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Publication numberUSRE33500 E
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 07/214,415
Publication dateDec 18, 1990
Filing dateJul 1, 1988
Priority dateApr 1, 1986
Publication number07214415, 214415, US RE33500 E, US RE33500E, US-E-RE33500, USRE33500 E, USRE33500E
InventorsWilhelmus T. L. Bisseling
Original AssigneeOce-Nederland B.V.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Electronic digitized proportional-integral controller
US RE33500 E
Abstract
A digital proportional-integral controller for controlling the speed of a d.c. electric motor in a copying machine and synchronizing it with the speed of another motor in the copying machine. The proportional stage and the integral stage of the controller are each formed by an up/down counter which counts up or down depending upon the pulses of the actual speed signal and the reference signal. Logic circuits are provided for processing the speed signal pulses and the reference signal pulses before they are fed to the up/down counters. The controller also has an interface for a two-wire bus system over which data and commands for adjusting and varying the control parameters can be input.
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Claims(16)
What is claimed is:
1. An electronic proportional-integral controller for controlling the speed of an electric motor in accordance with a reference signal whose frequency represents the desired output speed of the controlled electric motor and a speed signal whose frequency represents the actual output speed of the controlled electric motor, comprising:
(a) a proportional circuit for generating a P-control signal corresponding to the difference between the frequencies of the reference signal and the speed signal and wherein the proportional circuit comprises a logic circuit connected to an up/down counter such that the logic circuit:
(1) converts the speed signal into a standardized speed signal which changes its state on each rising flank of the speed signal;
(2) converts the reference signal into a standardized reference signal which changes its state on each rising flank of the reference signal;
(3) delivers a sequence of upward counting pulses to the counter in synchronism with a first clock signal when there is present a pulse of the standardized speed signal and no pulse of the standardized reference signal;
(4) delivers a sequence of downward counting pulses to the counter in synchronism with the first clock signal when there is present a pulse of the standardized reference signal and no pulse of the standardized speed signal;
(5) generates a read signal to output the value of the counter which is the P-control signal; and
(6) generates a reset signal to reset the counter if a pulse has occurred in both the standardized speed signal and in the standardized reference signal and both standardized signals simultaneously have a pulse break;
(b) an integrator circuit which uses the speed signal and the reference signal for generating an I-control signal corresponding to the time integral of the difference between the frequencies of the reference signal and the speed signal;
(c) an addition circuit connected to both the proportional circuit and the integrator circuit for generating a sum signal corresponding to the sum or the weighted sum of the P-control and I-control signals; and
(d) an output stage for controlling the motor in accordance with the sum signal of the addition circuit.
2. A controller as described in claim 1 wherein the integrator circuit comprises a logic circuit connected to an up/down counter such that the logic circuit delivers to the counter .[.an upward.]. .Iadd.a downward .Iaddend.counting pulse on each rising flank of the speed signal and .[.a downward.]. .Iadd.an upward .Iaddend.counting pulse on each rising flank of the reference signal and wherein the value of the counter after one cycle of the speed signal and the reference signal represents the time integral of the difference between the frequencies of the speed signal and the reference signal.
3. A controller as described in claim 2 wherein a first asynchronous/synchronous converter synchronizes the rising and falling flanks of the speed signal with the pulses of a second clock signal before the speed signal is fed to the proportional circuit and the integrator circuit, and a second asynchronous/synchronous converter synchronizes the rising and falling flanks of the reference signal with the pulses of the second clock signal before the reference signal is fed to the proportional circuit and the integrator circuit.
4. A controller as described in claim 3 wherein the second clock signal has the same frequency as the first clock signal and is phase-shifted therefrom by a half cycle.
5. A controller as described in claim 2 wherein a frequency divider unit reduces the frequency of the reference signal in accordance with a selectable dividing ratio before supplying it to the proportional circuit and the integrator.
6. A controller as described in claim 5 wherein a frequency multiplier unit increases the frequency of the reference signal before it is fed to the frequency divider unit.
