|Publication number||USRE32401 E|
|Application number||US 06/238,872|
|Publication date||Apr 14, 1987|
|Filing date||Feb 27, 1981|
|Priority date||Jun 13, 1978|
|Publication number||06238872, 238872, US RE32401 E, US RE32401E, US-E-RE32401, USRE32401 E, USRE32401E|
|Inventors||Kenneth E. Beilstein, Jr., Harish N. Kotecha|
|Original Assignee||International Business Machines Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (6), Non-Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (64), Classifications (18)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The invention disclosed broadly relates to memory circuits and more particularly relates to FET memory circuits.
FET memory technology has been devoted in the prior art to the storage of binary electric signals, as is disclosed, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 3,728,696 to Polkinghorn. In the prior art binary FET read only memory, a plurality of address input lines and selection lines form a matrix with regions of a semiconductor substrate. Binary information is stored at locations between adjacent semiconductor regions by the presence or absence of field effect transistors at that location. Alternate semiconductor regions are selectively connected to a voltage reference and the remaining regions in between are selectively connected to a common output point by means of selection field effect transistors in series with each region. Selection signals applied to the selection transistors of an adjacent pair of regions connect one region to the voltage reference and the other region to output to provide a binary output signal which is a function of the data stored at a particular addressed storage location.
The direction of evolution for the semiconductor storage device technology has been to increase the number of storage devices per unit area on the semiconductor chip. This increases the storage capacity with respect to the cost of manufacture of the semiconductor memory.
In the course of the evolution of the semiconductor industry, the technique of ion-implantation into the channel region of an FET device has been developed to adjust the threshold voltage for the FET device so that the gate voltage at which the device will switch on can be customized in accordance with the application at hand. Techniques for accomplishing this have been disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,873,372 to Johnson. In the case of an N-channel FET device, where the source and drain of N-type conductivity are formed in a substrate of P-type conductivity, the threshold voltage of the FET device may be increased by ion-implanting additional P-type conductivity dopants into the channel region. Alternately, the threshold voltage of the FET device may be reduced by ion-implanting N-type conductivity dopants into the channel region. The degree of change of the threshold voltage during ion-implantation is in approximate proportion to the dosage of the ion-implantation dopant in the channel region. This threshold voltage may be adjusted by controlling the ion-implantation beam current or the time of exposure to the ion beam, as well as by other processing factors.
In the prior art, support circuitry for a binary FET read only memory (ROM) has employed basic FET inverter circuits such as is described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,406,298 to Axelrod. Other types of prior art inverter circuits which can be employed in the support circuitry for the prior art binary read only memories is discussed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,072,868 by H. N. Kotecha, et al.
It is therefore an object of the invention to increase the storage capacity per unit area for a semiconductor storage device.
It is yet another object of the invention to provide an increase in the storage density without a corresponding increase in the number of storage devices in a semiconductor memory.
It is still a further object of the invention to provide an improved read only memory system.
These and other objects, features and advantages of the invention are accomplished by the quaternary read only memory disclosed herein.
The quaternary FET read only memory has each FET storage element in its array formed with a customized threshold voltage having one of four values. The threshold voltage for the FET devices in the array is adjusted at the time of manufacture by the ion-implantation technique. Each FET element in the array has its drain connected to a drain potential VDD. A binary input address signal from a conventional binary true/complement generator then enables the gate of a selected FET storage cell in the array and the output potential at the source of that FET storage cell becomes the VDD voltage minus the customized threshold voltage for that cell. This resultant output voltage is a quaternary signal, that is, it can assume one of four voltage magnitudes. This quaternary output signal may be amplified by a quaternary sense amplifier circuit disclosed herein, and then converted from the quaternary signal to a binary signal by means of a quaternary-to-binary converter, also disclosed herein. The resultant quaternary FET read only memory is capable of storing twice as much information per unit area as is a conventional binary read only memory having the same number of storage devices per unit area on the semiconductor chip. The concept may be expanded to N levels of information storage, using FET array devices with N different threshold voltages.
