|Publication number||USRE30782 E|
|Application number||US 05/929,680|
|Publication date||Oct 27, 1981|
|Filing date||Jul 31, 1978|
|Priority date||Mar 25, 1974|
|Also published as||CA1050481A, CA1050481A1, DE2512885A1, DE2512885C2, US3998916, USRE32171|
|Publication number||05929680, 929680, US RE30782 E, US RE30782E, US-E-RE30782, USRE30782 E, USRE30782E|
|Inventors||Jan van Turnhout|
|Original Assignee||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (9), Referenced by (136), Classifications (37)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The invention relates to a method for the manufacture of an electrically charged fibrous filter, whose fibre material consists of a high molecular non-polar substance.
Such a method is known in the art and from this method it appears that charging of fibre material in an electric field to obtain a charged fibrous filter is difficult because of electric breakdown through the pores of the material. Covering the electrodes, between which the forming field strength is applied, with a semi-conducting material, admittedly offers the possibility of bringing the fibre material to a higher charged state, but at the same time has the drawback that this state is reached only after a longer period of time.
It is the object of the invention to provide for a rapid manufacture of highly charged fibre filters.
According to the invention the method is characterized in that it comprises continuously feeding a film of the high molecular non-polar substance, stretching the film, homopolarly charging the stretched film with the aid of corona elements, fibrillating the stretched charged film, collecting the fibre material and processing the collected fibre material into a filter of the desired shape.
Because the risk of breakdown of charging a solid film material is much less than that of an open fibre material, a charging system known per se, operating much faster and much more effectively, comprising corona elements can be used.
In the preferential embodiment of the invention the film is locally bilaterally charged by means of corona elements that carry on either side of the film equal but opposite potentials. Thereby the film is charged to almost twice as high a voltage as by means of unilateral charging, at one and the same corona voltage.
Charging with the aid of corona elements in turn entails that the film can be fed continuously and be stretched into a well splittable material. This material can be fibrillated in several ways. For this purpose, a needle roller with metal needles running against the film is used with, surprisingly no substantial loss of charge.
Preferably, the fibre material is collected in layers onto a take-up roller and there processed into filter cloth of the thickness and shape desired by taking one or more layers, which are laying one on top of the other, together and at the same time from the roller.
The invention will now further be elucidated with reference to the following drawings, wherein.
FIG. 1 schematically shows an embodiment of a device in which, for the manufacture of a well splittable charged film, use has been made for the method according to the invention.
FIG. 2 shows an improved second stage for stretching a film with which the film can be provided with an injected charge on both surfaces.
FIG. 3 shows a preferential construction of a process stage .[.charging for improved and higher of the film..]. .Iadd.for improved and higher charging of the film. .Iaddend.
FIG. 4 shows on an enlarged scale an example of a set-up of electrodes for injecting charge into the film.
In the figures like numbers refer to like elements.
FIG. 1 shows film 1, which, either from a storage roller, or direct from an extruder is fed between roller 3 and 4 into a stretching device to make film 1 splittable.
In this arrangement the charge is injected into film 1 from above.
The stretching device contains fixed pins 5 and 6, block 8 heated by heater 15, a pair of rollers 9 and 10, arcuate plate 12 heated by heater 16 and a pair of rollers 13 and 14.
A stretching device that contains the above mentioned elements has been described in Netherlands Patent Application 71 13047. In this device stretching takes place in two stages. Therefore, it is very well suitable to fibrillate films that are difficult to split.
In the first stage of stretching, which takes place between pin 6 and pair of rollers 9 and 10, film 1 is drawn over edge 7 of block 8 in such a way that film 1 is subjected to an increase in length ratio of approximately 1 to 4 at the cost of its thickness and hardly at the cost of its width.
In the second stage of stretching, which takes place between a pair of rollers 9 and 10 and a pair of rollers 13 and 14, film 1 is drawn over curved plate 12 in such a way that it is subjected to a further increase in length ratio of approximately 1 to 1.5.
The temperature of block 8 greatly depends on the speed of the film and at high speeds can be chosen close below the melting temperature of film 1.
