|Publication number||USRE31852 E|
|Application number||US 06/394,099|
|Publication date||Mar 19, 1985|
|Filing date||Jul 1, 1982|
|Priority date||Nov 23, 1967|
|Also published as||DE1809913A1, DE1809913B2, DE1809913C3, US4293948|
|Publication number||06394099, 394099, US RE31852 E, US RE31852E, US-E-RE31852, USRE31852 E, USRE31852E|
|Original Assignee||Willemijn Houdstermaatschappij BV|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (58), Non-Patent Citations (13), Referenced by (26), Classifications (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 391,717 filed Aug. 27, 1973. Application Ser. No. 391,717 .Iadd.now abandoned .Iaddend.is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 773,056 filed Nov. 4, 1968 and now abandoned.
The present invention relates to a data transmission system for transmitting order-characters, address-characters and information-characters between a master unit and one or more remote groups of subordinated terminal units, the several units in a group normally being disposed at a common location such as a branch bank or store. Each of said groups and said master unit includes a modulator and a demodulator, i.e. a so-called "modem", adapting pulses from the master unit and the subordinated terminal units to the transmission characteristics of the transmission lines which connect said master unit and said subordinated terminal units to each other.
To interconnect an equipment built up of pulse circuits with another such equipment over a relatively long distance, it is necessary to convert the pulses into signals which are adapted to the frequency characteristics of the transmission lines. For this purpose, it is common practice to employ at one end of the line a modulator for converting a pulse into either a phase shifted or frequency shifted pulse relative to a reference signal, and to connect the other end of the line to a demodulator detecting this phase or frequency shift and producing a pulse in correspondence thereto.
In systems where a plurality of pulse equipments disposed at geographically remote places are to be connected to a master pulse equipment, it is common practice to connect these remote pulse equipments and their associated modulator/demodulator units in parallel to one single transmission line for the purpose of shortening the overall length of the transmission lines required. Further, it is common practice to concentrate all pulse equipments which have a common location to one single modulator/demodulator unit by means of a traffic concentrator which, in addition to its concentrating function, effects the control functions required for the above-mentioned parallel connection. This equipment, which effects the interconnection between a plurality of pulse equipments and one single modulator/demodulator unit and enables the connection of a plurality of such units of pulse equipments in parallel to one single transmission line, tends to become rather complicated.
A further disadvantage of connecting a plurality of such units in parallel to one single transmission line resides in that the most efficient mode of transmission, i.e. so called synchronous transmission, cannot be utilized, due to the fact that one demodulator will have to receive signals in alternating order from a plurality of modulators.
A further drawback of the above-mentioned parallel connection resides in that a great number of signals are required for maintaining the order of succession between the units connected to the line, and such sequence signals will intrude upon the time available for the transmission of information.
The object of the present invention is to provide a system permitting a plurality of commonly located pulse equipments to be connected to one modulator/demodulator unit, and for several modulator/demodulator units disposed at geographically spaced places to be connected to one single transmission line without using any complicated equipments therefor and without involving the drawbacks of a conventional parallel system as indicated hereinbefore, while still maintaining the advantages of the parallel system.
This object of the invention is substantially realized by the fact that the transmission lines connecting the master unit with the modems and subordinated terminal units included in the system are arranged in a closed loop in which modulators, demodulators and subordinated terminal units are serially interconnected. All signals comprising order-characters, address-characters and information-characters are transmitted in the closed loop which is arranged such that the output from the modulator of the master unit is connected to the input of the first demodulator appearing in the loop associated with a first group of subordinated terminal units, which are serially connected with each other and form a closed loop between the output of said first demodulator and the input of the associated first modulator. The output of the first modulator may be connected to the input of a succeeding second demodulator in the series circuit which is associated with a second group of subordinated terminal units and so on, until finally, the last modulator occurring in the loop has its output connected to the input of the demodulator in the master unit, thereby closing the loop.