These and other objects, features and advantages of the invention can be more fully appreciated with reference to the accompanying figures.
FIG. 1 is a functional block diagram of the quaternary read only memory system showing how the quaternary read only memory array is connected to the sense amplifier and quaternary-to-binary converter circuits.
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram illustrating a portion of the quaternary read only memory array 8 showing the binary input on the word lines and the quaternary output on the bit lines.
FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of the prior art enhance deplete inverter circuit.
FIG. 4 is a diagram of the voltage output characteristic for the inverter circuit shown in FIG. 3.
FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of the quaternary sense amplifier circuit 12.
FIG. 6 is a diagram of the voltage output characteristics for the quaternary sense amplifier 12 in FIG. 5.
FIG. 7 is a schematic diagram of the sense amplifier circuit 12 of FIG. 5 showing the current flow for the condition where devices T1 and T2 are on.
FIG. 8 is a schematic diagram of the sense amplifier circuit 12 of FIG. 5 under the circumstance that all three active devices T1, T2 and T3 are gated on, showing the current distribution therein.
FIGS. 9a, 9b, 9c and 9d constitute the quaternary-to-binary converter 16.
The quaternary read only memory system shown in FIG. 1 has binary address signal input on line 2 to a conventional binary true/complement generator. The binary output signals from the true/complement generator 4 are output over the lines 6 labeled "W1-W4" and will be called the word lines. The word lines 6 enable the gate electrodes of the FET storage elements Q11-Q44 of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2 is a schematic electric circuit diagram of a portion of the array 8 of FIG. 1 for the quaternary read only memory. Horizontal rows of FET read only storage elements are arranged on the memory chip with their drains connected to a drain potential VDD and their sources commonly connected to an output bit line 10. The plurality of rows of array devices are arranged on the memory chip so that array devices which are juxtaposed in columns have their gates commonly connected to a binary input word line 6. Each bit line 10 has a discharge load device 20 connected between it and ground potential, with all of the load devices 20 having their gates commonly connected to a first clock phase signal φ1. Each of the bit lines 10 also has an output gating device 22 connected in series between the corresponding discharge load device 20 and the output node.
For purposes of illustration, the array shown in FIG. 2 is organized into four words W1-W4, each of which contains four bits. An array storage device is labeled with the matrix notation Qij where i is the number of the row and j is the number of the column in the array, as shown in FIG. 2.
During the manufacture of the read only memory array 8 of FIG. 2, each of the FET storage elements Qij in the array is selectively ion-implanted in its channel region with one of four doses of conductivity enhancing dopant so as to achieve one of four predetermined threshold voltages for the ion-implanted device. Three ion-implantations may be carried out and the inherent threshold for an unimplanted channel may serve as the fourth customized threshold voltage. The ion-implantation may be of either conductivity type so that, for example, where all of the FET devices in the array 8 are N-channel devices, some of the devices could be selectively implanted with a P-type dopant to raise the threshold voltage for the implanted device while other devices could be implanted with an N-type dopant to reduce the threshold voltage of the implanted device. This selective ion-implantation of the array 8 in FIG. 2 may be carried out, for example, by using three ion-implantation blocking masks composed of conventional photoresist. The first blocking mask would prevent ion-implantation in all but a first group of selected array devices to achieve a first threshold voltage. A second ion-implantation blocking mask can then block all but a second group of selected FET devices to achieve a second threshold voltage, and so on until four groups of FET devices have been fabricated with four different threshold voltages. The pattern of selection of the threshold voltages for the FET storage devices in the array 8 of FIG. 2 corresponds with the information which is to be permanently stored in the read only memory. The concept may be expanded to N levels of information storage, using FET array devices with N different threshold voltages. The threshold voltage can also be adjusted by varying the gate oxide thickness and, for the largest threshold voltages desired, may be established by leaving the thick, field insulator layer over the FET channel region.