7. A controller as described in claim 6 wherein a first asynchronous/synchronous converter is connected to the frequency divider unit and synchronizes the rising and falling flanks of the reference signal with the pulses of a second clock signal before the reference signal is fed to the proportional circuit and the integrator circuit, and a second asynchronous/synchronous converter synchronizes the rising and falling flanks of the speed signal with the pulses of the second clock signal before the speed signal is fed to the proportional circuit and the integrator circuit.
8. A controller as described in claim 5 wherein the frequency divider unit comprises a frequency divider and two memories for storing two different frequency division ratios such that a binary control signal determines which division ratio the frequency divider uses.
9. A controller as described in claim 8 further comprising a clock generator for generating all clock signals such that the frequency of the clock signals and the division ratio of the frequency divider are determined by the same binary control signal.
10. A controller as described in claim 2 wherein an amplitude value is combined with the sum signal in the output stage to generate the magnitude of the output signal.
11. A controller as described in claim 10 wherein the output signal generated by the output stage has a pulse width corresponding to the sum signal and a cycle length corresponding to the amplitude value.
12. A controller as described in claim 11 wherein the I-control signal and the amplitude value are each multiplied in a shifter by the same power of two.
13. A controller as described in claim 2 further comprising a command unit which transmits data and control signals to individual components of the controller, and which has an interface for a two-wire bus system.
14. A copying machine comprising a plurality of subsystems with separate drives which are synchronized with one another by an electronic controller as described in claim 1.
15. An electronic proportional controller for controlling the speed of an electric motor in accordance with a reference signal whose frequency represents the desired output speed of the controlled electric motor and a speed signal whose frequency represents the actual output speed of the controlled electric motor, comprising:
(a) a proportional circuit for generating a P-control signal corresponding to the difference between the frequencies of the reference signal and the speed signal and wherein the proportional circuit comprises a logic circuit connected to an up/down counter such that the logic circuit:
(1) converts the speed signal into a standardized speed signal which changes its state on each rising flank of the speed signal;
(2) converts the reference signal into a standardized reference signal which changes its state on each rising flank of the reference signal;
(3) delivers a sequence of upward counting pulses to the counter in synchronism with a first clock signal when there is present a pulse of the standardized speed signal and no pulse of the standardized reference signal;
(4) delivers a sequence of downward counting pulses to the counter in synchronism with the first clock signal when there is present a pulse of the standardized reference signal and no pulse of the standardized speed signal;
(5) generates a read signal to output the value of the counter which is the P-control signal; and
(6) generates a reset signal to reset the counter if a pulse has occurred in both the standardized speed signal and in the standardized reference signal and both standardized signals simultaneously have a pulse break;
(b) an addition circuit connected to the proportional circuit for generating a sum signal corresponding to a predetermined weighting of the P-control signal; and
(c) an output stage for controlling the motor in accordance with the sum signal of the addition circuit.
16. An electronic integral controller for controlling the speed of an electric motor in accordance with a reference signal whose frequency represents the desired output speed of the controlled electric motor and a speed signal whose frequency represents the actual output speed of the controlled electric motor, comprising:
an integrator circuit for generating an I-control signal corresponding to the time integral of the difference between the frequencies of the reference signal and the speed signal and wherein the integrator circuit comprises a logic circuit connected to an up/down counter such that the logic circuit:
(1) delivers .[.an upward.]. .Iadd.a downward .Iaddend.counting pulse to the counter on each rising flank of the speed signal;
(2) delivers .[.a downward.]. .Iadd.an upward .Iaddend.counting pulse to the counter on each rising flank of the reference signal;
(3) generates a read signal after one cycle of the speed signal and the reference signal to output the value of the counter which is the I-control signal;
(b) an addition circuit connected to the integrator circuit for generating a sum signal corresponding to a predetermined weighing of the I-control signal; and
(c) an output stage for controlling the motor in accordance with the sum signal of the addition circuit.
Description
FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to an electronic proportional-integral controller for controlling the speed of an electric motor, more particularly a d.c. motor, in accordance with the frequency of a reference signal. Controllers of this kind are used for controlling the various drive units in a copying machine.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

