|Publication number||USRE30835 E|
|Application number||US 05/736,022|
|Publication date||Dec 29, 1981|
|Filing date||Oct 27, 1976|
|Priority date||Dec 26, 1973|
|Publication number||05736022, 736022, US RE30835 E, US RE30835E, US-E-RE30835, USRE30835 E, USRE30835E|
|Inventors||Robert D. Giglia|
|Original Assignee||American Cyanamid Company|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (144), Classifications (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This invention relates to electro-optical devices whose electromagnetic radiation absorption characteristics can be selectively altered by influence of a suitably controlled electric field. More particularly, this invention is directed to a sandwich type cell in which two layers of electrochromic material are separated by a self-supporting ion conducting medium.
In commonly assigned, copending U.S. applications, Ser. No. 41,153 .Iadd.now abandoned, .Iaddend.Ser. No. 41,154 .Iadd.now abandoned .Iaddend.and Ser. No. 41,155 .Iadd.now U.S. Pat. 3,708,220, .Iaddend.all filed May 25, 1970, and U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,521,941 and 3,578,843.[.; Ser. No. 41,153, abandoned and refiled as Ser. No. 211,857, Dec. 23, 1971, abandoned and refiled as Ser. No. 361,760, May 18, 1973, now copending; Ser. No. 41,154, abandoned and refiled, now pending; Ser. No. 41,155, now U.S. Pat. No. 3,708,220;.]..Iadd., .Iaddend.there are described electro-optical devices exhibiting a phenomenon known as persistent electrochromism wherein electromagnetic radiation absorption characteristic of a persistent electrochromic (EC) material is altered under the influence of an electric field. Such devices were employed in sandwich arrangement between two electrodes. Coloration was induced by charging the electrochromic film negative with respect to the counter-electrode, employing an external potential. The counter-electrode can be the same as the persistent electrochromic material or different.
By reversing the original polarity of the field or by applying a new field, it was also possible to cancel, erase or bleach the visible coloration.
These steps of color induction and erasure are defined as cycling.
The devices described in the prior applications are effective to change their electromagnetic radiation transmitting properties under the influence of an electric field, and have extremely good visibility over a wide range of lighting conditions, including high ambient light. However, these EC displays normally feature a light color background which consists of a thin layer of pigment mixed with a liquid electrolyte to form an ion conducting layer. This layer serves to hide the black counter-electrode and to provide good contrast with the blue-black EC film. It has been found that EC displays when stored for long periods of time, especially when stored on edge, develop a problem of separation of the pigment background. This appears as a black crack in the light background due to the carbon counter-electrode showing through. Efforts to cope with this problem by providing thickened, gel-like electrolyte pastes resulted in slowing the switching speed as the thickened electrolyte reduced the mobility of ions between the electrodes.
It is, therefore, an object of this invention to provide an ion-conducting medium having a color pigment incorporated which will retain a homogeneous consistency under varying physical conditions, over a long period of time.
This and other objects of the invention will become apparent as the description thereof proceeds.
The image display device is formed in a sandwich arrangement of an electrochromic layer as an imaging area and a counter-electrode with a spacing of an ion-conducting medium, e.g. an electrolyte, between the areas. Means are provided for supplying electric current to the counter-electrode layer. Any conventional means is suitable. A particularly advantageous means for electrical connection is to deposit the electrochromic imaging layer and counter-electrode on a conductive surface, such as NESA glass. It is particularly advantageous to incorporate a pigment material with the electrolyte for greater contrast and for masking the counter-electrode.
The present invention discloses methods of preventing the pigment from separating in one area and compacting in another by binding the pigment in a self-supporting structure. Another advantage provided is that the self-supporting pigment structure acts as a separator preventing electrical shorting of the EC and counter-electrodes. The methods used to prepare the pigment layer result in porous structures which do not restrict ion flow and thereby maintain good switching speed.
As used herein, a "persistent electrochromic material" is defined as a material responsive to the application of an electric field of a given polarity to change from a first presistent state in which it is essentially non-absorptive of electromagnetic radiation in a given wavelength region, to a second persistent state in which it is absorptive of electromagnetic radiation in the given wavelength region, and once in said second state, is responsive to the application of an electric field of the opposite polarity to return to its first state. Certain of such materials can also be responsive to a short circuiting condition, in the absence of an electric field so as to return to the initial state.