In operation the array 8 has a first phase clock signal φ1 which turns on the discharge load devices 20 for each of the bit lines 10, discharging any residual charge on the bit lines 10. The φ1 signal then turns off the discharge load devices 20 and the φ2 clocking signal turns on the FET gating devices 22 in each of the bit lines 10 and enables one of the word lines 6 through the conventional binary true/complement generator, corresponding to the binary input address 2. The voltage magnitude of the φ2 clocking pulse which is applied over the word line 6 to the gate of the array device is as least as large as the voltage VDD applied to the drain of the array device so that even those array devices having the highest customized threshold voltage will be turned on when selected. An array device Qij is turned on by the application of the φ2 clocking signal to the word lines Wj and drives the voltage on the bit line 10 to which it is connected up to a magnitude approximately equal to the gate voltage VDD minus the customized threshold voltage of the selected FET array device. Thus, the magnitude of the output signal on the bit line 10 will assume one of four values corresponding to that one of the four possible values of the customized threshold voltage with which the selected FET array device Qij was manufactured. Thus, it is seen that the storage capacity of a single device Qij in the array 8 of FIG. 2 is twice that of a conventional binary FET storage device in a conventional read only memory circuit. As an example, quaternary logic levels 0, 1, 2, and 3 can correspond to signal voltage levels of 0 volts, 3 volts, 6 volts and 9 volts, respectively. The drain potential VDD is to be 10 volts and ground potential is to be 0 volts. The φ1 and φ2 clock pulses are to swing from 0 volts to 10 volts in their transition. Let the left most column of array devices Q11, Q21, Q31 and Q41 of FIG. 2 be fabricated with ion-implanted threshold voltages of 1 volt, 4 volts, 7 volts and 10 volts, respectively. Then, when the word lines W1 carries the φ2 clock pulse signal thereon, the output signal on the corresponding bit line 10 which is the gate potential VDD minus the customized threshold voltage for the array device will be 9 volts for bit line 1, 6 volts for bit line 2, 3 volts for bit line 3 and 0 volts for bit line 4, corresponding to the quaternary logic levels 3, 2, 1 and 0, respectively. The array FET devices Qij could have been programmed with any other pattern of threshold voltages than that given in the example and any other of the word lines Wj could have carried the φ2 clock pulse signal, thereby producing a different pattern of quaternary signal outputs on the bit lines 10.
The bit lines 10 are each connected to a quaternary sense amplifier 12 of FIG. 1, which is shown in schematic diagram in FIG. 5. To better understand the principle of the sense amplifier circuit 12 of FIG. 5 the following discussion will consider the N-channel depletion mode load inverter circuit shown in FIG. 3 and its output voltage characteristics shown in FIG. 4. When the input voltage VIN is 0, the active device QA is off. Since the depletion mode load device QL has a negative turn on voltage with its gate and source connected in common, the output voltage magnitude VOUT will equal the drain potential for the load device, VDD. As VIN increases, VOUT is maintained at the drain potential VDD until VIN exceeds the turn on voltage or threshold voltage VT of the active device QA. Once this happens, the active device QA turns on and starts conducting current through the load device QL, reducing the magnitude of the output voltage VOUT to almost 0 volts or ground potential. The two states are defined by the output VOUT equals VDD when VIN is less than or equal to VT and VOUT being approximately equal to 0 volts and VIN is equal to VDD. Note the value of the threshold voltage VT is chosen in practice to be about one volt so that a stable level is obtained even when processed tolerances cause about a 30% variation in its value. Note also that VOUT is clamped at the value of VDD until the magnitude of VIN exceeds this value of threshold voltage VT. At the other extreme, VOUT is clamped at a voltage having a magnitude close to 0 volts and is less than the threshold voltage VT of the next stage active device in a cascaded series of such inverters, even when the 30% variation in VT and 10% variation in power supply of voltage VDD are present.
From the foregoing it should be apparent that the first level is obtained due to the requirement by the active device QA of a certain voltage magnitude for VIN, that is, the threshold voltage VT, before the active device QA turns on. Therefore, the output level VOUT is effectively clamped at VDD as long as the input voltage VIN is less than the threshold voltage VT. On the other hand, the down level clamping of the voltage magnitude of VOUT is at about the voltage at which the source of the active device QA is biased.
