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Publication numberUSRE30660 E
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 06/120,373
Publication dateJun 30, 1981
Filing dateFeb 11, 1980
Priority dateOct 21, 1975
Publication number06120373, 120373, US RE30660 E, US RE30660E, US-E-RE30660, USRE30660 E, USRE30660E
InventorsDeno Laganis
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Water soluble insulating varnish
US RE30660 E
Abstract
Water dispersible oil-modified polyesters and oil-free polyesters are formed by the reaction of aromatic dicarboxylic acids, aliphatic dicarboxylic acids and polyols to form the polyester. In oil-free polyesters, oils of the respective fatty acids are excluded but the other reactants are similar to those employed in the preparation of oil-modified polyesters.
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Claims(25)
What is claimed is:
1. A process for forming a water-dispersible polyester capable of being solubilized to become water-soluble comprising reacting (1) with (2a) to form (I), wherein
(1) is isophthalic acid, terephthalic acid, benzophenone dicarboxylic acid or mixtures thereof and wherein
(2a) includes a polyol having at least three hydroxyl groups and a diol, wherein said polyol is trimethylol-propane, tris(hydroxymethyl)aminoethane, trimethylolethane, glycerine, pentaerythritol or tris(hydroxyethyl)isocyanurate and said diol is neopentyl glycol, 1,4-butylene glycol, dimethyl hydantoin, dipropylene glycol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, propylene glycol, cyclohexane dimethanol, hydrogenated bisphenol A, hydroquinone di-(beta-hydroxyethyl) ether, the diether of propylene glycol and bisphenol A, or the diether of ethylene glycol and bisphenol A; wherein said triol is present in amounts up to 35 mole percent of all reactants used to form said polyester;
wherein said polyol and said diol are heated together and then said component (1) is added thereto;
and adding (II) which is (a) trimellitic anhydride; (b) an aliphatic dibasic acid which is adipic acid, succinic acid, azelaic acid, sebacic acid, dimerized fatty acids, maleic acid, fumaric acid or an anhydride of said acids or (c) a cycloaliphatic acid which is tetrahydrophthalic acid, hexahydrophthalic acid, 3,6-endomethylene, delta4 -tetrahydrophthalic acid or an anhydride of said acid, which component (II) is 15 to 65 mole percent based on the total moles of (1) and (II), and wherein (1) comprises 35 to 85 mole percent of the total amount of (1) and (II);
wherein the mixture of (1) and (2a) is heated until a portion of the mixture containing 100 percent solids is characterized by an acid number of .[.at least.]. about 10 .Iadd.up to 20.Iaddend..
2. The process of claim 1, wherein said polyester further includes a mixture of a saturated or unsaturated fatty acid which is non-conjugated or conjugated linoleic acid, linolenic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, elaeostearic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, pelargonic acid, isodecanoic acid or mixtures thereof in an amount ranging from 5 to 60 percent by weight of said polyester. .[.3. The process of claim 1,
wherein said acid number ranges up to 20..]. 4. The process of claim 1, wherein said heating step is followed by cooling and then by addition of
component .[.(B).]. .Iadd.(II). .Iaddend. 5. The process of claim 4, wherein said addition is followed by heating .Iadd.until the reaction product, when diluted to 80 percent solids, attains an acid value of from
25 to 90. 6. The process of claim 5, wherein said heating step following addition is maintained until the reaction product, when diluted to 80
percent solids, attains an acid value of about 40. 7. A water-dispersible polyester capable of being solubilized to become water-soluble, comprising the reaction product of component (I) and component (II) wherein:
(I) is the reaction product of
(1) isophthalic acid, terephthalic acid; benzophenone dicarboxylic acid or mixtures thereof; and
(2) 0 to 41 percent by weight, based on the total weight of reactants used to form said polyester, of a diol which is neopentyl glycol, 1,4-butylene glycol, dimethyl hydantoin, dipropylene glycol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, propylene glycol, cyclohexane dimethanol, hydrogenated bisphenol A, hydroquinone di-(beta-hydroxyethyl) ether, the diether of propylene glycol and bisphenol A, or the diether of ethylene glycol bisphenol A and 10 to 27 percent by weight based on the total weight of all reactants of a polyol having at least three hydroxyl groups which is trimethylol-propane, tris(hydroxymethyl)aminoethane, trimethylolethane, glycerine, pentaerythritol or tris(hydroxyethyl) isocyanurate; and
(3) a saturated or unsaturated fatty acid which is non-conjugated or conjugated linoleic acid, linolenic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, elaeostearic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, pelargonic acid, isodecanoic acid or mixtures thereof in an amount ranging from 5 to 60 percent by weight of said polyester, and wherein
(II) is (a) trimellitic anhydride; or (b) or aliphatic dibasic acid which is adipic acid, succinic acid, azelaic acid, sebacic acid, dimerized fatty acids, maleic acid, fumaric acid or an anhydride of said acids or (c) a cycloaliphatic acid which is tetrahydrophthalic acid, hexahydrophthalic acid, 3,6-endomethylene, delta4 -tetrahydrophthalic acid or an anhydride of said acid, which component (II) is 15 to 65 mole percent based on the total moles of (1) and (II), wherein (1) comprises 35 to 85 mole percent of the total amount of (1) and (II);
wherein the OH:COOH ratio of said polyester ranges from 1:1 to 1.5:1 .[...]..Iadd.; .Iaddend.
.Iadd.wherein the acid number of the polyester is 25 to 90, based on a
sample of said polyester diluted to 80% solids. .Iaddend. 8. The polyester
of claim 7, wherein said OH:COOH ratio is 1:1 to 1.3:1. 9. The polyester
of claim 7, dispersed in water. 10. The polyester of claim 7, including
both a polyol having at least three hydroxyl groups and a diol. 11. The polyester of claim 10, wherein said polyol is trimethylol propane and said
diol is dipropylene glycol. 12. The polyester of claim 10, wherein said
polyester includes isophthalic acid and trimellitic anhydride. 13. The
polyester of claim 7, wherein said diol is neopentyl glycol. 14. The
polyester of claim 13, wherein said polyol is trimethylol-propane. 15. The
polyester of claim 14, wherein said element (1) is isophthalic acid.
16. The polyester of claim 15, which includes adipic acid. 17. The polyester of claim 7, wherein the diol is dipropylene glycol, diethylene
glycol or neopentyl glycol. 18. The polyester of claim 7, wherein the polyol is trimethylolpropane, trimethylolethane, glycerine or
tris(hydroxyethyl)isocyanurate. 19. The polyester of claim 7, wherein (B)
is maleic anhydride, or adipic acid. 20. The polyester of claim 7, wherein (B) is maleic anhydride, tetrahydrophthalic anhydride, hexahydrophthalic anhydride, 3,6-endomethylene, Δ4 -tetrahydrophthalic anhydride
or trimellitic anhydride. 21. The polyester of claim 7, which is
water-soluble. 22. The reaction product formed by reacting the polyester
of claim 7 with an amino triazine-aldehyde reaction product. 23. The product of claim 22, wherein said triazine is hexamethoxymethyl melamine.
4. A water-dispersible polyester capable of being solubilized to become water-soluble comprising 2.8 moles of tall oil fatty acids, 3.8 moles of trimethylol propane, 0.4 mole of dipropylene glycol, 3.2 moles of
isophthalic acid and 0.9 mole of trimellitic anhydride. 25. The product
produced by the process of claim 1, admixed with water. 26. A pigmented enamel comprising the product of claim 25. .[.27. The product produced by the process of claim 3, admixed with water..]. .Iadd. 28. A water-dispersible polyester capable of being solubilized to become water-soluble, comprising the reaction product of component (I) and (II) wherein:
(I) is the reaction product of
(1) isophthalic acid, terephthalic acid; benzophenone dicarboxylic acid or mixtures thereof; and
(2) 0 to 41 percent by weight, based on the total weight of reactants used to form said polyester, of a diol which is neopentyl glycol, 1,4-butylene glycol, dimethyl hydantoin, dipropylene glycol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, propylene glycol, cyclohexane dimethanol, hydrogenated bisphenol A, hydroquinone di-(beta-hydroxyethyl) ether, the diether of propylene glycol and bisphenol A, or the diether of ethylene glycol and bisphenol A and 10 to 27 percent by weight based on the total weight of all reactants of a polyol having at least three hydroxyl groups which is trimethylol-propane, tris(hydroxymethyl)aminoethane, trimethylolethane, glycerine, pentaerythritol or tris(hydroxyethyl)isocyanurate; and
(3) a saturated or unsaturated fatty acid which is non-conjugated or conjugated linoleic acid, linoleninc acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, elaeostearic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, pelargonic acid, isodecanoic acid or mixtures thereof in an amount ranging from 5 to 60 percent by weight of said polyester, and wherein
(II) is trimellitic anhydride wherein the trimellitic anhydride component (II) is 15 to 65 mole percent based on the total moles of (1) and (II), wherein (1) comprises 35 to 85 mole percent of the total amount of (1) and (II);
wherein the OH:COOH ratio of said polyester ranges from 1:1 to 1.5:1; and wherein the acid number of said polyester is 25 to 90, based on a sample of said polyester diluted to 80% solids.
Description