It is important that the movements of various units in a copying machine such as the optical scanning system, the image recording medium, the paper transport system and the like, should be accurately synchronized with one another to produce high quality copies. Generally, this synchronization is achieved by driving all the units or components of the copying machine by a common drive unit having a single transmission. Since, however, this necessitates an expensive transmission design, it is desirable to separate the drives for the various units so that the copying machine construction is simplified, the ease of servicing is increased and the inert masses required to be moved during the operation of the copying machine are reduced. The separate drives for the various units, however, have to be synchronized electronically. One way this can be achieved is by sensing the speed of one of the drive units, such as the motor for the image recording medium, and using it to generate a reference signal, which is used to control the speeds of the drives of the other units.

Separate drives for the various units necessitate controllers which can easily be adjusted at any time to the conditions of the control system such as the power of the drive motor, the inertia of driven parts and the like. The controllers also need to allow substantially immediate adjustment of the speed of the controlled motor or drive to the reference frequency within close tolerances.

Typically these controllers have a speed sensor for generating a speed signal the frequency of which represents the motor output speed, a proportional circuit which generates a proportional control (P-control) signal corresponding to the difference between the frequencies of the reference signal and of the speed signal, an integrator which generates an integral control (I-control) signal corresponding to the time integral of the difference between the frequencies of the reference signal and of the speed signal, an adder, which generates an output signal corresponding to the sum or the weighted sum of the two control signals (P-control and I-control), and an output stage for controlling the motor in accordance with the adder output signal. Controllers of this kind can be made using either analog or digital components.

Although analog controllers allow rapid signal processing and hence a low delay time for the control system, they have the disadvantages that the accuracy of the control is limited and the adjustment to the conditions of use at any time is a relatively laborious operation requiring the balancing of resistors and the like.

In contrast, digital control systems have high accuracy and little liability to trouble while being relatively cheap. In digital control systems, the input variables such as the frequency of the reference signal and the scanned actual speed signal are usually quantified and then arithmetic operations are carried out to form the set-value/actual-value difference used to generate the proportional component and the integral component, and to form the final control signal. Since these operations require some computer time, the control time is relatively long. It would be desirable, therefore, to have a digital control system which had a short control time.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Generally, the present invention provides a versatile digital proportional-integral controller having a short control time and a high long-term stability, and which can be adjusted to different conditions of use within a wide range. As a result of these properties, the controller according to the present invention makes it possible to provide a copying machine with separate drives for the various subsystems while guaranteeing accurate synchronization of the subsystems.

According to the present invention, a proportional-integral controller uses a speed signal from the controlled motor and a reference signal from a reference signal generator, preferably a reference drive, to generate a motor control signal. The controller has a proportional circuit and an integrator circuit which are each formed by a logic circuit and an up/down counter. The counters receive the up and down counting pulses from the preceding logic circuit which directly utilizes the speed signal and the reference signal.

The proportional circuit is based on the operating principle that the speed signal and the reference signal are converted to standardized signals, wherein the pulse width of each corresponds to the cycle time of the original speed signal or reference signal, respectively. If, during the speed signal cycle, the reference signal cycle has not yet started or has already ended, the counter counts up at a predetermined clock frequency. If, conversely, during the reference signal cycle, the speed signal cycle has not yet started or has already ended, the counter counts down at the same frequency. On completion of the last of the two cycles, the contents of the counter is used for further signal processing and the counter is reset so that a new counting cycle can start. In this way, an output signal proportional to the difference between the cycle times is generated at very short intervals on the order of magnitude of the speed signal and reference signal cycles.

The counter of the integrator circuit counts up on each rising flank of the .[.speed.]. .Iadd.reference .Iaddend.signal and counts down on the rising flank of the .[.reference.]. .Iadd.speed .Iaddend.signal. As a result, the content of the integrator counter at any time indicates the integral value of the difference between the frequency of the speed signal and the frequency of the reference signal.

If required, the logic circuits of the proportional circuit and the integrator circuit may contain suitable buffer means to prevent the counter capacity from being exceeded or undershot, (i.e. contents of the counter less than zero) and to prevent the simultaneous feed of an up and down counting pulse to the counter.

With its simple circuit construction and short control time, the present invention uses steps which guarantee reliable and trouble-free signal processing and increases the adjustability of the controller to different requirements and operating conditions. Preferably, different sets of coordinated adjustment parameters for the control system can be stored and selected at any time according to different requirements by means of suitable control commands.

Other advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following detailed description and accompanying drawings of a presently preferred embodiment of the best mode of carrying out the invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a diagram of a control system using a proportional-integral controller according to the present invention.

FIG. 2 is a block schematic of the controller shown in FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is a circuit diagram of an asynchronous/synchronous converter.

FIG. 4 is a circuit diagram of a proportional circuit for the controller shown in FIG. 2.

FIG. 5 is a time diagram of signals of the proportional circuit.

FIG. 6 is a circuit diagram of an integrator circuit for the controller shown in FIG. 2.

FIG. 7 is a time diagram of signals of the integrator circuit.

FIG. 8 is a circuit diagram of a multiplier network.