By "persistent" is meant the ability of the material to remain in the absorptive state to which it is changed, after removal of the electric field, as distinguished from a substantially instantaneous reversion to the initial state, as in the case of the Franz-Keldysh effect.
The materials which form the electrochromic materials of the device in general are electrical insulators or semiconductors. Thus are excluded those metals, metal alloys, and other metal-containing compounds which are relatively good electrical conductors.
The persistent electrochromic materials are further characterized as inorganic substances which are solid under the conditions of use, whether as pure elements, alloys, or chemical compounds, containing at least one element of variable oxidation state, that is, at least one element of the Periodic System which can exist in more than one oxidation state in addition to zero. The term "oxidation state" as employed herein is defined in "Inorganic Chemistry," T. Moeller, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1952.
These include materials containing a transition metal element (including Lanthanide and Actinide series elements), and materials containing non-alkali metal elements such as copper. Preferred materials of this class are films of transition metal compounds in which the transition metal may exist in any oxidation state from +2 to +8. Examples of these are: transition metal oxides, transition metal oxysulfides, transition methalides, selenides, tellurides, chromates, molybdates, tungstates, vanadates, niobates, tantalates, titanates, stannates, and the like. Particularly preferred are films of metal stannates, oxides and sulfides of the metals of Group (IV)B, (V)B and (VI)B of the Period System, and Lanthanide series metal oxides and sulfides. Examples of such are copper stannate, tungsten oxide, cerium oxide, cobalt tungstate, metal molybdates, metal titanates, metal niobates, and the like.
Additional examples of such compounds are the following oxides: MO oxides, e.g. MnO, NiO, CoO, etc.; M2 O3 oxides, e.g., Cr2 O3, Fe2 O3, Y2 O3, Yb2 O3, V2 O3, Ti2 O3, Mn2 O3, etc.; MO2 oxides, e.g., TiO2, MnO2, ThO2, etc.; M3 O4 oxides, e.g., Co3 O4, Mn3 O4, Fe3 O4, etc.; MO3 oxides, e.g., CrO3, UO3, etc.; M2 O5 oxides, e.g., V2 O5 etc., Nb2 O5, Ta2 O5 etc.; M4 O6 oxides; M2 O7 oxides such as M2 O7 ; complex oxides such as those of the formula XYO2 (X and Y being different metals), e.g., LiNiO2, etc.; XYO3 oxides, e.g., LiMnO3, FeTiO3, MnTiO3, CoTiO3, NiTiO3, LiNbO3, LiTaO3, NaWO3, etc.; XYO4 oxides, e.g., MgWO4, CdWO4, NiWO4, etc.; XY2 O6, e.g., CaNb2 O6 ("Niobite" oxides); X2 Y2 O6, e.g., Na2 Nb2 O6 : Spinel structure oxides, i.e., of the formula X2 YO4, e.g., Na2 MoO4, NaWO4, Ag2 MoO4, Cu2 MoO4, Li2 MoO4, Li2 WO4, Sr2 TiO4, Ca2 MnO4, etc.; XY2 O4, e.g., FeCr2 O4, TiZn2 O4, etc.; X2 YO5 oxides, e.g., Fe2 TiO5, Al2 TiO5, etc.; and X3 Y3 O (ternary) oxides, e.g., Mo3 Fe3 O, W3 Fe3 O, X3 Ti3 O (where X is Mn, Fe, Co, etc.). For a discussion of some complex oxides, see Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, Cotten and Wilkinson, p. 51, (1966), Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York and Progress in Inorganic Chem., Vol. 1, 465 (1959) Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York. Also included are nitrides, and the sulfides corresponding to the above oxides. Hydrates of certain metal oxides may also be used, e.g., WO3.H2 O, WO3.2H2 O, MoO3.H2 O and MoO3.2H2 O.
A particularly advantageous aspect in the present invention is the use of two separate layers of identical electrochromic materials one layer being employed in the counterelectrode for the other layer. A preferred embodiment consists of tungsten oxide as the electrochromic color electrode and tungsten oxide and graphite as the counter-electrode.