This application is a continuation-in-part of application 624,569, filed Oct. 21, 1975, now abandoned.

THE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The invention is directed to oil-modified polyester products, as well as oil-free polyester products. The invention is directed to the novel process for the production of these products. Moreover, the invention is directed to novel compositions realized by using the oil-modified polyesters, or oil-free polyesters, to produce varnishes.

It is generally known that maleic anhydride or trimellitic anhydride can be used to form polyesters which can become water-soluble. The maleic anhydride or trimellitic anhydride act to provide carboxylic sites for aqueous solubilization. The polyesters produced from these reactants are rendered water-soluble by the aid of an amine, a metal oxide, hydroxide or carbonate.

It has been found that a variety of polycarboxylic acids, or their respective anhydrides, can be employed to produce polyester products to effect solubility, in the same manner as maleic anhydride or trimellitic anhydride effect solubility in polyester products.

The polyester products new of the invention are water-dispersible polyesters which may be used as protective coatings systems for industrial and architectural applications.

The invention provides new polyesters which can be formed from compositions containing considerable amounts of monocarboxylic acids; alternatively, the polyesters of the invention can be formed from components with the exclusion of monocarboxylic acids altogether. Some of these new polyesters are commonly known as "oil-free" polyesters.

The polyesters of the invention may be used in improved coating systems for a variety of metal and non-metal substrates and are characterized by superior heat and chemical resistance properties.

Aqueous coatings, formed from a polyester of the invention, have improved flow, wetting, non-foaming characteristics, as well as improved film continuity upon application to particular substrates.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The polyester-resin system, produced in accordance with the invention, includes both oil-modified polyesters as well as oil-free polyesters. Vegetable oils of the drying and nondrying types, or their respective fatty acids, are reacted with a combination of (1) specific aromatic dicarboxylic acids set forth hereinafter; (2) trimellitic anhydride, aliphatic dicarboxylic acids and their anhydrides and cycloaliphatic dicarboxylic acids and their anhydrides; and (3) polyols to form the alkyd or the oil-modified polyester. In the oil-free polyesters, oils or their respective fatty acids are excluded but the reactants used to form the oil-free polyesters, are similar to those employed in the preparation of the alkyds.

Another aspect of the invention is directed to the process for producing the oil-free and oil-modified polyesters. It has been discovered that if the aromatic dicarboxylic acid is reacted initially with the polyols (and/or diols), to form an intermediate, and subsequently the intermediate is reacted with the aliphatic (or cycloaliphatic) dicarboxylic acids or anhydrides, or trimellitic anhydride, the process to form the polyesters occurs more readily and at a lower temperature to allow better control of polymer formation.

The invention is also directed to varnishes produced by production of a polyester-triazine system, employing the polyesters of the invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The invention is directed to water-dispersible polyesters, and their preparation, and usage in protective coating systems for industrial and architectural applications. Polyestertriazine resin systems formed from the polyesters of the invention, can be used as coreplate enamels and as insulating varnishes. These compositions also show promise as enamel top coats for metals.

THE POLYESTERS

These products include both oil-free and oil-modified polyesters. The oil-free products are produced from the reaction of at least three components: (1) an aromatic dicarboxylic acid as set forth hereinafter; (2) an aliphatic carboxylic acid or anhydride or a cycloaliphatic acid or anhydride or trimellitic anhydride; and (3) a polyol having at least three hydroxyl groups and/or a diol. For the oil- or fatty acid-modified polyesters an additional or fourth component is included, and the diol is optional. That is, aromatic polycarboxylic acids or their respective anhydrides, in addition to the conventional maleic anhydride or the like or trimellitic anhydride, have been discovered to be useful in forming the polyesters of the invention. When iso- or terephthalic acid is the sole acid in the polyester, it is extremely difficult to insure that all of the aromatic acid reacts with the polyol at an acid value range of 25 to 90 and to obtain an aqueous solution of that polyester which is clear. Even when solution clarity may be achieved under these circumstances, the package or storage ability suffers after a month or so of aging at normal ambient temperatures. The inclusion of the aliphatic (or cycloaliphatic) dicarboxylic acid or anhydride or trimellitic anhydride overcome these difficulties and its inclusion in the formulation of the polyester results in stabler aqueous solutions of the polyester.

Oil-Free Polyesters

The oil-free polyesters of the invention contain about 35 to 85%, preferably 60-70%, based on the total moles of the dibasic acid (or anhydride thereof) used to form the polyester, of an aromatic dibasic acid of the class defined hereinafter; and 15 to 65 mole percent, preferably 20 to 40 mole percent of an aliphatic dibasic acid (or anhydride thereof) or trimellitic anhydride based on the total moles of dibasic acid used to form the polyester; 20 to 55 mole percent of a diol based on all reactants; and 0 to 35 mole percent of a higher polyol based on total moles of reactants. From 0-50 mole percent or more of the aliphatic dibasic acid can be replaced by trimellitic anhydride. The trimellitic anhydride, for example can be up to 20 mole percent based on all reactants.

The aromatic dibasic acids, which are used in the oil-free products include isophthalic acid, terephthalic acid, 4,4'-benzophenone dicarboxylic acid and mixtures thereof.

The other acidic component is trimellitic acid or an aliphatic dibasic acid or anhydride of cycloaliphatic acid or anhydride such as adipic acid, succinic acid, azelaic acid, sebacic acid, dimerized fatty acids, e.g., dimerized linoleic acid, maleic anhydride, maleic acid, fumaric acid, tetrahydrophthalic anhydride, hexa hydrophthalic anhydride or 3,6-endomethylene, Δ-4-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride.