FIG. 9 is a circuit diagram of a frequency divider and a chain of shift registers for controlling the frequency divider and other components of the controller.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

In a preferred embodiment of the present invention a command unit compatible with a two-wire bus system is provided for the storage of the adjustment parameters and for transmitting the control commands. A bus system of this kind is described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,889,236 and in European Pat. No. 0,051,332 and is known as an I2 C bus. In addition, to commands for the basic adjustment, start of operation, controller operation interruption and the like, commands for switching the controller to test operation can also be input via the bus system and via the command unit connected as a receiver to the bus system, so that the controller can be tested for correct operation.

The entire controller is preferably constructed as an integrated component. This reduces manufacturing costs and gives a compact construction and facilitates controller installation.

FIG. 1 diagrammatically illustrates a control system containing a proportional-integral controller (PI-controller) 100 according to the present invention wherein a d.c. motor 102 is used, for example, to drive a subsystem such as a shaft 108 in a copying machine. A speed sensor 104 senses the speed of motor 102 and generates a speed signal fm in the form of a pulse signal whose frequency is proportional to the motor speed. The speed signal fm is used by the PI-controller to generate the signal for controlling motor 102. The output frequency of speed sensor 104 should as far as possible be greater than 500 Hz. Another speed sensor 110 senses the speed of a shaft 112 of another subsystem of the copying machine. The subsystem containing shaft 112 constitutes a guide or reference system such that the speed of motor 102 is to be synchronized with the speed of shaft 112.

The output frequency of speed sensor 110, which is also about 500 Hz, is increased by a given factor, such as the factor 224, in a frequency multiplier 114. Frequency multiplier 114 is preferably formed by two phase locked loops (PLL) which successively multiply the frequency by the factors 14 and 16. The output signal of frequency multiplier 114 forms a reference signal fr which is used by the PI-controller to generate the signal for controlling motor 102.

PI-controller 100 receives speed signal fm and reference signal fr and delivers a binary signal UD, which represents the desired direction of movement of motor 102, and a pulse signal Up of variable pulse width, to a bridge circuit 106 (H-bridge) which controls motor 102. The speed of motor 102 is adjusted to a value proportional to reference signal fr by means of PI-controller 100 by variation of the useful width of pulse signal Up. In this way the movement of shaft 108, driven by motor 102, is synchronized with the movement of shaft 112.

The frequency of reference signal fr is reduced by a suitable factor, such as 224, by a frequency divider 115 integrated in PI-controller 100. This allows for finely graduated adjustment of the transmission ratio between the speeds of shafts 112 and 108. The rotation of motor 102 can be synchronized with the rotation of shaft 112 with an accuracy of 0.2%.

PI-controller 100 is formed by an integrated circuit (3 μm C-MOS) constructed in the standard cell technique. Referring to FIG. 2, PI-controller 100 comprises: a frequency divider unit FRD by means of which the frequency of reference signal fr is reduced in accordance with a preset frequency ratio; a controller unit CNT for processing speed signal fm and frequency-supported reference signal frl ; an output stage ET, which delivers the output signals UD and Up to bridge circuit 106; a clock generator D; and a command unit COMM for controlling the function and operation of PI-controller 100.

Reference signal frl processed by frequency divider unit FRD is fed to an asynchronous/synchronous converter C1 which synchronizes reference signal frl with a clock signal fsl generated by clock generator D and transmits synchronized reference signal fru to a proportional circuit P and an integrator I. Referring to FIG. 3, the asynchronous/synchronous converter C1 is formed by a flip-flop which is controlled by clock signal fsl. An asynchronous/synchronous converter C2 of identical construction to converter C1 synchronizes speed signal fm with clock signal fsl and delivers synchronized speed signal fmu to proportional circuit P and integrator I.

Proportional circuit P generates a proportional signal dp in the form of an eight-bit two-complement signal which is dependent upon the difference in the cycle lengths of signals fru and fmu. Integrator I generates an integral signal dI in the form of an eight-bit signal which is dependent upon the difference in frequency between signals fru and fmu. Integral signal dI is multiplied by the factor 20, 21 or 22 in a multiplier (shifter) S1 depending upon the state of two binary control signals c and d. The multiplication results in the bits of integral signal dI being moved to the left by 0, 1 or 2 digits. The integral signal multiplied in this way is added to the proportional signal dp in an adder A1. The 9-bit line of proportional circuit P can be so switched to adder A1 that the proportional signal is shifted by one or two binary places, corresponding to a multiplication of this signal by a factor 21 or 22. The sum signal dA1 generated by adder A1 is fed to output stage ET in response to a read command e2 generated by proportional circuit P.