According to the invention, all modulators, demodulators and subordinated terminal units are serially interconnected between the data output and data input of the master pulse equipment which normally transmits a stream of synchronization characters and, at times, transmits order-characters or information-characters. The first subordinated terminal unit having information to send to the master pulse equipment and receiving order-characters from said master pulse equipment, interrupts the series circuit and transmits the information to the data input of the master pulse equipment via succeeding modulators, demodulators, and subordinated terminal units. The transmission ends with distinctive order-characters which are transmitted around the rest of the loop downstream of such first station and which cause the succeeding subordinated terminal unit with information to send to once again interrupt the series circuit at such succeeding station and send the information to the data input of the master pulse equipment. The said succeeding station similarly ends the transmission with order-characters, and so on, until the last subordinated terminal unit with information to send has, in turn, emitted order-characters which are then finally received by the master pulse equipment, thereby establishing that all subordinated terminal units have sent their information. Information from the master pulse equipment to a particular subordinated terminal unit includes address-characters.
The invention will now be described more in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 shows a block diagram illustrating the closed loop of the data transmission system according to the invention;
FIG. 2 shows a functional diagram illustrating the function of the switching unit in the transmission system according to FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 shows a detailed block diagram of the switching unit; and
FIG. 4 shows an alternative embodiment of the switching unit.
According to the invention, a plurality of remotely disposed groups of pulse equipments 5, 7, 9, 11 are interconnected and connected to a master pulse equipment 1 via modulator/demodulator units 2a, 2b, 13a, 13b, 14a, 14b, 15a, 15b, 16a, 16b and transmission lines 12. These modulator/demodulator units operate in a manner such that the modulators 2a, 13b, 14b, 15b, and 16b accept pulses at the same rate as pulses are transmitted from the output of the associated demodulators 2b, 13a, 14a, 15a and 16a, respectively.
The system is arranged so that modulator 2a of the master pulse equipment 1 is connected to demodulator 13a via a portionn of line 12. The pulse output of demodulator 13a is connected to the pulse input of modulator 13b via a number of switching units 3. Each switching unit 3 selectively connects a pulse equipment 5 to the master pulse equipment 1. Each pulse equipment 5 and corresponding switching unit 3 form a subordinated terminal unit 4. Modulator 13b is connected to demodulator 14a, associated with the succeeding group of subordinated terminal units, via another portion of line 12. Demodulator 14a is connected to modulator 14b via switching units 3 each of which is connected to a pulse equipment 7 which together form a subordinated terminal unit 6. The system can include an arbitrary number of groups of subordinated terminal units. In the embodiment shown in FIG. 1, the system is terminated at the modulator 16b, which is connected to demodulator 2b at the master pulse equipment. The system according to the invention is not restricted to the number of modulator/demodulator units and switching units 3 as specifically shown in FIG. 1, but is operable with an arbitrary number of both modulator/demodulator units and switching units.
The function of the switching unit 3 is, in principle, illustrated in FIG. 2, where it is shown as a three-way switch, including switching means 27, a by-pass line, a shift pulse register 17 and a decoding unit 18. In position 19, the switching unit 3 is by-passed in the sense that any characters appearing at the output of the demodulator are not only shifted into the register 17 particularly associated with such switch but are also simultaneously applied to and shifted into the register 17 of the next downstream terminal unit. Obviously, therefore, if all switches 17 are in position 19, any character transmitted by the master pulse equipment will be shifted substantially simultaneously into every register 17.
In position 20, the output of the switch 3 is connected to the input through the pulse register 17 which has a capacity equal to the number of bits forming one unit of information, here called a character. Under these circumstances, the register 17 of the next-downstream terminal unit cannot be directly responsive to a character provided by the demodulator output; instead, such further register can only be responsive to whatever character is shifted out of the first-mentioned register 17 directly associated with the switch which is in position 20.
In the third position 21, the output of the switch 3 is connected directly to the associated pulse equipment 5, 7, 9 or 11. In this circumstance, the associated terminal pulse equipment is effectively connected to the loop, as will be shown, so that this terminal unit can not transmit data back to the master pulse equipment.
To the pulse register 17, which is permanently connected to the input of the switch unit is also connected a decoding unit 18 which identifies certain distinctive characters in the pulse register 17. The manner in which switching unit 3 affects the function of the system according to the invention is as follows:
The system possesses three states of operation, i.e. an idle state, a second state in which information can be transmitted from pulse equipments 5, 7, 9, 11 to the master pulse equipment 1, and, finally, a third state in which information can be transmitted from the master pulse equipment 1 to pulse equipments 5, 7, 9 and 11.