While the general mechanism of persistent electrochromism is unknown, the coloration is observed to occur at the negatively charged electrochromic layer. Generally, the phenomenon of persistent electrochromism is believed to involve cation transport such as hydrogen or lithium ions to the negative electrode where color centers form in the electrochromic image layer as a result of charge compensating electron flow.
When the persistent electrochromic materials are employed as films, thickness desirably will be in the range of from about 0.1-100 microns. However, since a small potential will provide an enormous field strength across very thin films the latter, i.e., 0.1-10 microns, are preferred over thicker ones. Optimum thickness will also be determined by the nature of the particular compound being laid down as a film and by the film-forming method since the particular compound and film-forming method may place physical (e.g., non-uniform film surface) and economic limitations on manufacture of the devices.
The films may be laid down on any substrate which, relative to the film, is electrically conducting. The electrically conductive material may be coated on another suitable substrate material including glass, wood, paper, plastics, plaster, and the like, including transparent, translucent, opaque or other optical quality materials. A preferred embodiment in the instant device would employ at least one transparent electrode.
When tungsten oxide is employed as the electrochromic imaging material and an electric field is applied between the electrodes, a blue coloration of the previously transparent electrochromic layer occurs, i.e., the presistent electrochromic layer becomes absorptive of electromagnetic radiation over a band initially encompassing the red end of the visible spectrum, thereby rendering the imaging layer blue in appearance. Prior to the application of the electric field, the electrochromic imaging layer was essentially non-absorbent and thus transparent.
As previously indicated, the counter-electrode may be any electrically conductive material. Particularly advantageous is a layer of electrochromic material, as described previously. It is also advantageous to use the same electrochromic material for the imaging area and counter-electrode. A mixture of graphite and an electrochromic material, or graphite alone may be used as the counter-electrode. Other metallic counter-electrodes are disclosed in copending application, Ser. No. 41,154.
The invention may be further understood by reference to the drawings in which
FIG. 1 is a cross section of the electrochromic display device,
FIG. 2 is a front view of a single digital segment in an electrochromic digital display,
FIG. 3 is a cross sectional view of the segment of FIG. 2, taken along the lines A--A,
FIG. 4 is a front view of a linear digital display according to the invention.
As shown in FIG. 1, a conventional EC information display having transparent EC electrode 1, light colored, pigmented ion conducting medium layer 2 and opaque counter-electrode 3. Layer 2 may be a porous self-supporting layer incorporating a pigment, or other desired materials, and soaked in an electrolyte, e.g. sulfuric acid, or the like as disclosed in commonly assigned application Ser. No. 41,154, filed May 25, 1970. The EC electrode 1 forms the viewing surface and has a transparent or translucent substrate 5, e.g. glass, with a conductive layer 6, e.g. tin oxide, and an electrochromic layer 7. The counter-electrode 3 is also a composite of a conductive layer 8 on a substrate 9, and a counter-electrode material 10 such as carbon, tungsten oxide, or a mixture thereof. A suitable substrate for the viewing area and counter-electrode is NESA glass, which is glass having a thin transparent layer of tin oxide.
When battery 11 is connected to make counter-electrode 3 negative, EC electrode layer 7 colors. When the connections are reversed, EC layer 7 erases (or bleaches).
In FIGS. 2, 3 and 4 are shown electrochromic devices with the EC layer 7 in the form of a plurality of segments which may be selectively activated to show numbers. FIG. 2 shows the number 4.
The invention should be usefully applied in EC displays for watches, clocks, calculators, telephone displays, automotive dashboards, instrument indicators and advertising displays.
A counter-electrode was prepared as follows: Dixon Crucible Co. Graphokote No. 120 was brushed on a clean substrate on NESA glass. While the Graphokote 120 film was still wet, WO3 powder was sprinkled onto the surface. Air drying for 1/2 hour at 25° C. and baking at 300° C. for 1/2 hour followed. The WO3 particles became embedded in the graphite film as the electrode was air dried at 25° C. The electrode was cooled to 25° C. and soaked in a solution of glycerin-sulfuric acid 10:1 by volume for 24 hours minimum, rinsed with acetone and baked at 90° C. for 1/2 hour to dry. The resulting deposit was composed of approximately 0.5 gm/cm2 WO3 on 2.0 mg./cm2 Graphokote 120.