It is of importance that film 1 does not touch the plane of block 8 that lies in front of edge 7, so as to prevent a premature and a too high heating or film 1. The position of plane 11 of block 8, which plane lies behind edge 7 is also of importance, because it is determinative of the speed at which film 1, coming from edge 7, cools down.
Plate 12 is heated to a temperature that is only a little lower than the melting temperature of the film material and because film 1 for an important part lies against the curved surface, film 1 will here receive the highest temperature in the stretching process.
This has schematically been indicated by a triple flame 16 at plate 12, in contrast with a single flame 15 at block 8.
A charging device 18, consisting of a number of thin tungsten wires 25 across the grounded curved plate 12 and connected with the negative terminal of a voltage source, sprays a negative charge on to the top of film 1 by means of the corona effect. This is implemented preferably where the temperature of film 1 on plate 12 is the highest.
It may be of advantage, however, to place the charging device more towards the beginning of plate 12. In this case film 1 will partially discharge over the further part of the heating plate. In particular the charges that have been embedded in the least stable way, will be lost in the process. In this way the electret film is aged thermally, as a result of which only the charges are left that have been embedded in a very stable way. As a result the remaining charge of the electret will have an exceptionally high persistence at ambient temperature. In fact, the thermal stability of the charge that is left is also increased. Moreover, surprisingly, the stability against moisture is also considerably improved.
The device furthermore shows a means 29 for the fibrillation of film 1.
According to the embodiment film 1 is fibrillated into fibres 21 by guiding it via fixed pin 20 along a needle roller 29. By giving the needle roller 29 a higher peripheral velocity than the moving speed of film 1, this film 1 is fibrillated mainly in longitudinal direction. Fibres 21 thus obtained spread themselves to a high extent because of their electrostatic charges, so that a nicely spread layer of fibres is produced, which is wound upon collecting roller 24. By taking one or more layers, which are lying one on top of the other, from the roller together and at the same time, a filter of the desired shape and thickness can be obtained.
From charge measurements it has been found that when negative charges are injected on the top of film 1 on plate 12, at the bottom positive charges are produced. These charges are a result of ionization of the air enclosed between the film and the bottom plate. Thus positive ions are produced in such a region, which charges are drawn to the bottom of the negatively charged film. So, the positive charge actually is a compensating charge. As a result, it is somewhat less high than the injected negative charge.
This unexpected two-sided charging of film 1 can be of importance for use in fibrous filters, because most aerosol particles that must be captured are electrically charged, and this charge can be positive as well as negative or both.
So as to manufacture a film that is as highly positively as negatively charged, charging must be implemented on both sides. FIG. 2 shows an embodiment, with which this is possible.
A second curved plate 17, which has been mounted between pairs of rollers 9/10 and 13/14, by means of an additional charging device 19, enables the injection of positive charges on the surface of film 1 that has not yet been sprayed upon.
On the contrary, so as to filter aerosol particles that .[.have been.]. .Iadd.are .Iaddend.charged unipolarly, it is preferable to apply .[.unipolarly.]. .Iadd.unipolar .Iaddend.charges of opposite polarity to the fibre. Even for bipolarly charged aerosols the filter mat can be composed of alternatively positively and negatively charged fibre layers. The unipolar charging can also be implemented by the two-stage charging of FIG. 2. Preferably, then the potential of plate 17 is chosen the same as that of spraying wires 25 and at spraying wires 30 a voltage is applied that is sufficiently .[.negative.]. .Iadd.of greater magnitude .Iaddend.with respect to plate 17.
FIG. 3 shows a preferential embodiment of a charging step with corona elements 18, 19 on each side of the film carrying equal but opposite potentials. This charging step 18, 19 can follow a stretching step that is already known in the art. If, however, charging step 18, 19 coincides with the stretching step, then charging preferably is implemented in a furnace that is not shown.
FIG. 4 shows one of the applied charging devices 18 and 19 on an enlarged scale. Between spraying wires 25/30 and curved plates 12/17 over which film 1 is guided, there is a metal grid 27 so as to better distribute the charge that is injected by the thin corona wires. The charge the film acquires is determined by the potential of the grid. In case of a slow throughput rate the film is roughly charged up to the potential of the grid. An additional advantage of the device used is that the risk of dielectric breakdown of the film and also of a spark discharge to the bare parts of plates 12/17 is very small, because the grid screens the corona wires from the film. Due to this grid, it is also possible to feed the small corona wires with an alternating current instead of with a direct current, if so desired.