In said idle state, the switching units 3 are all by-passed in the sense described above and the master pulse equipment 1 transmits a continuous flow of characters, each character comprising a pulse combination or character A. The decoder 18 in each terminal unit recognizes the presence of the A character in the associated register 17 and, in response thereto, causes switch 27 to assume position 19. As a result, all the switching units 3 are by-passed, and the pulse output of each demodulator is connected directly to the pulse input of the associated modulator, the flow of characters transmitted by pulse equipment 1 being regenerated in each modulator/demodulator unit and finally returning to the pulse equipment 1 through the demodulator 2b. This flow of characters has two purposes, viz.
(a) to establish synchronism between the oscillator of a demodulator and the oscillator of the preceding modulator, such as, for example, between demodulator 14a and modulator 13b;
(b) to establish synchronism between the pulses transmitted as a character by pulse equipment 1, and the pulses detected as a character by pulse register 17. When the characters received by pulse equipment 1 through demodulator 2b contain the same pulse combination as the characters transmitted from pulse equipment 1, the entire system has become synchronized.
Another method of synchronizing a demodulator with the preceding modulator resides in maintaining a two-way connection between them i.e. to each demodulator an auxiliary modulator is connected, which transmits pulses to an auxiliary demodulator connected to the preceding modulator in the system. By this method, signaling will indicate whether synchronism is being maintained separately between each modulator/demodulator connection.
When the master pulse equipment 1 is ready to receive information from pulse equipments 5, 7, 9, 11, pulse equipment 1 will interrupt the flow of A-characters and transmit two distinctive characters in succession, B and C, and then recommence its transmission of A-characters. The purpose of said B- and C-characters is the following:
The B-character is shifted into the register 17 of each terminal unit substantially simultaneously since each switch 27 is still in position 19. When a B-character has been identified in each pulse register 17 by decoding unit 18, the following procedure will be initiated, provided that the associated pulse equipment 5, 7, 9, 11 has information to transmit. (1) The switching means 27 is set to position 20. (2) The next succeeding character, i.e. the C-character, can now be received only in the register 17 of the first upstream terminal having data to transmit; the reason for this, of course, is that the switch 27 of such first upstream station was operated to position 20 by the B-character, thereby effectively opening the loop so as to prevent any other register 17 from responding to the C-character. (3) Assuming that such next character is a C-character, the switching means 27 of such first upstream unit with data to transmit is set to position 21, thereby permitting only the characters transmitted from the associated pulse equipment to be put on the line. Since the character C only appears in the register 17 of such one unit, it cannot be advanced to the next succeeding terminal unit in the series circuit in response to the next character placed on the loop by the master pulse equipment because with switch 27 in position 21, the register 17 storing the C-character is effectively disconnected at its output from all other downstream registers. As a consequence, no succeeding pulse register 17 will receive character C directly after having received character B. This will cause the associated switching means 27 to be reset to the idle position.
If the terminal unit has no information to transmit when the B-character is detected in pulse register 17, the switching means 27 will retain the idle position. The information transmitted from each of the pulse equipments 5, 7, 9 or 11 will pass through the succeeding switching units in the series circuit to the input of the master pulse equipment 1.
Each transmitting pulse equipment 5, 7, 9 or 11 ends its transmission with the characters B and C and will then reset switching means 27 to the idle position, whereby the sequence of procedures described above will be repeated in the succeeding terminal units in turn.
When characters B and C are received in the master pulse equipment 1, this provides an indication that all pulse equipments 5, 7, 9, 11 in the closed loop have had an opportunity to transmit information, and pulse equipment 1 will respond by transmitting a character, D, indicating that the information transmitted from the subordinated terminal units has been properly received. However, if the information received by pulse equipment 1 contained errors, characters B and C will be transmitted once more and the procedure just described will be repeated. Thus, pulse equipments 5, 7, 9, 11 which have transmitted information but received no D-character will retransmit their information.
Transmission of information from the master pulse equipment 1 to any of the pulse equipments 5, 7, 9, 11 is performed by transmitting two characters E and X before each message. Character E indicates that the next succeeding character X, contains the address to the specific pulse equipment for which the message is meant. This message will pass through all switching units 3, but only the pulse equipment assigned number X will respond to the information.
The switching unit 3 according to the invention has as its main purpose to enable the series connection between the terminal units and the master pulse equipment.