Diols which can be used in formulation of the oil-free products include ethylene glycol, 1,4-butylene glycol, propylene glycol, and the like, as well as dipropylene glycol, diethylene glycol, neopentyl glycol, dimethylol hydantoin, cyclohexane dimethanol, hydrogenated bisphenol A, hydroquinone di-(betahydroxyethyl) ether, the diether or propylene glycol and bisphenol A, the diether of ethylene glycol and bisphenol A, and the like.

The polyol, used to form the oil-free polyester can be trimethylol-propane, trimethylolethane, glycerine, pentaerythritol, as well as tris(hydroxyethyl)isocyanurate, tris(hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane.

The OH:COOH ratio of the oil-free polyesters may range from 1:1 to 1.3:1.

Oil- or Fatty Acid-Modified Polyester

The oil- or fatty acid-modified polyesters are formed from (1) (a) an unsaturated or saturated fatty acid of considerable chain length, (e.g., having 9 to 18 carbon atoms) wherein the percent of fatty acid in the composition may range from 5 to 60 weight percent, based on all reactant compositions; or (b) 5 to 65 percent by weight of vegetable oil; (2) 30 to 50 percent by weight of the aromatic dicarboxylic acid; (3) 3 to 30 percent by weight of the aliphatic (or cycloaliphatic) dicarboxylic acid; (4) 10 to 27 percent by weight of a polyol having at least three hydroxyl groups and optionally, 0 to 41 percent by weight of diol, usually 0 to 27% of diol. The OH:COOH ratio of oil-modified polyesters in accordance with invention ranges from 1:1 to 1.5:1.

The unsaturated fatty acid, used in forming the oil-modified polyesters can be either conjugated or non-conjugated. Examples of unsaturated fatty acids are linolenic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, elaeostearic acid, and the like. The saturated monocarboxylic acids which can be used include lauric acid, stearic acid, palmitic acid, isodecanoic acid, pelargonic acid, myristic acid, and the like. In addition, aromatic acids including benzoic acid, butyl benzoic acid, hydroxy-benzoic acid, e.g., salicylic acid, and the like may be employed.

There can be used natural linoleic acid which is normally the non-conjugated type or there can be used conjugated linoleic acid or a mixture thereof, e.g., a mixture in which part of the non-conjugated linoleic acid has been converted to conjugated linoleic acid by heating in the presence of a catalyst.

Mixtures of acids can be employed, e.g., a mixture of oleic acid and linoleic acid containing 11 to 47% oleic acid, as well as natural mixtures obtained by saponification of a fat followed by acidification.

Oils which can be used as the modifying substance in making the oil-modified polyesters include soybean oil, cottonseed oil, linseed oil, safflower oil, corn oil, tung oil, menhaden oil, tall oil, castor oil, palm oil, oiticica oil and the like.

The aromatic dicarboxylic acids which can be used to form the oil- or fatty acid-modified polyester include isophthalic acid, terephthalic acid, benzophenone dicarboxylic acid or mixtures thereof. The aliphatic dicarboxylic acids and anhydrides, cycloaliphatic dicarboxylic acids and anhydrides can be those previously set forth and of course there can also be used trimellitic anhydride.

The polyols used to form the oil-modified polyesters (as well as fatty acid-modified polyesters) include glycerine, trimethylolethane, trimethylolpropane, pentaerythritol, tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and tris(hydroxyethyl)isocyanurate.

Diols which may be used to form the polyesters include neopentyl glycol, diethylene glycol, dimethylol hydantoin, dipropylene glycol, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, cyclohexane dimethanol, hydrogenated bisphenol A, hydroquinone di-(betahydroxyethyl) ether, the diether of propylene glycol and bisphenol A, the diether of ethylene glycol and bisphenol A, and the like.

THE PROCESS

Another aspect of the invention, is the process of forming both the oil-free as well as the oil-modified polyesters of the invention. By way of explanation, when the terminology "oil-modified" is used hereinafter except in the working examples, it is meant to refer to oil-modified polyesters as well as polyesters modified by the fatty acids of such oils of the invention.

In accordance with the process of the invention, the aromatic dicarboxylic acid is reacted initially with the polyols (and fatty acids if employed). This reaction step obviates the problem of the lesser solubility of the aromatic dicarboxylic acids in the reaction medium, particularly isophthalic or terephthalic acid, and their slower reactivity which results in the necessity for higher processing temperatures. In the subsequent step, the aliphatic (or cycloaliphatic) dicarboxylic acid or trimellitic anhydride is reacted with the intermediate formed in the first step, at lower temperatures than temperatures of the first step. The lower temperatures of the second step, namely at 300° to 400° F., and preferably at 320°-375° F., allow for better control of polymer formation. As set forth above, the aliphatic or cycloaliphatic dicarboxylic acids are advantageously employed to provide easily solubilizible sites in the form of free carboxyl groups that are subsequently reacted with amines or metal hydroxides to form salts that are soluble in water.

In one embodiment of the process of the invention, the polyol of at least three hydroxyl groups and/or the diol are heated to elevated temperatures of at least 300° F. and then the aromatic dicarboxylic acid is added thereto. Heating of the diol, polyol with at least three hydroxyl groups and aromatic dicarboxylic acid is continued to the point at which distillation commences. The esterification reaction is continued until an acid number of 10 to 20 is attained at 100% solids.

Thereafter, the contents are cooled to a temperature of 300° F. The aliphatic dicarboxylic acid, cycloaliphatic dicarboxylic acid or trimellitic anhydride is then added to the contents of the reaction mixture which are at a temperature of about 300° F. Heating is resumed until an acid value range of from 25 to 90 is attained on a sample diluted to 80% solids. This procedure is critical and it is the addition of the trimellitic anhydride, aliphatic (or cycloaliphatic) dibasic acid or anhydride in the second stage of the process which appears to be the crux of the invention.

The advantage of the process is that it results in the possibility of producing polyesters from aromatic dicarboxylic acids which polyesters are reacted at an acid value range of 25 to 90 and which polyesters are characterized by being capable of forming an aqueous solution that is clear. Moreover, the polyesters produced in accordance with the process are characterized by package and storage stability.

When oil-modified polyesters are produced in accordance with the process of the invention, the oil-modifier is added to the reaction vessel, along with the polyol, the diol which is optional and the aromatic dicarboxylic acid in the initial step of the process.

THE VARNISH

The polyesters of the invention are capable of reacting with amino triazine-aldehyde reaction products to form useful varnish compositions. Preferably, the triazine aldehyde reaction product is hexamethoxy methyl melamine (the reaction product of melamine-formaldehyde and methanol). Other suitable triazines and triazine-aldehyde reaction products including etherified triazine-aldehyde reaction products are shown for example in Widmer U.S. Pat. No. 2,197,357, the entire disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference and relied upon. Thus there can be used trimethoxymethyl melamine, trimethylol melamine, etc.

In order to form the varnish composition, the polyester reaction product which is water dispersible produced in accordance with the process described above is diluted with a solvent to a solids content of at least about 30%, but may range as high as 50%. The solvent may be a polar or oxygenated solvent of the glycol ether, glycol diether or glycol ester types which is capable of being a solvent for the polyester concentrate. In the preferred embodiment set forth below in the examples, the solvents are butoxy propanol, and butoxy ethanol.

Thereafter, the polyester concentrate is rendered watersoluble by admixture and reaction with an amine, metal oxide, hydroxide or carbonate. Preferably an amine is used. Most preferably the amine, dimethylethanolamine is employed. Other suitable amines include ethanolamine, diethanolamine, 2-dimethylamino-2-methyl-1-propanol (DMAMP) 2-amino, 2-methyl, 1-propanol (AMP), N,N-diethyl ethanolamine, N-methyl(diethanol)amine, morpholine, triethanolamine, triethyl amine. Suitable oxides, hydroxides and carbonates include, barium oxides, calcium oxide, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, barium hydroxide, and calcium hydroxide.