Metal plate 26 over spraying wires 25/30 is interconnected with grounded plates 12/17. Because plate 26 increases the corona formation considerably, the spraying intensity with an upper plate is substantially higher than in an arrangement without it.
In a simplified construction of the charging device, which gives a somewhat less uniform charging, the grid is left out. In that case plate 26, preferably, must be connected via terminal 32 to a positive voltage with respect to plate 12/17. For in case of a positive voltge on plate 26 there need not be applied a large negative corona voltage on the small corona wires. In fact the corona voltage can be halved, if the potential is chosen equal (but opposite) to that of the cornoa wires. This, too, reduces the risk of dielectric breakdown in the film considerably, particularly when the film is very thin.
A film of isotactic polypropylene with a thickness of 45μ and a width of 5 cm was stretched to a ratio of 1:6 over block 8 the temperature of which was 110° C. In a second stage stretching and charging was implemented over plate 12 of a temperature of 130° C., at a stretching ratio of 1:1.5. The transport velocity was 12.2 m/min. In spraying device 18 placed over plate 12 corona wires 25 had been connected to -3.2 KV and top plate 26 to +3 KV. The distance from corona wires 25 to plate 12 amounted to 5 mm. The film was fibrillated with a needle roller of 60 rows, the needles of which stood 500μ apart. The charged fibrillate was spread to approx. 45 cm and wound up on roller 24 into a filter with a thickness of 3 mm.
The collection efficiency of this filter and an equivalent uncharged filter was tested with a heterodisperse NaCl aerosol at a linear air velocity of 10 cm/sec and an aerosol concentration of 15 mg-NaCl/m3. For comparison also a commercial filter made from glass fibres from 1 to 10μ was tested.
______________________________________ filter initial pressure weight penetration loss gram/m.sup. 2 % mm H2 O______________________________________charged filter 163 0,5 1.5non-charged filter 163 53 2.8filter with glass fibers 167 21 5.0______________________________________
The method of Example I was repeated, but the charging was now done with the spraying device of FIG. 3, with the voltage on the corona wires amounting to -10 KV and that on the grid to -2.3 KV. The processing into a filter was equal to that of the above mentioned example.
______________________________________ filter initial pressure weight penetration loss gram/m2 % mm H2 O______________________________________charged filter 163 0.3 1.1non-charged filter 163 53 2.8______________________________________
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|EP0281275A2 *||Feb 17, 1988||Sep 7, 1988||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||High efficiency respirator|
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|WO2007037903A2||Aug 31, 2006||Apr 5, 2007||3M Innovative Properties Company||Abrasive article with integrated filter and method of making same|
|WO2007094917A1||Jan 19, 2007||Aug 23, 2007||3M Innovative Properties Company||Electrets and compounds useful in electrets|
|WO2010096285A2||Feb 5, 2010||Aug 26, 2010||3M Innovative Properties Company||Antimicrobial electret web|
|WO2014172308A2||Apr 15, 2014||Oct 23, 2014||3M Innovative Properties Company||Electret webs with charge-enhancing additives|
|WO2015199972A1||Jun 9, 2015||Dec 30, 2015||3M Innovative Properties Company||Electret webs with charge-enhancing additives|
|U.S. Classification||264/435, 264/DIG.48, 264/484, 264/483, 264/DIG.47|
|International Classification||D06M101/00, D01D5/42, D06M101/20, B29C71/00, D04H13/02, H01G7/02, D06M10/02, B01D39/16, B01D39/14, D06M101/22, D06M101/18, D06M10/00, B01D39/08, D06M101/16|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S264/48, Y10S264/47, B01D39/083, B01D39/1623, H01G7/023, B29C71/0081, D01D5/423, B01D39/10, B01D2239/0654, B01D2239/0695, B01D2239/065, B01D2239/10|
|European Classification||B01D39/08B, B01D39/10, B01D39/16B4, B29C71/00F, D01D5/42B, H01G7/02B2|