/or ground the protection circuit upon being actuated by some activity of an intruder. The resulting decrease and/or increase in the normal supervisory current is detected by a so-called "drop" or supervisory circuit located at the central station which also serves to annunciate the alarm signal to the attendants at the central station.
In brief, the customary drop consists of a break detecting relay and a ground detecting relay connected in series with the line, the break relay responding to a predetermined decrease in line current and the ground relay responding to a predetermined increase in line current. Each relay is provided with suitable contacts and auxiliary circuitry to actuate visible and audible annunciators upon line current changes of sufficient magnitude to actuate the corresponding relay. Of course, suitable electronic circuitry may be used in place of the current-sensitive relays, an example of which is the solid state circuit described and claimed in the copending United States patent application of Manfred W. Muehter, Ser. No. 309,761, filed Sept. 18, 1963.
While difficult, it is at least theoretically possible for a skilled and knowledgeable intruder to compromise such burglar alarm systems by tampering with .[.thhe.]. .Iadd.the .Iaddend.protection circuit. For example, if the transmission lines could be bridged external to the protected premises through a device having approximately the characteristics of the electrical load represented by the detection apparatus comprising the internal protection circuit, an entry could be then effected to the premises without producing an alarm signal at the central station. Under such circumstances, the device acts as a dummy load which, if it can be substituted undetected for the internal protection circuit, will permit disconnection of the actual detection apparatus from the circuit. The dummy load must obviously electrically resemble the internal circuit closely enough so that the line current will not be changed sufficiently to actuate either the break or ground relays in the central station drop.
Alternatively, it is also theoretically possible under certain conditions to ground the transmission line between the central station and the protected premises thereby negativing the effect produced upon the protection circuit by the operation of the detection devices at the protected premises. Usually this would be of significance under daytime conditions, and would be of concern particularly in connection with holdup alarms.
In the present invention, attempts to compromise an electrical protection system are immediately detected at the central station by providing at the protected premises at least two protection circuits which are interconnected so that a compromise attempt on one protection circuit will cause the other protection circuit to produce an alarm signal at the central station. The two protection circuits are interconnected at the protected premises by means of a pair of switching devices respectively interposed between each of the two circuits and the local ground connection, and each of the two protection circuits is connected to a separate supervisory circuit at the central station via a separate supervisory signal path. The two switching devices are arranged so that an attempt to compromise either one of the protection circuits which results in the operation of the corresponding switching device will shunt a portion of the other protection circuit, thereby increasing the normal supervisory signal current in the second circuit by an amount sufficient to produce to an alarm signal in the corresponding supervisory circuit at the central station.
Apart from the detection of attempted tampering with protection circuits, the present invention also provides useful advance warning of impending electrical troubles in the two protection circuits provided at the protected premises. For instance, slowly deteriorating insulation tends to cause increasing line leakage, and if the leakage in one of the protection circuits reaches a point sufficient to cause operation of the corresponding switching device, then a portion of the other protection circuit is shunted thereby operating the ground relay in the drop at the central station. Similarly, increasing circuit resistance, indicative of dirty or corroded terminals and contacts, in one of the protection circuits may also be detected at the central station by the supervisory circuit of the other protection circuit. The line may then be repaired while still serviceable instead of passing unnoticed to the alarm level at which time the line would be out of service until repairs could be effectuated.
Those skilled in the art will immediately recognize from the following description and appended drawings that the principles of the present invention may be applied with advantage to various types of electrical protection systems and to other electrical systems designed for the transmission of data over extended lines. However, as it is anticipated that the invention will find most immediate utility in central station direct wire burglar alarm systems, the invention will be described in terms of its application thereto. The description is intended for illustrative purposes only and in no manner to limit the invention.