Output stage ET comprises a latch L1 which receives and stores (latches) the sum signal dA1 of adder A1 and in due course transmits it to a pulse width modulator PWM. An amplitude register A contains a preset amplitude signal dA in the form of an 8-bit signal which is fed to pulse width modulator PWM via a shifter S2. Shifter S2 corresponds to shifter S1 in construction and function.

Pulse width modulator PWM generates direction signal UD and output signal Up. The pulse width of output signal Up is proportional to signal dL taken from the latch L1 and the cycle time of output signal Up is proportional to the amplitude signal dS2 prepared by shifter S2. During the data transmission from latch L1 to pulse width modulator PWM, a signal cprop prevents proportional circuit P from generating read command e2.

The preferred construction and operation of proportional circuit P will now be explained with reference to FIGS. 4 and 5. Preferably, proportional circuit P uses an up/down counter 200 and a logic circuit 202 which delivers the up and down counting commands for counter 200 depending upon synchronized speed signal fmu and reference signal fru. In addition to the synchronized speed and reference signals, the input signals received by logic circuit 202 include cprop, a reset signal R3, clock signal fs1 and another clock signal fs2. The two clock signals fs1 and fs2 have the same frequency but are phase-shifted by a half-cycle as will be apparent from FIG. 5. The two clock signals may, for example, be produced from a rectangular signal of twice the frequency and with a clock ratio of 0.5.

As shown in FIG. 4, synchronized speed signal fmu is fed as a clock signal to flipflop 1, whose input is connected to the inverting output Q1. Thus, output Q1 of flipflop 1 changes its state on each rising flank of speed signal fmu. The pulse width of output signal Q1 is independent of the pulse width of speed signal fmu and coincides with the cycle length of speed signal fmu. Output signal Q1 should therefore be designated as a standardized speed signal. Flipflop 4 functions in the same manner as flipflop 1. Flipflop 4 receives synchronized reference signal fru as a clock signal and generates a standardized reference signal Q4.

The upward counting input UP of counter 200 is connected to the output of a NAND gate 204 which receives as an input signal: standardized speed signal Q1 ; inverted standardized reference signal Q4, clock signal fs2 and a signal ov. Signal ov normally has the value 1 and is set to 0 by a logic circuit 206 only when counter 200 has reached its top capacity limit (i.e. >+255). NAND gate 204 thus generates an upward counting pulse (logic 0) in synchronism with clock signal fs2 when standardized speed signal Q1 has the value 1 and standardized reference signal Q4 has the value 1.

The downward counting input DOWN of counter 200 is connected to the output of a NAND gate 208 which receives signals fs2, Q4 Q1 and uv as input signals. Input signal uv is generated by a logic circuit 210 and is used to protect counter 200 against falling below the bottom capacity limit (i.e. <-256). NAND gate 208 generates a downward counting pulse in synchronism with clock signal fs2 when standardized reference signal Q4 has the value 1 and standardized speed signal Q1 has the value 0. The details of logic circuit 202 described hereinafter serve to terminate the counting operation after a complete cycle of both speed signal fmu and reference signal fru have occurred.

A flipflop 3 receives signal Q1 as its input signal and delivers output signal Q3 which resets flipflop 1. Flipflop 3, however, is controlled by clock signal fs2, while speed signal fmu is synchronized with clock signal fs1. Reset signal Q3 therefore does not occur until some delay after the completion of one cycle of speed signal fmu, that is after the decay of standardized signal Q1. See FIG. 5. A flipflop 2 controlled by clock signal fs1 receives input signal Q1 +Q3 (where "+" represents a logic OR) via a NAND gate 212. Flipflop 3 is reset by the inverted output signal Q2 of flipflop 2. Output signal Q2 of flipflop 2 assumes the value 1 as soon as signal Q1 assumes the value 1. When signal Q1 falls again, Q2 retains the value 1 since then Q3 =1. Flipflop 2 remains in the set state until it is reset by a signal R.sub. b. Signal Q2 thus indicates that signal Q1 has occurred once.

Flipflops 5 and 6 are in the same relationship to flipflop 4 as flipflops 2 and 3 are to flipflop 1 and function in the same way as described above. Output signal Q5 of flipflop 5 indicates that standardized reference signal Q4 had the value 1 once.