Type I pigment layers employ adhesive binders to hold the pigment powder in a self-supporting, porous film. Examples of Type I are: (a) Mix the ratio 1 gm of Sun Yellow C pigment to 1 cc part A and 1 cc part B Peterson Clear Epoxy with 1 cc Peterson Epoxy Thinner. The mix is sprayed onto Teflon sheet, cured for 1 hour at 65° C. and stripped from the Teflon film. The pigmented film. The pigmented film can be cut to size for insertion into the EC device. (b) Beginning with Rohm and Haas Latex AC-34, mix 1 part to 9 parts (by volume) water. Add 1.5 cc of this mix to 1 gram of Sun Yellow C pigment and brush onto a microporous polypropylene film, Celanese Plastics Company Celgard No. 2400 W. Room temperature dry for 1/2 hour then bake at 60° C. for 15 minutes. Cut the pigment on polypropylene film to size and assemble into the device.
Type II pigment layers feature a non-adhesive method of bonding of the pigment particles into a self-supporting layer. In one example 20 grams of BaSO4 powder was mixed with a dispersion containing 2 grams solids of Dupont TFE Dispersion 30B and water. The loose mix was blended in a Waring Blender for several minutes and heated in an oven at 120° C. to drive off the water. Ten grams of glycerin was added and stirred into the mix. The mix was placed between sheets of Teflon film and squeezed to a thin film in a power roll. This rolling operation fibrillates the Teflon 30B and traps the pigment in the structure. The rolled film was stripped from the Teflon sheets and the glycerin was extracted in an overnight water wash leaving a porous pigment film. The film was over dried and cut to size for assembly into an EC display.
Type III pigment layers are prepared by the paper-making process. In one example 3 grams of BaSO4 powder, 3 grams of Sun Yellow C pigment and 1 gram (solids) of acrylic fiber pulp were mixed with 300 cc of water and blended for 15 seconds. One cc of Cyanamid M560C flocculant was hand stirred into the mix until the water cleared. The sheet was formed using a common 6 inch diameter, paper-making machine. The sheet was roll sized and dried on a rotating drum drier for 1 minute at 120° C. A sheet 0.015 inch thick resulted which could be cut and assembled into an EC display.
An electrochromic device was constructed from two NESA glass plates. One conductive NESA plate was coated with a 0.5 micron thick evaporated film of tungsten oxide. The other NESA plate was a counter-electrode as in Example 1. The glass plate so formed were pressed together with the electrochromic and graphite films facing each other but separated by a spacing layer as described in Example 2, the layer having been saturated with a 1:10 ratio of concentrated sulfuric acid and glycerin. This device was cycled from color to clear and back to color at an applied potential of 1.1 volts D.C. with half cycles of 100 milliseconds. The device underwent 5,000,000 cycles of switching at 60 cycles per minute without observable deterioration.
Previous methods attempting to correct the pigment separation problem resulted in slowing the switching speed. This invention eliminates the problem without slowing the switching speed of the display. The invention also makes possible a variety of cosmetic effects not previously possible, allowing for improvements in appearance of these background films. For example, the good insulating properties of these films may permit the addition of reflecting metal particles to add "sparkle" to the display background.