The invention will now be described in greater detail which reference to the appended drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a schematic wiring diagram of a direct wire burglar alarm system embodying the basic principles of the invention and illustrating an installation where detection devices are divided between two protection circuits; and
FIG. 2 is a schematic wiring diagram of a direct wire burglar alarm system embodying the principles of the invention and especially adapted for locations where it is not desired to divide the detection devices between two protection circuits.
Referring now to FIG. 1, two supervisory circuits 13-1 and 13-2 at a central station 10 are shown connected to a protect premises 11 by two separate signal paths 12-1 and 12-2, each of which may be a telephone line or similar direct wire connection. The return may be by separate wire connection or, as shown, by ground return. Typically, the lines 12-1 and 12-2 may be as much as twenty miles in length and may pass through several telephone exchanges (not shown). At the protected premises 11, the lines 12-1 and 12-2 are connected to the input points of corresponding local protection circuits 14-1 and 14-2, each circuit including conventional detection devices which produce break and/or ground signals, and thence via the output points of circuits 14-1 and 14-2 through conductors 17-1, 17-2 and switching unit 15 to ground point 18. For convenience of description, local protection circuits 14-1 and 14-2 have been shown as identical in construction, although it is to be understood that in general the two circuits will include different arrangements of detecting devices. Thus local protection circuit 14- 1 is illustrated in highly simplified form as comprising the series connection of a current adjusting resistor 30-1, a foil circuit 31-1, armature 34-1 and back contact 33-1 of a protection control switch 32-1, another foil circuit 36-1, armature 38-1 and back contact 40-1 of a door protection switch 37-1, a current adjusting resistor 41-1, foil circuits 42-1 and 44-1, and thence to ground at 18 via switching unit 15. The door protection switch 37-1 has a front contact 39-1 connected to foil circuit 42-1 at point 45-1, and the protection control switch 32-1 has a front contact 35-1, which, when made with armature 34-1, provides a shunt through conductor 43-1 to a point between foil circuits 42-1 and 44-1 for all circuit components 36-1, 37-1, 41-1, and 42-1.
Within circuit 14-1, the foil circuits 31-1, 36-1, 42-1, 44-1 may consist of conventional lead foil strip adhered to the glass panels of windows and doors and carry the normal supervisory current supplied from the corresponding supervisory circuit 13-1 at the central station 10. By way of example, if an intruder breaks a glass panel in an effort to enter the premises, the current carrying foil will be severed and thereby result in the production of a "break" alarm signal by the corresponding supervisory circuit 13-1 at the central station 10. Typically, such a break signal might be represented by a decrease in supervisory current in line 12-1 from a normal value of 15 milliamperes to 9 milliamperes or less. A similar form of protection for walls, floors and ceilings is sometimes provided by means of foil or fine wire applied to the surfaces thereof in such manner that it will be ruptured if the surface is breached. Items 31-1, 36-1, 42-1, 44-1 of the drawings are intended to represent this form of protection regardless of whether installed on glass panels or other building structure elements.
Also within circuit 14-1, if a door protected by the switch 37-1 is opened, the armature 38-1 will transfer from the back contact 40-1 to the front contact 39-1 and result in the production of a brief "break" alarm signal (while the armature 38-1 is in motion) followed by a "ground" alarm signal by circuit 13-1 at the central station 10. Typically, a ground signal might be represented by an increase in supervisory current in line 12-1 from the normal value to 21 milliamperes or more.
It should be understood that the actual protection circuits at the protected premises will usually be substantially more complex and sophisticated than the simple circuits shown and will include a far greater number of protective devices. It should also be understood that severing of one of the foil strips 31-2, 36-2, 42-2, 44-2 in protection circuit 14-2 will result in the production of a "break" alarm signal by corresponding supervisory circuit 13-2 at central station 10, and that opening of a door protected by switch 37-2 in protection circuit 14-2 will result in the production of a brief "break" alarm signal followed by a "ground" alarm signal by supervisory circuit 13-2 at central station.