After the polyester has been admixed with the amine, metal oxide, hydroxide or carbonate, the mixture is treated with the triazine aldehyde component. A homogeneous mixture is obtained. Water is added slowly, with stirring. At approximately at least 30% solids content, the resulting varnish solution is clear.

The varnishes of the invention are formed from compositions which contain 25 to 50 percent by weight of a polyester concentrate (of at 30% solids contents usually about 80% solids content). The solubilizing agent, including amines, metal oxides, hydroxides or carbonates is present from 1.5 to 4 percent by weight. The triazine component is added in amounts of 4 to 25 percent by weight of the varnish composition. Water generally forms from about 30 to 55 percent by weight of the total varnish composition. Optionally, other solvents may be included in the varnish composition in amount of up to 30%.

Among the practical commercial advantages of the product of the invention are its superior heat and chemical resistance as compared to most other aqueous water-soluble or latex systems, as well as compared to organic solvent-soluble coatings. Furthermore being an aqueous system it is environmentally less polluting to the atmosphere and the user, and thus meets EPA standards more easily than organic solvent systems since it does not emit any reactive hydrocarbon solvents. Because of its excellent moisture resistance it has electrical properties that are on a par with organic solvent-based coatings. Other benefits include good wetting and adhesion to metal and glass cloth substrates, as well as to wood, fabric, plastic films or composites. Last, but not least, it has package stability that withstands hot and cold cycling for over a year, which latex and other aqueous systems fall far short of achieving.

The examples which follow will serve to elucidate the invention in great detail. The examples are meant to be exemplifications of the invention only and are not to be considered as limiting but are to be construed as encompassing all known alternative equivalents.

EXAMPLE 1 1. Preparation of Oil-Free Polyester

______________________________________           Wt.Reactants       grams    Equivalents                               Moles______________________________________(A)  Neopentyl Glycol               582      11.20    5.60(B)  Trimethylolpropane               354      7.92     2.64(C)  Isophthalic Acid               797      9.60     4.80(D)  Adipic Acid    467      6.40     3.20______________________________________
Procedure

To a five-liter, three-neck round bottom flask equipped with a stainless steel paddle agitator (motor driven), a thermometer to record batch temperature, a Snyder distillation column (with three bubble caps) topped by a distillation head, thermometer to measure head or vapor temperature of distillate, and connected to downward condenser and receiver is charged thereto materials (A) and (B). Heat is applied and temperature is raised to 330°-340° F.

At 330° F. material (C) is charged to the flask, and heated rapidly to the point whence distillation commences. From then on the heat input is regulated to control head temperature at 200°-212° F. to minimize glycol loss. The esterification is continued until an acid number of 10-20 is attained at 100 percent solids.

The contents of the flask are cooled to 300° F., and material (D) is added to the flask. Heating is resumed, and the esterification is continued until an acid number of 40.39 on a sample diluted to 80 percent solids in methoxy ethyl acetate is obtained. The molten polyester was subsequently dissolved in 472 grams butoxy propanol to provide a solution concentrate with the following properties:

______________________________________Viscosity, Gardner-Holdt Scale                 Z73/4 at 25° C.Solids, %             80Acid Number (on solution)                 40.4Solvent               Butoxy Propanol______________________________________
2. Preparation of Electrical Insulating Varnishes

______________________________________                     Wt.Varnish No. 1             grams______________________________________(A)    Above Polyester Concentrate of Ex. 1                         269(B)    Dimethylethanolamine    16(C)    Hexamethoxymethyl Melamine                          72(D)    Deionized Distilled Water                         400(E)    Butoxy Propanol        45______________________________________
Procedure

To a one-liter flask equipped with a motor-driven stainless steel agitator, condenser, and dropping funnel materials (A) and (B) are charged and mixed until uniform. Then material (C) is added, and stirred until homogeneous. Material (D) is added via dropping funnel at a slow, steady rate, and stirred until uniform. Material (E) is added to the flask, and stirred until uniform.

______________________________________Varnish No. 1 Liquid Characteristics______________________________________Viscosity, Gardner-Holdt Scale                  T1/2 at 25° C.Solids, %              35.8pH                     7.8% Curing Agent         25% Oxygenated Solvent   19.8Solution Appearance    Clear______________________________________                         Wt.  Varnish No. 2          grams______________________________________(A)    Above Polyester Concentrate of Ex. 1                         269(B)    Dimethylethanolamine   16(C)    Hexamethoxymethyl Melamine                         38(D)    Deionized or Distilled Water                         400(D)    Butoxy Propanol        55______________________________________
Procedure

Same as for Varnish No. 1.

______________________________________Varnish No. 2 Liquid Characteristics______________________________________Viscosity, Gardner-Holdt Scale                  T1/2 at 25° C.Solids, %              32.5pH                     8.1Oxygenated Solvent, %  21.4Curing Agent, %        15Solution Appearance    Clear______________________________________

Test Results Varnish No. 1 was diluted with the addition of three parts butoxy propanol per 100 parts of varnish to get the proper coating thickness or build on copper strip. Varnish No. 2 needed no further adjustment--was used as supplied.

______________________________________Coatability      Varnish No. 1                        Varnish No. 2______________________________________on Copper Strip     2 dipsBaked Film     Thickness  0.97 mil/side                            1.05 mil/side     Bake cycle 1 hr. at 163° C.                            1 hr. at 163° C.     Appearance Smooth-Some Fairly Smooth                voids       Some                or pinholes voids or                            pinholeson Glass Cloth     1 dipBaked Film     Bake cycle 1 hr. at 163° C.                            1 hr. at 163° C.     Appearance Smooth      SmoothBond Strengthson Helical Coils2 coats/side         2 hrs.      2 hrs.Bake cycle           at 163° C./coat                            at 163° C./coatlbs. at 25° C.                43.4        60.3lbs. at 150° C.                5.6         4.6Appearance           Some small  Smooth                blistersDeep Aluminum Dish Cures            1 hr. at 163° C.                        1 hr. at 163° C.1 hr. at 163° C., 5 gm. sample            Cured hard  Cured hard.20 gm. sample   Cured hard  Cured hard______________________________________
EXAMPLE 2

1. Preparation of Oil-Free Polyester

______________________________________              Wt.Reactants          grams   Equivalents                                Moles______________________________________(A)  Neopentyl Glycol  582     11.20   5.60(B)  Trimethylolpropane                  354     7.92    2.64(C)  Isophthalic Acid  996     12      6(D)  Adipic Acid       175     2.40    1.20(E)  Dimerized Soya Fatty Acids                  472     1.60    0.80______________________________________
Procedure

Equipment and processing technique like Example 1. Materials (D) and (E) are added last at 300° F. Heating is resumed, and the esterification is continued until an acid number of 42.1 on a sample diluted to 80 percent solids in methoxy ethyl acetate is obtained. The molten polyester was subsequently dissolved in 581 grams butoxy propanol to provide a solution concentrate with the following properties:

______________________________________Viscosity, Gardner-Holdt Scale                 Z83/4 at 25° C.Solids, %             80Acid Number (on solution)                 40.4Solvent               Butoxy Propanol______________________________________
2. Preparation of Electrical Insulating Varnishes

______________________________________                     Wt.Varnish No. 1             grams______________________________________(A)    Above Polyester Concentrate of Ex. 2                         269(B)    Dimethylethanolamine   16(C)    Hexamethoxy methyl Melamine                         38(D)    Deionized or Distilled Water                         400(E)    Butoxy Propanol        80______________________________________
Procedure

Same as for Varnish No. 1 of Example 1.