The invention is expected to be useful in applications which include information displays, indicators and others where the display is used in the reflective mode. It is particularly useful in applications involving large area display or applications in which shock and vibration is present, such as in automobile dashboard displays, and the like.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3560078 *||Jul 1, 1968||Feb 2, 1971||Dow Chemical Co||Color reversible light filter utilizing solid state electrochromic substances|
|US3578843 *||Sep 25, 1968||May 18, 1971||American Cyanamid Co||Control of light reflected from a mirror|
|US3712710 *||Dec 21, 1970||Jan 23, 1973||American Cyanamid Co||Solid state electrochromic mirror|
|US3807832 *||Nov 9, 1972||Apr 30, 1974||American Cyanamid Co||Electrochromic (ec) mirror which rapidly changes reflectivity|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US5668663 *||May 5, 1994||Sep 16, 1997||Donnelly Corporation||Electrochromic mirrors and devices|
|US6317248||Jul 2, 1999||Nov 13, 2001||Donnelly Corporation||Busbars for electrically powered cells|
|US6420036||Mar 26, 1998||Jul 16, 2002||Donnelly Corporation||Electrochromic polymeric solid films, manufacturing electrochromic devices using such solid films, and processes for making such solid films and devices|
|US6449082||Sep 20, 2001||Sep 10, 2002||Donnelly Corporation||Busbars for electrically powered cells|
|US6493128||Jan 28, 2000||Dec 10, 2002||Donnelly Corporation||Chromogenic window assembly construction and other chromogenic devices|
|US6855431||Jul 16, 2002||Feb 15, 2005||Donnelly Corporation||Electrochromic polymeric solid films, manufacturing electrochromic devices using such solid films, and processes for making such solid films and devices|
|US6954300||Apr 17, 2001||Oct 11, 2005||Donnelly Corporation||Electrochromic polymeric solid films, manufacturing electrochromic devices using such sold films, and processes for making such solid films and devices|
|US7004592||Oct 22, 2004||Feb 28, 2006||Donnelly Corporation||Electrochromic mirrors and devices|
|US7202987||Oct 1, 2004||Apr 10, 2007||Donnelly Corporation||Electrochromic polymeric solid films, manufacturing electrochromic devices using such solid films, and processes for making such solid films and devices|
|US7349144||Jan 16, 2007||Mar 25, 2008||Donnelly Corporation||Exterior electrochromic reflective mirror element for a vehicular rearview mirror assembly|
|US7474963||Jan 18, 2007||Jan 6, 2009||Donnelly Corporation||Navigational mirror system for a vehicle|
|US7490007||Jan 18, 2007||Feb 10, 2009||Donnelly Corporation||Video mirror system for a vehicle|
|US7494231||Dec 12, 2007||Feb 24, 2009||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular signal mirror|
|US7543947||Oct 6, 2005||Jun 9, 2009||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular rearview mirror element having a display-on-demand display|
|US7572017||Jan 19, 2007||Aug 11, 2009||Donnelly Corporation||Signal mirror system for a vehicle|
|US7589883||Dec 17, 2007||Sep 15, 2009||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular exterior mirror|
|US7643200||Apr 3, 2008||Jan 5, 2010||Donnelly Corp.||Exterior reflective mirror element for a vehicle rearview mirror assembly|
|US7771061||Apr 1, 2008||Aug 10, 2010||Donnelly Corporation||Display mirror assembly suitable for use in a vehicle|
|US7815326||Apr 23, 2010||Oct 19, 2010||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system|
|US7826123||Jun 2, 2009||Nov 2, 2010||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular interior electrochromic rearview mirror assembly|
|US7832882||Jan 26, 2010||Nov 16, 2010||Donnelly Corporation||Information mirror system|
|US7859737||Sep 8, 2009||Dec 28, 2010||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system for a vehicle|
|US7864399||Mar 19, 2010||Jan 4, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Reflective mirror assembly|
|US7871169||Nov 10, 2008||Jan 18, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular signal mirror|
|US7884995||Jun 27, 2008||Feb 8, 2011||Gentex Corporation||Electrochromic device having an improved fill port plug|
|US7888629||May 18, 2009||Feb 15, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular accessory mounting system with a forwardly-viewing camera|
|US7898398||Jan 19, 2010||Mar 1, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Interior mirror system|