The other end of line 12-1 is coupled within circuit 13-1 at the central station 10 to the positive terminal of a source of potential 22-1 (which typically might be a fifty-two volt battery) through a series circuit comprising test equipment 21-1, the winding of the ground relay G-1 and the winding of the break relay B-1. The negative terminal of the normal operation battery 22-1 is grounded at point 23-1. Test equipment 21-1 may comprise any one of a number of well known arrangements, for example, equipment 21-1 may be designed in accordance with the principles disclosed in the copending United States patent application of Lawrance H. Mitchell, Ser. No. 331,771, filed Dec. 19, 1963.
As previously indicated, each of the circuits at the protected premises will generally comprise a number of devices for the protection of doors, walls and windows. In the case of mercantile establishments particularly, it has been found convenient to shunt certain of the protective device.Iadd.s .Iaddend.out of one or both of the circuits during normal business hours and thus avoid the production of alarm signals as the front door or various windows are opened in the ordinary course of business. The shunt feature is shown in the drawings as controlled in protection circuits 14-1 and 14-2 by the respective protection control switches 32-1 and 32-2 which are operated when the premises are opened for business so that armatures 34-1 and 34-2 make with front contacts 35-1 and 35-2 thereby connecting lines 12-1 and 12-2 to ground point 18 via elements 30-1, 31-1, 44-1, and 30-2, 31-2, 44-2, respectively, and removing protection devices 36-1, 37-1, 42-1 and 36-2, 37-2, 42-2 from the respective circuits. The devices 31-1, 44-1 and 31-2, 44-2 remaining in the respective protection circuits 14-1 and 14-2 ordinarily constitute the so-called "permanent" protection devices such as foil or wire protected walls, ceilings, etc.
Adjustable resistors 30-1, 41-1 and 30-2, 41-2 are provided in circuits 14-1 and 14-2 at the protected premises to limit the current in each of the lines 12-1 and 12-2 to a selected nominal value, e.g., fifteen milliamperes, during the period while the entire protection system is in operation, usually termed the "protection-on" or "night" period. The circuit components are so selected and adjusted that operation of a break signal detection device will cause the line current to fall to or below a first selected value, e.g., nine milliamperes, while operation of a ground signal detection device will cause the line current to rise to or above a second preselected valve, e.g., twenty-one milliamperes. During the "protection-off" or "day" period, the adjustments are such that the system is in the grounded condition. While specific values of currents and voltages are referred to herein for convenience in explaining the operation of the invention, it should be understood that these specific values are given by way of illustration only and are not to be construed as in any manner limiting the invention.
In supervisory circuit 13-1 at central station 10, the break relay B-1 is arranged to be held energized by the normal current in line 12-1, while the ground relay G-1 is .[.de-energizing.]. .Iadd.de-energized .Iaddend.during the "protection-on" period. A decrease in the line current to or below the first selected value will cause the break relay B-1 to become de-energized and open the normally closed contacts B1-1, while an increase of line current to or above the second selected value will energize the ground relay G-1 and close the normally open contacts G1-1. The contacts B1-1 and G1-1 are coupled to alarm annunciators 20-1 which are of conventional design and serve to provide audible and visible indications of the operation of the break and ground relays, respectively, to the attendants at the central station. Operation of supervisory circuit 13-2 corresponding to protection circuit 14-2 is similar in all respects to the above-described operation of circuit 13-1.