The unit 3, shown in FIG. 3, comprises three AND-gates 22, 23 and 24, an OR-gate 25 and a control logic 26 having connected thereto a decoding unit 18 and a pulse equipment 5, 7, 9, 11. In the idle position of the switching unit 3, the input 33 and output 34 are effectively connected together through the enabled AND-gate 22 and the OR-gate 25. In the idle state, synchronism is maintained by the decoding unit 18 via a pulse register 17, being operative to decode information appearing at the input 33 of the switching unit 3 via line 35.
When the decoding unit 18 identifies a B-character in the pulse register 17, it emits a signal via lines 36 to the control logic 26 to remove the enabling input to AND-gate 22 via line 37. The pre-requisite is, however, that pulse equipment 5, 7, 9, 11 has informed control logic 26 via line 38, that it has information to transmit. At the same time, the control logic 26 enables AND-gate 23, whereby pulse register 17 is connected to the output 34 of the switching unit 3 through AND-gate 23 and OR-gate 25, corresponding to the second state of the switching unit. If the next-following character received in the pulse register 17 and decoded by decoding unit 18 is a C-character, control logic 26 will disable AND-gate 23 and enable AND-gate 24 via line 31. At the same time, control logic 26 will emit a pulse to the pulse equipment 5, 7, 9, 11 via line 41 informing the latter that it may transmit information on line 29, which now connects output 34 of the switching unit 3 with the pulse equipment via AND-gate 24 and OR-gate 25. This corresponds to the third state of the switching unit. The transmission ends with a signal from pulse equipment 5, 7, 9, 11 to the control logic 26 via line 38 informing same of the fact that all information has been transmitted. Control logic 26 then enables AND-gate 24 and disables AND-gate 22, whereupon the switching unit has been reset to its idle state.
When the switching unit 3 is in the idle state, and decoding unit 18 identifies an address-character in pulse register 17 informing that the information to follow is meant for a specific pulse equipment 5 or 7 or 9 or 11, then decoder 18 will transmit a signal to control logic 26 via lines 36. Control logic 26 then informs the pulse equipment via line 41, whereupon the information is received via line 32. When the decoder has detected a character in the pulse register 17 signifying the end of the message, the pulse equipment is informed by control logic 26. The switches 28a, 28b are meant for shunting of the switching unit 3 and the pulse equipment, for instance in case of break-down or absence of primary power. These switches may consist of a relay taking the positions 42a, 42b, respectively in case of absence of primary power or being controlled by a logic circuit actuating both switches 28a and 28b.
According to an alternative embodiment of the invention shown in FIG. 4, the switching unit operates with only two switching states. Lines 29 and 31 of FIG. 3 are replaced by parallel lines 30 in FIG. 4 between the pulse equipment 5, 7, 9, 11 on one hand, and pulse register 17 and decoder 18, on the other. Thus, if the character received in the pulse register 17 and decoded by decoding unit 18 is a C-character, the control logic 26 will inform the pulse equipment that it may transmit information on lines 30 via pulse register 17, which is connected with the output 34 of the switching unit via line 39, AND-gate 23 and OR-gate 25. Thus, in this case the conditions of the AND-and OR-gates will not be changed, i.e. that the switching unit will maintain its second switching state.
Information transmitted from the master pulse equipment 1 to a specific pulse equipment 5 or 7 or 9 or 11 is received in said equipment via lines 30 after the control logic 26 has informed the equipment via line 4 that it has information to receive appearing on lines 30.
Which of these two embodiments of the switching unit is preferred depends on whether the pulse equipment is arranged to receive and transmit the bits which constitute a character in serial or parallel.
The rate of all information transmitted and received is preferably determined by a clock included in the demodulator and adapted to control the components of the terminal units 4, 6, 8, 10 via line 43. If required, the clock signal can be amplified at the in- and outputs of each terminal unit by means of amplifiers 44a and 44b, respectively.
The terminal units 4, 5, 8, 10 forming part of a transmission system of the kind here referred to, include, for example, data terminals or computers or any other equipment operating with pulses. In its most extreme form, the data transmission system according to the invention may include only one subordinated terminal unit interconnected with the master pulse equipment via modulator/demodulator units.
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|International Classification||G08C15/06, H04L12/423, H04Q9/00|