______________________________________Varnish No. 1 Liquid Characteristics______________________________________Viscosity, Gardner-Holdt Scale                  T1/2 at 25° C.Solids, %              31.5pH                     8.43% Curing Agent         15% Oxygenated Solvent   25.1Solution Appearance    Clear______________________________________                         Wt.  Varnish No. 2          grams______________________________________(A)    Above Polyester Concentrate of Ex. 2                         269(B)    Dimethylethanolamine   16(C)    Hexamethoxy methyl Melamine                         34(D)    Deionized or Distilled Water                         300(E)    Butoxy Propanol        80______________________________________
Procedure

Same as for Varnish No. 1 of Example 1.

______________________________________Varnish No. 2 Liquid Characteristics______________________________________Viscosity, Gardner-Holdt Scale                  T1/2 at 25° C.Solids, %              37.4pH                     8.39% Curing Agent         20% Oxygenated Solvent   30.8Solution Appearance    Clear______________________________________
Test Results

Varnish No. 1 was diluted with the addition of two parts butoxy propanol per 100 parts of varnish to get the proper coating thickness or build on copper strip. Varnish No. 2 required four parts of solvent to get the proper build.

______________________________________Coatability      Varnish No. 1                        Varnish No. 2______________________________________on Copper Strip     2 dipsBaked Film     Thickness  0.92 mil/side                            0.92 mil/side     Bake Cycle 1 hr. at 163° C.                            1 hr. at 163° C.     Appearance Smooth      Smoothon Glass Cloth     1 dipBaked Film     Bake Cycle 1 hr. at 163° C.                            1 hr. at 163° C.     Appearance Smooth      SmoothBond Strengthson Helical Coils2 coats/side         2 hrs.      2 hrs.Bake Cycle           at 163° C.                            at 163° C.lbs. at 25° C.                55.6        55.4lbs. at 150° C.                4.5         5.3Deep Aluminum Dish Cures1 hr. at 163° C., 5 gm. sample            Cured Hard  Cured Hard.20 gm. sample   Cured Hard  Cured Hard______________________________________
EXAMPLE 3 1. Preparation of a Drying Oil-Modified Polyester (a) Starting with Fatty Acids-to make Reconstituted Oil

______________________________________           Wt.Reactants       grams    Equivalents                               Moles______________________________________(A)  Tall Oil Fatty Acids(less than 2% rosin)               820      2.80     2.80(B)  Trimethylolpropane               523      11.70    3.80(C)  Dipropylene Glycol                54      0.80     0.40(D)  Isophthalic Acid               531      6.40     3.20(E)  Trimellitic Anhydride               173      2.70     0.90______________________________________
Procedure

Materials (A), (B), (C) and (D) are charged into a five-liter, three-neck round bottom flask equipped with a motor driven stainless steel paddle agitator, a thermometer to record batch temperature, a Dean-Stark water trap connected with a condenser to collect distillate evolved, and an inert gas sparge tube. Heat was applied to a Glas-Col heating mantle and the temperature was gradually increased to 410°-420° F. and held there until an acid number of 22.4 was obtained.

The contents of the flask were cooled to 300° F., and material (E) was added to the flask. Heating was resumed, and temperature was increased to 362° F., and held there until a sample thinned to 75 percent solids in methoxy propanol and had a viscosity of Z33/4 and an acid number of 43.76. The molten polymer was subsequently thinned to 80 percent solids with butoxy propanol.

2(a). Preparation of Electrical Insulating Varnishes

______________________________________                     Wt.Varnish No. 1             grams______________________________________(A)    Above Polyester Concentrate of Ex. 3                         295.9(B)    Dimethylethanolamine   17(C)    Hexamethoxymethyl Melamine                         41.8(D)    Deionized or Distilled Water                         385(E)    Butoxy Propanol        120______________________________________
Procedure

Same as for Varnish No. 1 of Example 1.

______________________________________Varnish No. 1 Liquid Characteristics______________________________________Viscosity, Gardner-Holdt Scale                     T1/2Solids, %                 32.4pH                        7.8% Curing Agent            15% Oxygenated Solvent      31.8Solution Appearance       Clear______________________________________                         Wt.  Varnish No. 2          grams______________________________________(A)    Above Polyester Concentrate of Ex. 3                         295.9(B)    Dimethylethanolamine   17(C)    Hexamethoxymethyl Melamine                         78.9(D)    Deionized or Distilled Water                         385(E)    Butoxy Propanol        115______________________________________
Procedure

Same as for Varnish No. 1 of Example 1.

______________________________________Varnish No. 2 Liquid Characteristics______________________________________Viscosity, Gardner-Holdt Scale                    T1/2Solids, %                35.4pH                       7.7% Curing Agent           25% Oxygenated Solvent     31.2Solution Appearance      Clear______________________________________
Test Results

Varnishes No. 1 and 2 as supplied provided the proper coating thickness.

______________________________________Coatability        Varnish No. 1                         Varnish No. 2______________________________________on Copper trip      2 dipsBaked Film Thickness   0.87 mil/side                             0.97 mil/side      Bake Cycle  1 hr. at   2 hrs. at      Appearance  163° C.                             163° C.                  Smooth     Smoothon Glass Cloth      1 dip       1 hr.      1 hr.Baked Film      Bake Cycle  at 163° C.                             at 163° C.      Appearance  Smooth     SmoothBond Strengths      on Helical Coils      2 coats/side                  2 hrs.     2 hrs.      Bake Cycle  at 163° C.                             at 163° C.      lbs. at 25° C.                  21.4       27.6      lbs. at 150° C.                  3.2        6.8______________________________________
2(b). Preparation of Coreplate Enamel--Organic Type

Formulation is exactly the same as Varnish No. 1 of Example 3.

Test Results

______________________________________Coatability            Varnish No. 1______________________________________on Electrical Grade Steel CoilBake Film-Thickness    0.1-0.2 milBake CycleAppearance             goodCoating Speed, ft./min.                  100-200Franklin ResistivityHot Franklins______________________________________

To illustrate in greater depth that solubilizing reactants, other than trimellitic anhydride, may be employed a series of polyesters was prepared which was modeled after Example 3 in which all the reactants are the same save for the minor diacid. In Table I the various minor dicarboxylic acids of the aliphatic, cycloaliphatic and bicycloaliphatic types are substituted for trimellitic anhydride on an equimolar basis thusly: see Table I--attached.