These observations may now be applied to the analysis of the operation of the quaternary sense amplifier shown in FIG. 5.
FIG. 5 illustrates the 4-state sense amplifier circuit 12 of FIG. 1. The three active devices have a common drain and gate terminal. The threshold voltages of T1, T2 and T3 are VT1, VT2 and VT3 respectively. In the same order, the sources of each of the three devices are tied to V1, V2, and V3.
When VIN rises from 0 volts, VOUT =VDD since:
(VIN -V1)<VT1 or T1 is off,
(VIN -V2)<VT2 or T2 is off,
(VIN -V3)<VT3 or T3 is off,
giving a stable state, say "3". As VIN rises so that:
(VIN -V2)<VT2, and
device T1 turns on, and VOUT falls to a value of about V1 from VDD, FIG. 6.
At this point, the current flows from the load depletion device to ground through T1. Further increase in VIN does not significantly change the value of VOUT from V1 as long as devices T2 and T3 are off, thus maintaining the second stable state, state "2". Once (VIN -V2)>VT2 and (VIN -V3)<VT3, device T2 starts turning on. The output node VOUT is now pulled down to V2. Since V1 >V2, T1 is now biased in the opposite direction with roles of source and drain interchanged. The load device and device T1 then effectively act as load device for T3. The current paths for this case are illustrated in FIG. 7.
Further increases in VIN maintains VOUT at about V2 or state "1" as long as:
Once VIN increases such that (VIN -V3) exceeds VT3, device T3 turns on pulling VOUT down to V3 or 0 volts. When this occurs, V2 >VOUT and the device T2 conducts in the opposite direction. Alternatively, the load device T1 and T2 act as load device for T3. The current paths are indicated in FIG. 8.
VOUT now falls to V3 or 0 volts yielding the final state "0". Note that device T1 has to sink current from only the load device. Device T2 on the other hand sinks in current from both load device and T1. T3 sinks in current from all three devices. As a result the widths for each of the devices taken in order, assuming same lengths must satisfy.
Referring back to FIG. 6, the values of VT1, VT2, VT3 and V1, V2 and V3 equal 0 are determined depending on the worse case process tolerances which give the desired stable levels.
In the standard four mask metal gate process, with an added ion-implantation mask if depletion load devices are used, the variable turn on voltages required for the proposed circuit are easily obtained by adding necessary ion-implantation masks. The type, energy and dosage of ion-implant depends on design constraints. It should be noted that from overlay considerations, ion-implant mask is noncritical since it normally is designed conservatively.
The output signal VOUT on line 14 from the sense amplifier 12 is applied to the quaternary-to-binary converter 16, a detailed electrical circuit schematic diagram of which is shown in FIGS. 9a-9d. The quaternary-to-binary converter 16 converts the quaternary signal input on line 14 into a first binary signal output on line 18 and a second binary signal output on line 18' having the same numerical value as the numerical value of the input quaternary signal on line 14.
In FIG. 5, as an example, let the logical states of 0, 1, 2 and 3 be represented by voltage levels of V3, V2, V1 and VDD respectively such that V3 is the ground potential and VDD equals 9 volts is the power supply of the drain of the load devices. Further, to demonstrate the concept, FIG. 5 is a quaternary inverter with load device TL and active devices T1, T2 and T3 have their sources tied to voltages V1 equals 6 volts, V2 equals 3 volts and V3 equals 0 volts, respectively. The threshold voltages of these devices taken in order are VT1, VT2, and VT3, having a numerical value of VT1 equals -4.5 volts, VT2 equals 1.0 volts and VT3 equals 6.5 volts.
Assume that the quaternary bit Q for the inverter of FIG. 5 is to be converted to two equivalent binary bits A and B with binary logical representation of either 0 or 1 and corresponding voltage levels of V3 VDD.
The table shows the truth table with all possible logical values of Q and the representative logical values of binary bits A and B.