The present invention improves the security of the system described above during the protection-on condition by providing an interconnection between circuits 14-1 and 14-2 in switching unit 15 so that operation of any device in either protection circuit which interrupts the supervisory current in one circuit for more than a predetermined time interval will not only cause an alarm signal to be produced by the corresponding supervisory circuit at the central station 10 but also cause an alarm signal to be produced by the other supervisory circuit at the central station 10. Referring to switching unit 15, conductor 17-1 from protection circuit 14-1 is connected to the input terminal of winding 52-1 of relay R1 so that relay R1 is energized by the flow of normal supervisory current to ground at 18 supplied from battery 22-1 in supervisory circuit 13-1. Contact 50-1 of relay R1 is connected to conductor 16-2 from protection circuit 14-2, and armature 51-1 of relay R1 is connected to the input terminal of winding 52"2 of relay R2. In the energized condition of relay R1, contact 50-1 is normally open so that conductor 16-2 is not connected to ground point 18 through winding 52-2 of relay R2, but in the de-energized condition of relay R1, armature 51-1 makes with contact 50-1 to provide a ground connection for conductor 16-2 via winding 52-2 of relay R2. It is therefore evident that by connecting conductor 16-2 to an appropiate point 46-2 in protection circuit 14-2, a decrease in the normal supervisory current flowing through protection circuit 14-1 to winding 52-1, which causes the current to fall to a level below that required to energize relay R1, will release relay R1 and thereby result in shunting a portion of protection circuit 14-2. Since shunting of a portion of protection circuit 14-2 causes the corresponding supervisory circuit 13-2 to produce an alarm signal, protection circuit 14-2 monitors protection circuit 14-1 to provide an indication of any decrease in supervisory current in circuit 14-1 which is sufficient to release relay R1, regardless of whether this decrease is accompanied by the generation of alarm signals in supervisory circuit 13-1 corresponding to protection circuit 14-1.
Relay R2 provides similar monitoring of protection circuit 14-2 by protection circuit 14-1 and supervisory circuit 13-1. Conductor 17-2 from protection circuit 14-2 is connected to ground point 18 by way of winding 52-2 of relay R2 so that relay R2 is energized by the flow of normal supervisory currents to ground at 18 from battery 22-2 in supervisory circuit 13-2. Contact 50-2 of relay R2 is connected to conductor 16-1 from protection circuit 14-1, and armature 51-2 of relay R2 is connected to the input terminal of winding 52-1 of relay R1. In the energized condition of relay R2, contact 50-2 is normally open so that conductor 16-1 is not connected to ground point 18 through winding 52-1 of relay R1, but in the de-energized condition of relay R2, armature 51-2 makes with contact 50-2 to provide a ground connection for conductor 16-1 via winding 52-1 of relay R1. It is therefore evident that by connecting conductor 16-1 to an appropriate point 46-1 in protection circuit 14-1, a decrease of sufficient magnitude in the supervisory current flowing through protection circuit 14-2 to winding 52-2 will release relay R2 and thereby result in shunting a portion of protection circuit 14-1. Since shunting of a portion of protection circuit 14-1 causes supervisory circuit 13-1 to produce an alarm signal, protection circuit 14-1 monitors protection circuit 14-2 to provide an indication of any decrease in supervisory current in circuit 14-2 which is sufficient to release relay R2, regardless of whether this decrease is accompanied by the generation of alarm signals in supervisory circuit 13-2.
The present invention therefore provides a complementary monitoring arrangement whereby attempts to defeat or compromise either one of two protection circuits at a protected premises will result in the production of an alarm signal by the other circuit. However, although the invention has been illustrated and described in terms of two protection circuits interconnected to provide complementary monitoring, it is to be understood that if desired more than two protection circuits may be provided at a protected premises, in which case it is to be further understood that more than two protection circuits may be interconnected in accordance with the principles of this invention to provide complementary monitoring of the type described.
Turning now to FIG. 2, this drawing illustrates an embodiment of the principles of this invention designed for premises in which it is either inconvenient or undesirable to divide the detection devices between two separate protection circuits. For example, in a location already provided with a protection circuit, it may be too expensive or too time consuming to divide the existing protection circuit into two circuits. In such a situation, complementary monitoring may be provided by an arrangement of the type shown in FIG. 2, where like reference numbers are used to identify components which are similar to those illustrated in FIG. 1.