Procedure

Examples 4, 5, 6 and 7 employed the same equipment and processing technique as shown in Example 3. With respect to the processing controls, the following physicals were obtained prior to dilution to 80 percent solids in butoxy ethanol:

______________________________________Process ExamplesPhysicals   3        4        5      6      7______________________________________Viscosity   Z 33/4   X 3/4    X 3/4  U 1/2  V 3/4Acid    43.76    37.0     37.0   33.2   33.66Number% Solids   75       75       75     75     75Solvent methoxy  methoxy  methoxy                            methoxy                                   methoxy   propanol propanol propanol                            propanol                                   propanol______________________________________

The % solids refers to the solids of the polyester sample during its processing in order to control it to the correct final viscosity. Methoxy propanol was the solvent used to monitor the progress of the cook during processing. The polyesters after having been completely processed were thinned to 80 percent solids in butoxy propanol or butoxy ethanol, and they had the following liquid characteristics:

______________________________________Examples3             4       5        6      7______________________________________Viscosity   --        Z41/2   Z31/2  Z4      Z41/2% Solids   80        80      80     80     80Solvent butoxy    butoxy  butoxy butoxy butoxy   propanol  ethanol ethanol                            ethanol                                   ethanol______________________________________

The following varnishes were prepared from their respective concentrates:

__________________________________________________________________________      Ex. 4   Ex. 5   Ex. 6   Ex. 7      Vsh#1          Vsh#2              Vsh#1                   Vsh#2                      Vsh#1                          Vsh#2                              Vsh#1                                  Vsh#2__________________________________________________________________________PolyesterConcentrate      269 269 269 269 269 269 269 269Dimethylethano-lamine     16  19  16  16  16  16  16  19HexamethoxymethylMelamine   38  72  38  72  38  72  38  72Deionized Water      340 340 340 200 340 220 340 340Butoxy Ethanol      30  30  30  10  20  10  30  30__________________________________________________________________________

                                  TABLE I__________________________________________________________________________           Example 3 Example 4                              Example 5                                       Example 6                                                Example 7           Wt (gms)                Moles                     Wt (gms)                          Moles                              Wt (gms)                                   Moles                                       Wt (gms)                                            Moles                                                Wt                                                     Moles__________________________________________________________________________(A) Tall Oil Fatty Acids           820  2.80 820  2.80                              820  2.80                                       820  2.80                                                820  2.80(B) Trimethylolpropane           523  3.80 523  3.80                              523  3.80                                       523  3.0 523  3.80(C) Dipropylene Glycol            54  0.40  54  0.40                               54  0.40                                        54  0.40                                                 54  0.40(D) Isophthalic Acid           531  3.20 531  3.20                              531  3.20                                       531  3.20                                                531  3.20(E) Trimellitic Anhydride           173  0.90(E')    Maleic Anhydride      88   0.90(E")    Tetrahydrophthalic    Anhydride                      137  0.90(E'")    Hexahydrophthalic    Anhydride                               139  0.90(E"")    3,6-Endomethylene,    4-Tetrahydrophthalic    Anhydride                                        148  0.90__________________________________________________________________________

The liquid properties of the varnishes were:

______________________________________  Ex. 4   Ex. 5     Ex. 6     Ex. 7  Varnishes          Varnishes Varnishes Varnishes  #1   #2     #1     #2   #1   #2   #1   #2______________________________________Viscosity    T1/2   T1/2   T1/2 T1/2 T1/2 T1/2 T1/2 T1/4Solids, %    36.5   39.4   36.5 50.65                            37.1 48.9 36.5 39.34pH       7.8    8.45   7.6  7.7  8.21 8.19 7.65 8.4% Curing 15     25     15   25   15   25   15   25Agent% Oxygen-ated     19.8   19.8   19.8 24.2 17.8 22.5 19.8 19.8Solvent______________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________Test Results        (Control)        Example 3                Example 4                        Example 5                                Example 6                                         Example 7        Varnishes                Varnishes                        Varnishes                                Varnishes                                         Varnishes        #1  #2  #1  #2  #1  #2  #1  #2   #1  #2__________________________________________________________________________Bond Strengthslbs. at 25° C.        21.4            27.0                22.5                    26.3                        24.5                            25.1                                22.2                                    --   22.0                                             24.5lbs. at 150° C.         3.2             6.8                 4.2                     7.3                         3.6                             5.3                                 4.0                                    --    4.1                                              5.8Coatabilityon Copper Strip        smooth            smooth                smooth                    smooth                        smooth                            smooth                                smooth                                    could not                                         smooth                                             smooth                                    reduce                                    to applyon Glass Cloth        smooth            smooth                some                    some                        smooth                            smooth                                smooth   smooth                                             smooth                blisters                    blistersAluminum Dish Cures1 hr. at 163° C., 5 gms        cured            cured                cured                    cured                        cured                            cured                                cured                                    cured                                         cured                                             cured.20 gms      cured            cured                cured                    cured                        cured                            cured                                cured                                    cured                                         cured                                             cured__________________________________________________________________________
EXAMPLE 8 1. Preparation of a Drying Oil-Modified Polyester b. Starting with Natural Vegetable Oil

______________________________________              Wt.Reactants          grams   Equivalents                                Moles______________________________________(A)  Soybean Oil (Alkali refined)                  1431            1.626(B)  Trimethylol ethane                  429     10.725  3.575(C)  Litharge          0.72    --      --(D)  Trimethylol ethane                  182      4.548  1.516(E)  Isophthalic Acid  792     9.54    4.77(F)  Trimellitic Anhydride                  261     4.08    1.36______________________________________
Procedure

Materials (A) and (B) are charged into a five-liter, three-neck round bottom flask equipped with a motor driven stainless steel paddle agitator, a thermometer to record batch temperature, a Dean-Stark connected with a condenser to collect distillate evolved, and an inert gas sparge tube. Heat was applied by means of Glas-Col heating mantle, and inert gas sparged through flask at a high rate. Temperature was rapidly increased to 300° F. and material (C) was added to the flask. Heating was continued and the temperature was raised to 460° F. It was held there for 45 minutes to complete the alcoholysis which was determined by taking a small sample of this mixture and reacting it with the appropriate amount of isophthalic acid in an aluminum dish until clear hot and then clear when cold.

The alcoholysate was cooled to 350° F. and materials (D) and (E) were added to the flask. Esterification was carried on at 390°-400° F., until an acid number of 20.8 on the solids was obtained. After cooling to 300° F. material (F) was added to the flask. The batch temperature was raised to 330°-340° F. and held there until a resin sample thinned to 65 percent solids in butoxy propanol, had attained a viscosity of Z11/2 and an acid number of 43.2. The molten resin was subsequently diluted to 80 percent solids with butoxy propanol.

2. Preparation of Electrical Insulating Varnish

______________________________________                     Wt.Varnish No. 1             grams______________________________________(A)    Above Polyester Concentrate of Ex. 8                         296(B)    Dimethylethanolamine   21(C)    Hexamethoxymethyl Melamine                         41.8(D)    Deionized or Distilled Water                         445.5(E)    Butoxy Propanol        58.3______________________________________
Procedure

Same as for Varnish No. 1 of Example 1.

______________________________________Varnish No. 1 Liquid Characteristics______________________________________Viscosity, Gardner-Holdt Scale                    T1/2Solids, %                32.3pH                       8.2% Curing Agent           15% Oxygenated Solvent     20.9Solution Appearance      Clear______________________________________
Test Results

Varnish No. 1 was diluted further with the addition of six parts deionized water per 100 parts of varnish to get the desired coating thickness.