______________________________________TRUTH TABLE FOR LOGICAL VALUESOF BINARY BITS A AND BQ A B S0 S1 S2______________________________________0 0 0 0 0 01 0 1 0 0 12 1 0 0 1 13 1 1 1 1 1______________________________________
Three binary variables S0, S1 and S2 are generated such that:
B=S2 ·(S0 S1 +S0 S1)
The logical values of these variables are indicated in the truth table above. To generate these variables properties of devices with threshold voltages corresponding to T1, T2 and T3 of FIG. 5 are used.
Variable S0 is required to have a logical value of 1 (or voltage level VDD) only when the quaternary bit Q is at logical value 3 or voltage level VDD, and is produced by the circuit of FIG. 9a. Since device T3' has a threshold voltage of VT3 equals 6.5 volts, it is always in off condition for logical values of Q of 0, 1 or 2. As a result, the output of inverter I1 ', S0 is at logical level 1 while that of I2 ', S0 is at logical level 0 for these values of Q. However, when Q equals the value 4 (or at voltage level VDD), T3' turns on so that S0 equals 0 and correspondingly S0 equals 1. Thus, variable S0 is generated.
Variable S1 or A is required to have a value of zero when Q equals either 0 or 1. This is achieved by using devices T2" and T3". FIG. 9b illustrates the circuit which achieves this. When Q equals 0 or 1 the input voltage to inverter I1 " is either V3 which equals 0 volts or V2 which equals 3 volts. As a result, the output of I1 " which is input to I2 " is VDD or greater than 6.5 volts, respectively. The latter is obtained by choosing a suitable aspect ratio for inverter I1 ". Correspondingly S1 of inverter I2 " is at ground and 0 for these values of Q. Inverter I3 " simply complements the output of inverter I2 " yielding S1 or A at logical level 1. When Q equals 2 or 3, however, the output of inverter I1 " is insufficient to turn T3" on such that S1 equals 1 and S1 equals 0. In this manner the above circuit of FIG. 9b yields variable S1 or the value of A for output 18.
Variable S2 is required to be at logical state 0 for the value of Q equals 0 but at logical state 1 for all other values of Q. This can be simply achieved by using the circuit of FIG. 9c. Since the turn on voltage of T2'" or VT2 equals 1 volt, T2'" of inverter I1 '" is off when Q equals 0 and on when Q equals 1, 2, or 3. This results in the required output of I1 '", i.e. S2 and also that of inverter I2 '" which simply complements S2 to S2.
Now that the three variables S0, S1 and S2 are available the required binary bit A is equal to S1 while for the binary bit B, the switching expression, as mentioned before, is:
B=S2 ·(S0 S1 +S0 S1)
The circuit implementation of B is well-known and for the sake of completeness an example is shown in FIG. 9d. FET devices 32, 34 and 36 are connected as a NOR with load device 30, yielding the output 38. FET devices 44, 46 and 48 are connected as a NOR with load device 42, yielding the output 50. FET devices 40 and 52 with inputs 38 and 50 respectively, are connected as a NOR with load device 54, producing an output inverted by FET devices 56 and 58, yielding the desired binary bit B at 18'. If binary logical outputs A and B have a voltage level not compatible with subsequent FET circuitry, the level may be adjusted with additional inverters.
The resulting quaternary read only memory system is capable of storing twice as much information per unit area as is a conventional binary read only memory. In addition, if the quaternary read only memory array 8 is contained on a semiconductor chip which is independent of the sense amplifier circuits 12, a reduction in the number of I/O pads on the semiconductor chip is achieved, resulting in a reduction in packaging and wiring costs.
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|U.S. Classification||365/182, 365/184, 257/391, 365/45, 365/178, 365/168|
|International Classification||G11C17/12, H03K19/094, G11C11/34, G11C11/56|
|Cooperative Classification||G11C11/5692, G11C17/12, H03K19/09425, G11C11/56|
|European Classification||G11C11/56R, H03K19/094M, G11C17/12, G11C11/56|