In FIG. 2 the block labelled protection circuit 14-2 at protected premises 11 represents a circuit of the type shown by the like numbered circuit in FIG. 1, in which circuit 14-2 typically includes a number of detection devices. Protection circuit 14-2 is provided with a direct wire connection 12-2 to corresponding supervisory circuit 13-2 at central station 10, and circuit 13-2 functions in the manner previously described in connection with the similarly numbered circuit in FIG. 1. In addition to protection circuit 14-2, there is installed a protection circuit 200 which as shown may include no detection devices such as foil, wire or door switches, but only one or more current adjusting resistors 201 and 202. Protection circuit 200 is provided with a direct wire connection 12-1 to corresponding supervisory circuit 13-1 at central station 10, circuit 13-1 functioning in the same manner as supervisory circuit 13-1 in FIG. 1.
Switching unit 15, which may be identical with the similarly numbered component in FIG. 1, is connected to protection circuit 200 and protection circuit 14-2 by conductors 16-1, 17-1 and 16-2, 17-2, respectively. In this manner, a sufficient decrease in the supervisory current flowing through either protection circuit 200 or protection circuit 14-2 will release the corresponding relay in circuit 15, thereby to shunt a portion of the other protection circuit and produce an alarm signal at central station 10 by the supervisory circuit corresponding to the shunted circuit. As shown in FIG. 2, the conductor 16-1 is connected to protection circuit 200 at point 203 to shunt resistor 202.
In FIG. 1 the connection of the shunting conductors 16-1 and 16-2 to the respective protection circuits 14-1 and 14-2 has been shown at points 46-1 and 46-2, so that closure of either contact 50-1 or 50-2 will shunt all the protection devices in the respective protection circuits which are subsequent to the points 46-1 and 46-2. It will be obvious to those skilled in the art that under certain circumstances it may be desirable to locate the shunting conductor connection at a different point in the protection circuit or to provide means whereby the point of connection may be selectively varied. For this reason, supplementary conductors 18-1 and 18-2 are shown connected to circuits 14-1 and 14-2 by way of switches 47-1 and 47-2, respectively. The closure of either of these switches 47-1, 47-2 while the protection control switches 32-1 and 32-2 are in the "protection-on" conditions will have the effect of including the associated protection elements 36-1, 36-2 in the shunted portion of the circuits. Also, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that the electromechanical relays shown at various points in the drawings may be replaced by electronic devices wherever desired.
While the invention hsa been described in connection with specific embodiments thereof and in specific uses, various modifications thereof will occur to those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as set forth in the appended claims.
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|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US8902760||Sep 14, 2012||Dec 2, 2014||Chrimar Systems, Inc.||Network system and optional tethers|
|US8942107||Feb 10, 2012||Jan 27, 2015||Chrimar Systems, Inc.||Piece of ethernet terminal equipment|
|US9019838||Sep 14, 2012||Apr 28, 2015||Chrimar Systems, Inc.||Central piece of network equipment|
|US9049019||Sep 14, 2012||Jun 2, 2015||Chrimar Systems, Inc.||Network equipment and optional tether|
|U.S. Classification||340/508, 340/647, 340/550, 340/511|
|International Classification||G08B29/06, G08B29/08|
|Cooperative Classification||G08B29/06, G08B29/08|
|European Classification||G08B29/08, G08B29/06|
|Apr 27, 1989||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: ADT SECURITY SYSTEMS, INC.,
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:ADT, INC.;REEL/FRAME:005091/0837
Effective date: 19880229
Owner name: ADT, INC.
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:AMERICAN DISTRICT TELEGRAPH COMPANY;REEL/FRAME:005077/0275
Effective date: 19860513
Owner name: ADT DIVERSIFIED SERVICES, INC.,
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:ADT SECURITY SYSTEMS, INC.;REEL/FRAME:005091/0824
Effective date: 19890103
Owner name: ADT SECURITY SYSTEMS, INC., NEW JERSEY
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:ADT DIVERSIFIED SERVICES, INC.;REEL/FRAME:005208/0081
Effective date: 19881231