______________________________________Coatability              Varnish No. 1______________________________________on Copper Strip  2 dipsBaked Film       Thickness   1.08 mil/side            Bake Cycle  1 hr. at 163° C.            Appearance  Smoothon Glass Cloth   1 dipBaked Film            Bake Cycle  1 hr. at 163° C.            Appearance  SmoothBond Strengths   on Helical Coils            2 coats/side            Bake Cycle  2 hrs. at 163° C.            lbs. at 25° C.                        27.3            lbs. at 150° C.                        5.4Deep Aluminum Dish Cures1 hr. at 163° C. 5 gm. sample                        cured hard.20 gm. sample               cured hard______________________________________
EXAMPLE 9 Long Oil Polyester-Non-TMA Type

______________________________________          Wt.Reactants      grams    Equivalents Moles______________________________________(A) Soya Fatty Acids          1120     4.00        4.00(B) Glycerine(96%)          430      13.44       4.48(C) Isophthalic Acid          531      6.40        3.20(D) 3,6-Endomethylene          131      1.60        0.80Δ4-tetrahydrophthalicAnhydride______________________________________
Procedure

Equipment and processing techniques are similar to Example 3. Materials (A), (B) and (C) are charged to a five-liter flask, and are pre-reacted to an acid number of 25.2 at 100 percent solids.

The contents of the flask are cooled to 300° F., and material (D) is added to the flask. The temperature is gradually raised to 350°-360° F. and held there until a sample thinned to 75 percent solids in methoxy propanol attains a viscosity of J1/4 and an acid number of 34.2. The resin was used at 100 percent solids in the preparation of the following varnishes, and there was very little or no need of any polar or oxygenated solvents to aid in recoatability wherever two or more coats were needed.

Preparation of Electrical Insulating Varnishes

______________________________________Varnishes              No. 1    No. 2______________________________________(A)   Above Polyester of Example 9                      215      215(B)   Dimethylethanolamine 18       16(C)   Hexamethoxymethyl Melamine                      72       143.5(D)   Deionized or Distilled Water                      250      360(E)   Butoxy Ethanol       40       -- Liquid Constants     No. 1    No. 2 Viscosity            T1/2     T1/2 Solids, %            48.3     48.8 pH                   8.5      8.4 % Curing Agent       25       40 Solution Appearance  Clear    Clear % Oxygenated Solvent 13.8     0______________________________________
Test Results

Varnishes Nos. 1 and 2 were alright as supplied to get the proper build on copper strip, and thus required no further dilution.

______________________________________Coatability        Varnish No. 1                         Varnish No. 2______________________________________on Copper Strip      2 dipsBaked Film Thickness   0.98 mil/dip                             1.10 mil/dip      Bake Cycle  1 hr at    1 hr at                  163° C.                             163° C.      Appearance  Smooth     Smoothon Glass Cloth      1 dipBaked Film             --         --      Bake Cycle  1 hr at    1 hr at                  163° C.                             163° C.      Appearance  Smooth     SmoothBond Strengths      on Helical Coils      2 coats/side      Bake Cycle  2 hrs. at  2 hrs. at                  163° C.                             163° C.      lbs. at 25° C.                  18.4       22.5Deep Aluminum      lbs. at 150° C.Dish Cures1 hr. at 163° C.      5gms sample cured      cured      20 gms sample                  cured      cured______________________________________
EXAMPLE 10 1. Preparation of a Non-Drying Oil-Modified Polyester a. Starting with a Saturated Fatty Acid--to make Reconstituted Oil

______________________________________           Wt.Reactants       grams    Equivalents                               Moles______________________________________(A)   Pelagonic Acid               379      2.40      2.40(B)   Trimethylolpro-               571      12.78     4.26 pane(C)   Neopentyl Glycol               234      4.50      2.25(D)   Isophthalic Acid               747      9.00      4.50(E)   Adipic Acid   219      3.00      1.50______________________________________
Procedure

Equipment and processing techniques are similar to Example 1. Materials (A), (B), (C) and (D) are charged to a five-liter flask, and are pre-reacted to an acid number less than 20 at 100 percent solids.

The contents of the flask are cooled to 300° F., and material (E) is added to the flask. The temperature is gradually raised to 340°-350° F. and held there until sample thinned to 75 percent solids in methoxy propanol attains a viscosity of Z1 and an acid number of 36.4. The molten polyester was thinned subsequently to 80 percent solids in butoxy ethanol.

2. Preparation of Electrical Insulating Varnishes

______________________________________                       Wt.Varnish No. 1               grams______________________________________(A)   Above Polyester Concentrate of Ex. 9                           269(B)   Dimethylethanolamine      18(C)   Hexamethoxymethyl Melamine                           72(D)   Deionized or Distilled Water                           300(E)   Butoxy Ethanol            42______________________________________
Procedure

Same as Varnish No. 1 of Example 1.

______________________________________ Varnish No. 1 Liquid Characteristics______________________________________Viscosity, Gardner-Holdt Scale                     T1/2Solids, %                 41pH                        8.35% Curing Agent            25% Oxygenated Solvent      24.2Solution Appearance       Clear                     Wt.Varnish No. 2             grams______________________________________(A) Above Polyester Concentrate of Ex. 9                     269(B) Dimethylethanolamine   18(C) Hexamethoxymethyl Melamine                     116(D) Deionized or Distilled Water                     300(E) Butoxy Ethanol         34______________________________________
Procedure

Same as Varnish No. 1 of Example 1.

______________________________________ Varnish No. 2 Liquid Characteristics______________________________________Viscosity, Gardner-Holdt Scale                  T1/2 at 25° C.Solids, %              44.9pH                     8.46% Curing Agent         35% Oxygenated Solvent   22.6Solution Appearance    Clear______________________________________
Test Results

Varnishes Nos. 1 and 2 were diluted further with the addition of five parts of butoxy ethanol per 100 parts of varnish to get the desired coating thicknesses.

______________________________________Coatability        Varnish No. 1                         Varnish No. 2______________________________________on Copper Strip     2 dipsBaked Film     Thickness    1.05 mil/dip                             1.06 mil/dip                  1 hr.      2 hrs.     Bake Cycle   at 163° C.                             at 163° C.     Appearance   Smooth     Smoothon Glass Cloth     1 dip        1 hr.      1 hr.     Bake Cycle   at 163° C.                             at 163° C.     Appearance   Good       GoodBond Strength     on Helical Coils     2 coats/side 2 hrs.     2 hrs.     Bake Cycle   at 163° C.                             at 163° C.                  /coat      /coat     lbs. at 25° C.                  38.1       39.3     lbs. at 150° C.                  5.6        5.3Deep Aluminum Dish Cures1 hr. at 163° C. 5 gms. sample              cured soft cured hard1 hr. at 163° C. 20 gms sample              cured soft cured hard______________________________________

The results set forth in the following table, Table II, were based on experiments at the initial stages of the development of the invention disclosed herein. Table II is directed to alkyd and oil-free polyester based resins. Table III is directed to aqueous varnish solutions produced from the polyesters of Table II.