|US7898719||Oct 16, 2009||Mar 1, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Rearview mirror assembly for vehicle|
|US7906756||Apr 23, 2010||Mar 15, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicle rearview mirror system|
|US7914188||Dec 11, 2009||Mar 29, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system for a vehicle|
|US7916009||Apr 21, 2010||Mar 29, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Accessory mounting system suitable for use in a vehicle|
|US7918570||Nov 15, 2010||Apr 5, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular interior rearview information mirror system|
|US7926960||Dec 7, 2009||Apr 19, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system for vehicle|
|US7994471||Feb 14, 2011||Aug 9, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system with forwardly-viewing camera|
|US8000894||Oct 20, 2010||Aug 16, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular wireless communication system|
|US8019505||Jan 14, 2011||Sep 13, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicle information display|
|US8047667||Mar 28, 2011||Nov 1, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular interior rearview mirror system|
|US8049640||Feb 25, 2011||Nov 1, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Mirror assembly for vehicle|
|US8063753||Feb 24, 2011||Nov 22, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system|
|US8083386||Aug 28, 2009||Dec 27, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror assembly with display device|
|US8094002||Mar 3, 2011||Jan 10, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system|
|US8095260||Sep 12, 2011||Jan 10, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicle information display|
|US8100568||Mar 24, 2011||Jan 24, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system for a vehicle|
|US8106347||Mar 1, 2011||Jan 31, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicle rearview mirror system|
|US8121787||Aug 15, 2011||Feb 21, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular video mirror system|
|US8134117||Jul 27, 2011||Mar 13, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular having a camera, a rain sensor and a single-ball interior electrochromic mirror assembly attached at an attachment element|
|US8162493||Mar 30, 2011||Apr 24, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror assembly for vehicle|
|US8164817||Oct 22, 2010||Apr 24, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Method of forming a mirrored bent cut glass shape for vehicular exterior rearview mirror assembly|
|US8170748||Jan 6, 2012||May 1, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicle information display system|
|US8177376||Oct 28, 2011||May 15, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular interior rearview mirror system|
|US8179236||Apr 13, 2010||May 15, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Video mirror system suitable for use in a vehicle|
|US8179586||Feb 24, 2011||May 15, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Rearview mirror assembly for vehicle|
|US8194133||May 9, 2008||Jun 5, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular video mirror system|
|US8228588||Dec 10, 2010||Jul 24, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror information display system for a vehicle|
|US8267559||Jan 20, 2012||Sep 18, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror assembly for a vehicle|
|US8271187||Feb 17, 2012||Sep 18, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular video mirror system|
|US8277059||Oct 7, 2010||Oct 2, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular electrochromic interior rearview mirror assembly|
|US8282226||Oct 18, 2010||Oct 9, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system|
|US8282253||Dec 22, 2011||Oct 9, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Mirror reflective element sub-assembly for exterior rearview mirror of a vehicle|
|US8288711||Mar 2, 2012||Oct 16, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system with forwardly-viewing camera and a control|
|US8294975||Jan 11, 2010||Oct 23, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Automotive rearview mirror assembly|
|US8304711||Jan 20, 2012||Nov 6, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicle rearview mirror system|
|US8309907||Apr 13, 2010||Nov 13, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Accessory system suitable for use in a vehicle and accommodating a rain sensor|
|US8325028||Jan 6, 2012||Dec 4, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system|
|US8325055||Oct 28, 2011||Dec 4, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Mirror assembly for vehicle|
|US8335032||Dec 28, 2010||Dec 18, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Reflective mirror assembly|
|US8345345||Feb 8, 2011||Jan 1, 2013||Gentex Corporation||Electrochromic device having an improved fill port plug|
|US8355839||Apr 24, 2012||Jan 15, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicle vision system with night vision function|
|US8379289||May 14, 2012||Feb 19, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Rearview mirror assembly for vehicle|
|US8400704||Jul 23, 2012||Mar 19, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system for a vehicle|
|US8427288||Oct 21, 2011||Apr 23, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Rear vision system for a vehicle|
|US8462204||Jul 1, 2009||Jun 11, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular vision system|
|US8465162||May 14, 2012||Jun 18, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular interior rearview mirror system|
|US8465163||Oct 8, 2012||Jun 18, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system|
|US8503062||Aug 27, 2012||Aug 6, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Rearview mirror element assembly for vehicle|
|US8506096||Oct 1, 2012||Aug 13, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Variable reflectance mirror reflective element for exterior mirror assembly|
|US8508383||Mar 26, 2012||Aug 13, 2013||Magna Mirrors of America, Inc||Interior rearview mirror system|
|US8508384||Nov 30, 2012||Aug 13, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Rearview mirror assembly for vehicle|
|US8511841||Jan 13, 2011||Aug 20, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular blind spot indicator mirror|
|US8525703||Mar 17, 2011||Sep 3, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system|
|US8543330||Sep 17, 2012||Sep 24, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Driver assist system for vehicle|
|US8559093||Apr 20, 2012||Oct 15, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Electrochromic mirror reflective element for vehicular rearview mirror assembly|
|US8577549||Jan 14, 2013||Nov 5, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Information display system for a vehicle|
|US8593521||Nov 30, 2012||Nov 26, 2013||Magna Electronics Inc.||Imaging system for vehicle|
|US8599001||Nov 19, 2012||Dec 3, 2013||Magna Electronics Inc.||Vehicular vision system|
|US8608327||Jun 17, 2013||Dec 17, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Automatic compass system for vehicle|
|US8610992||Oct 22, 2012||Dec 17, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Variable transmission window|
|US8636393||May 6, 2013||Jan 28, 2014||Magna Electronics Inc.||Driver assistance system for vehicle|
|US8637801||Jul 8, 2013||Jan 28, 2014||Magna Electronics Inc.||Driver assistance system for a vehicle|
|US8653959||Dec 2, 2011||Feb 18, 2014||Donnelly Corporation||Video mirror system for a vehicle|
|US8654433||Aug 5, 2013||Feb 18, 2014||Magna Mirrors Of America, Inc.||Rearview mirror assembly for vehicle|
|US8665079||Oct 15, 2012||Mar 4, 2014||Magna Electronics Inc.||Vision system for vehicle|
|US8676491||Sep 23, 2013||Mar 18, 2014||Magna Electronics Inc.||Driver assist system for vehicle|
|US8705161||Feb 14, 2013||Apr 22, 2014||Donnelly Corporation||Method of manufacturing a reflective element for a vehicular rearview mirror assembly|
|US8727547||Aug 12, 2013||May 20, 2014||Donnelly Corporation||Variable reflectance mirror reflective element for exterior mirror assembly|
|US8779910||Nov 7, 2011||Jul 15, 2014||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system|
|US8797627||Dec 17, 2012||Aug 5, 2014||Donnelly Corporation||Exterior rearview mirror assembly|
|US8818042||Nov 18, 2013||Aug 26, 2014||Magna Electronics Inc.||Driver assistance system for vehicle|
|US8833987||Oct 8, 2012||Sep 16, 2014||Donnelly Corporation||Mirror reflective element sub-assembly for exterior rearview mirror of a vehicle|
|US8842176||Jan 15, 2010||Sep 23, 2014||Donnelly Corporation||Automatic vehicle exterior light control|
|US8884788||Aug 30, 2013||Nov 11, 2014||Donnelly Corporation||Automotive communication system|
|US8891154||Dec 31, 2012||Nov 18, 2014||Gentex Corporation||Electrochromic device having an improved fill port plug|