                                  TABLE II__________________________________________________________________________ Aqueous System Insulating VarnishesAlkyd and "Oil-Free" Polyester Base Resins(on a molar basis)      I  II III               IV V  VI VII                           VIII                              IX X  XI XII__________________________________________________________________________Tall Oil Fatty Acids         1.40  1.229Soya Fatty Acids      1.629       1.25                     1.10                        1.00                           0.80                              0.80Pamolyn 347         0.343Soybean Oil      0.542IPA        1.590         1.60            1.590               1.590                  1.60                     0.78                        1.60                           1.60                              1.60                                 0.55                                    0.70                                       0.65TMA        0.453         0.45            0.453               0.453                  0.50                     0.22                        0.50                           0.50                              0.50                                 0.15TMP        2.159         1.95  2                    0.33                                       0.33TME                                1.28G                1.696 1.80  1.50                           1.27DPG           0.20  0.208             1.12DEG                    0.72  1.03                           1.26                              1.26THEIC                     1.00NPG                       0.33           0.70                                       0.70TPA                                   0.10MA                                    0.20AA                                       0.30                                       0.35__________________________________________________________________________ Legend- IPA = Isophthalic Acid TMA = Trimellitic Anhydride TMP = Trimethylolpropane TME = Trimethylolethane G = Glycerine MA = Maleic Anhydride DPG = Dipropylene Glycol DEG = Diethylene Glycol THEIC = Trishydroxyethylisocyanurate NPG = Neopentyl Glycol TPA = Terephthalic Acid AA = Adipic Acid Pamolyn 347 is a Tall oil derived fatty acid mixture sold by Hercules and comprising 5% unconjugated linoleic. 46% conjugated linoleic acid and 47% oleic acid

  Aqueous Varnish SolutionsVarnish No. I IIa IIb III IV V VIa VIb VIIa VIIb VIIIa VIIIb VIIIc IX X  No. IaConc. Amt. 296 303.5 289 322.8 296 322.8 354.64 354.64 322.8 322.8 6753 320.4 320.4 322.8 292.25Type Prop B BC Prop B Prop B Prop B Prop B Prop B Prop B Prop B PM 26.5 Prop B Prop B Prop B Prop B Prop BPolar Sol. Amt. 90 45 50 5 80 28 21 17 30 DPM 722 46.4 46.4 63.6 26.5 Type DMEA DMEA DMEA DMEA DMEA DMEA DMEA DMEA DMEA DMEA DMEA DMEA DMEA DMEA DMEAAmine Amt. 17 22 22 19.2 20 20 14 15 20 19 586 24  24 22.8 17.6Type Res- X-745 X-745 X-745 X-745 X-745 X-745 X-745 X-745 X-745 X-745 X-745 X-745 X-745 X-745 X-745Crosslinker Amt. 42 41.8 78.9 45.6 42 4 5.6 49.4 93.27 45.6 45.6 961 64.6 86.09 45.6 41.25Deionized Water 385 385 385 420 385 379.2 383.26 367.26 378.24 474.24 8143 394.24 394.24 408 533Solution PropertiesVisc. T+ T1/2 T1/4 T3/4 T1/4 T1/2 - T1/4 T1/4 T1/4  + R1/2 T1/2 R S T1/2 T1/4 pH 7.4 7.91 8.2 7.88 7.7 7.65 7.9 7.65 7.92 7.57 7.5 7.75 7.85 8.32 8.12Solids % Calcd. 33.6 35.0 38.2 37.4 33.9 38.6 40.5 44.1 38.1 33.3 37.3 38.25 39.6 35.2 31.1Solvent Ratio 72.9 77.5 79 85.8 74.4 80 80 80 80 80  80 78.4 78.4 76.1H2 O 27.1 22.5 21 14.2 25.6 20 20 20 20 20 20 21.6 21.6 23.9Org. Sol.MF 15 15 25 15 15 15 15 25 15 15 15 20 25 15 15  Film PropertiesVarnish No. I IIa IIb III IV V VIa VIb VIIa VIIb VIIIa VIIIb VIIIc IX X  Bond Strength- APR-2000lbs. at 25° C. 17.9 18.4 25.8 13.9 20.2 14.1 17.0 31.1 17.6 19.8 15.6 15.7 24.6 32.9 20.7lbs. at 150° C. 3.36 2.88 6.0 2.94 3.34 3.8 3.22 5.78 3.82 3.8 2.0 3.36 5.02 4.18 2.5DielectricsDry,KV/mil  3157 3250Wet, KV/mil  3157 2826Burnout, APR-2000  14.10 9.25  9.25 7.32PGA Analysis°C. at 50% Wt. Loss 497 479        435 436 424Coatabilityon Copper Strip Good Good Good Good G ood Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good  Goodon Glass Cloth -- Fair Poor Good -- Good Good Good Good Poor Good Good Good Good Good
EXAMPLE 11

Films prepared from a commercial insulating varnish in accordance with Example 3, Varnish 1, were tested for resistivity by the ASTM test known as "Insulation Resistance", Method 2, ASTM A 344. Franklin values in such test are subject to specimen variations. Among those characteristics that vary are flatness of the steel, film thickness, degree of cure and the kind and the amount of water that may be used to dilute the enamel prior to application.

On C-3 Coreplate, the following were obtained:

(a) Type 3A-0.5 to 0.7 amp. at film thicknesses of 0.05 mil.

(b) Type 3C-0.3 to 0.4 amp. at film thicknesses of 1.0 ml.

(c) Special application for large generators- 0.2-0.3 amp. at thicknesses of 1.5 mil.

These values were obtained using cure temperatures of 700° to 750° F. This cure turns the steel blue. The customer who carried out the test was pleased with the product of the invention because of its overall consistency of performance.

EXAMPLE 12

The same basic resin as in Example 3 was also compounded into a pigmented enamel. The formula is as follows:

______________________________________Pigmented Coreplate EnamelComposition               Parts By Weight______________________________________Polyester Concentrate of Example 3                 1206Hexamethoxymethyl Melamine                 193Butoxyethanol         603Dimethylethanolamine  90Borax (Na2 B4 O7 10H2 O)                 52Silica (micron size)  175Diatomaceous Earth    207Antifoaming Agent     42-Ethylhexanol        30Deionized Water       2200______________________________________

Employing the ASTM test set forth in Example 11, a comparison was made between aluminum phosphate and the pigmented enamel of Example 12. The results are given in the following table:

              TABLE______________________________________Comparison of C-5 Type Coatings For Silicon SteelAluminum              Pigmented CoreplatePhosphate             Enamel ofFranklin              Example 12Values  (Amperes)         Full Strength                                Dilute______________________________________RT      .01               .21        251300° F.   .15               --         --1350°   .20               --         --1400°   .20               --         --1450°   .18               .50        .321500°   .16               .34        .441550°   .14               .28        .48Coating Thickness Average (Top & Bottom) InchesRT      3.0 × 10-4                     4 × 10-5                               3 × 1051300° F.   2.5 × 10-4                     --        --1350°   2.5 × 10-4                     --        --1400°     1 × 10-4                     --        --1450°   1.2 × 10-4                     3 × 10-5                               3 × 10-51500°     1 × 10-4                     3 × 10-5                               3 × 10-51550°     4 × 10- 5                     2 × 10-5                               3 × 10-5RT      Small amount of dusting                     Smooth and Adherent*1300° F.   --                --1350°   --                --1400°   --                --1450°   Light Flaking     Light Carbon Residue1500°   More Severe Flaking                     Light Carbon Residue1550°   Flaking Severe Throughout                     Light Carbon Residue______________________________________ *Results were the same for both full strength and dilute

The pH of commercial enamels made in accordance with Example 12 varies between 7.9-8.3.

It is apparent thus that there has been provided, in accordance with the invention, polyesters, a process for the production, and compositions resulting from their use, that fully satisfies the objects, aims and advantages set forth above. While the invention has been described in conjunction with specific embodiments thereof, it is evident that many alternatives, modifications, and variations will be apparent to those skilled in the art in light of the foregoing description. Accordingly, the foregoing description is intended to embrace all such alternatives, modifications and variations as fall within the spirit and broad scope of the appended claims.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification524/598, 106/252, 528/272, 554/223, 525/172, 554/228, 528/296, 554/227, 528/302, 525/174, 554/224, 525/167
International ClassificationC08G63/20, C09D167/00, C08G63/48
Cooperative ClassificationC08G63/20, C09D167/00, C08G63/48
European ClassificationC09D167/00, C08G63/48, C08G63/20