|US8908039||Jun 4, 2012||Dec 9, 2014||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular video mirror system|
|US8917169||Dec 2, 2013||Dec 23, 2014||Magna Electronics Inc.||Vehicular vision system|
|US8977008||Jul 8, 2013||Mar 10, 2015||Donnelly Corporation||Driver assistance system for vehicle|
|US8993951||Jul 16, 2013||Mar 31, 2015||Magna Electronics Inc.||Driver assistance system for a vehicle|
|US9008369||Aug 25, 2014||Apr 14, 2015||Magna Electronics Inc.||Vision system for vehicle|
|US9014966||Mar 14, 2014||Apr 21, 2015||Magna Electronics Inc.||Driver assist system for vehicle|
|US9019091||Mar 17, 2011||Apr 28, 2015||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system|
|US9045091||Sep 15, 2014||Jun 2, 2015||Donnelly Corporation||Mirror reflective element sub-assembly for exterior rearview mirror of a vehicle|
|US9057925||Mar 12, 2014||Jun 16, 2015||Gentex Corporation||Fill port plugs for electrochromic devices|
|US9073491||Aug 4, 2014||Jul 7, 2015||Donnelly Corporation||Exterior rearview mirror assembly|
|US9090211||May 19, 2014||Jul 28, 2015||Donnelly Corporation||Variable reflectance mirror reflective element for exterior mirror assembly|
|US9128345||Aug 20, 2014||Sep 8, 2015||Gentex Corporation||Electrochromic device having an improved fill port plug|
|US9171217||Mar 3, 2014||Oct 27, 2015||Magna Electronics Inc.||Vision system for vehicle|
|US9191634||Apr 3, 2015||Nov 17, 2015||Magna Electronics Inc.||Vision system for vehicle|
|US9221399||Nov 7, 2014||Dec 29, 2015||Magna Mirrors Of America, Inc.||Automotive communication system|
|US9278654||Apr 20, 2012||Mar 8, 2016||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system for vehicle|
|US9315151||Apr 3, 2015||Apr 19, 2016||Magna Electronics Inc.||Driver assist system for vehicle|
|US9341914||Jul 27, 2015||May 17, 2016||Donnelly Corporation||Variable reflectance mirror reflective element for exterior mirror assembly|
|US9352623||Feb 17, 2014||May 31, 2016||Magna Electronics Inc.||Trailer hitching aid system for vehicle|
|US9376061||Apr 23, 2015||Jun 28, 2016||Donnelly Corporation||Accessory system of a vehicle|
|US9428192||Nov 16, 2015||Aug 30, 2016||Magna Electronics Inc.||Vision system for vehicle|
|US9436880||Jan 13, 2014||Sep 6, 2016||Magna Electronics Inc.||Vehicle vision system|
|US9440535||Jan 27, 2014||Sep 13, 2016||Magna Electronics Inc.||Vision system for vehicle|
|US9454054||Nov 7, 2014||Sep 27, 2016||Magna Mirrors Of America, Inc.||Electro-optic mirror element and process of making same|
|US9481306||Dec 16, 2015||Nov 1, 2016||Donnelly Corporation||Automotive communication system|
|US9487144||Oct 14, 2009||Nov 8, 2016||Magna Mirrors Of America, Inc.||Interior mirror assembly with display|
|US9545883||Jul 6, 2015||Jan 17, 2017||Donnelly Corporation||Exterior rearview mirror assembly|
|US9555803||May 16, 2016||Jan 31, 2017||Magna Electronics Inc.||Driver assistance system for vehicle|
|US9557584||Aug 12, 2013||Jan 31, 2017||Donnelly Corporation||Rearview mirror assembly for vehicle|
|US9609289||Aug 29, 2016||Mar 28, 2017||Magna Electronics Inc.||Vision system for vehicle|
|US9643605||Oct 26, 2015||May 9, 2017||Magna Electronics Inc.||Vision system for vehicle|
|US9694749||May 23, 2016||Jul 4, 2017||Magna Electronics Inc.||Trailer hitching aid system for vehicle|
|US9694753||Jun 1, 2015||Jul 4, 2017||Magna Mirrors Of America, Inc.||Mirror reflective element sub-assembly for exterior rearview mirror of a vehicle|
|US9736435||Mar 20, 2017||Aug 15, 2017||Magna Electronics Inc.||Vision system for vehicle|
|US9758102||Jun 30, 2017||Sep 12, 2017||Magna Mirrors Of America, Inc.||Mirror reflective element sub-assembly for exterior rearview mirror of a vehicle|
|US9783114||Dec 5, 2014||Oct 10, 2017||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular video mirror system|
|US9783115||Jan 24, 2017||Oct 10, 2017||Donnelly Corporation||Rearview mirror assembly for vehicle|
|US9809168||Apr 18, 2016||Nov 7, 2017||Magna Electronics Inc.||Driver assist system for vehicle|
|US9809171||Apr 23, 2015||Nov 7, 2017||Magna Electronics Inc.||Vision system for vehicle|
|US20050079326 *||Oct 1, 2004||Apr 14, 2005||Donnelly Corporation|
|US20050083577 *||Oct 22, 2004||Apr 21, 2005||Donnelly Corporation||Electrochromic mirrors and devices|
|US20080094684 *||Dec 12, 2007||Apr 24, 2008||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular signal mirror|
|U.S. Classification||359/270, 359/274, 359/273|