When both speed signal fmu and reference signal fru have passed through a complete cycle, signals Q1 and Q4 have the value 0 while signals Q2 and Q5 have the value 1. Under this condition the output of an AND gate 214 has the value 1. If signal cprop also has the value 1, a flipflop 7 controlled by clock signal fs2 is set. An AND gate 216 receives output signal Q7 of flipflop 7 and when the next clock signal fs1 arrives, generates read command e2 by means of which the contents dp1 -dp9 of counter 200 are taken over by latch L1 after addition with the signal ds1 of shifter S1 as shown in FIG. 2. At the same time, a flipflop 8 controlled by clock signal fs1 is set by output signal Q7. On coincidence of output signal Q8 of flipflop 8 with clock signal fs2 a signal Ra is generated which is combined with signal R3 by a logic OR and is fed as a signal Rb to the reset inputs of counter 200 and flipflops 2 and 5. The next counting operation can thus begin as soon as either a pulse of speed signal fmu or a pulse of reference signal fru arrives and the corresponding standardized signal Q1 or Q4 resumes the value 1.

The preferred construction and operation of integrator I will now be explained with reference to FIGS. 6 and 7. Preferably, integrator I uses an up/down counter 300 with 8 bits and a logic circuit 302 for generating the up and down counting pulses. The input signals received by logic circuit 302 are clock signals fs1 and fs2, synchronized speed signal fmu, synchronized reference signal fru, a reset signal R2 and signals c and d which control the multiplication factor of shifters S1 and S2.

Clock signal fs2 controls flipflops 11 and 13 which respectively receive .[.speed signal fmu and reference signal fru .]. .Iadd.reference signal fru and speed signal fmu .Iaddend.. Clock signal fs1 controls flipflops 12 and 14 which respectively receive output signal Q11 of flipflop 11 and output signal Q13 of flipflop 13. Upward counting input UP of counter 300 is connected to a circuit of logic gates 304 which have a NAND function. The input signals of circuit 304 are: inverted output signal Q12 of flipflop 12; clock signal fs2 ; .[.speed signal fmu .]. .Iadd.reference signal fru .Iaddend.; a signal b; and a signal ov'. The significance of signals b and ov' will be discussed later. At this stage it will be assumed that these signals have the value 1. When the state of signal .[.fmu .]. .Iadd.fru .Iaddend.changes from 0 to 1, an upward counting pulse of logic 0 is generated on the next clock pulse fs2. Before the arrival of the next clock pulse fs2, signal Q12 drops so that the other counting pulses are suppressed until the associated cycle of signal .[.fmu .]. .Iadd.fru .Iaddend.is over. Thus only exactly one counting pulse is generated for each .[.speed.]. .Iadd.reference .Iaddend.signal cycle.

Similarly, a circuit of logic gates 306 which have a NAND function generate exactly one downward counting pulse for each cycle of .[.reference signal fru .]. .Iadd.speed signal fmu .Iaddend.if input signals a and uv' have the value 1. Logic circuit 306 functions in a similar manner to logic circuit 304.

The signals a=.[.fmu .]. .Iadd.fmu .Iaddend..Q12 and b=.[.fru .]. .Iadd.fmu .Iaddend..Q14 (where represents a logic AND) prevent counter 300 from simultaneously receiving an upward and a downward counting pulse. Signal a assumes the value 0 when the conditions for an upward counting pulse are present, and in that case blocks the generation of a downward counting pulse. Signal b assumes the value 0 when the conditions are present for a downward counting pulse and in that case blocks the generation of the upward counting pulse. In addition, signals a and b control the transmission of read command e1 to output stage ET. Read command e1 is generated by an AND gate 310 which receives clock signal fs1 and signals a and b after they have been processed through a NAND gate 308.

Signals ov' and uv' are generated by logic circuits 312 and 314, respectively, and are intended to protect counter 300 from exceeding the top capacity limit or bottom capacity limit, respectively. Signal ov' generated by logic circuit 312 is dependent not only upon output signals dI1 -dI8 of counter 300, but also upon signals c and d. When the multiplication factor in shifter S1 is set to 21 or 22 by signals c and d, the capacity of counter 300 is artificially reduced by one or two binary digits respectively to prevent the capacity from being exceeded in shifter S1. If the capacity of counter 300 is exceeded or undershot, a NAND gate 316 delivers a signal L which is transmitted as a fault signal to the superior control system.

Shifter S1 is built substantially of NAND gates. The circuit details and configuration are typical and will be clear from FIG. 8.

If controls signals c and d both have the value 0 or 1, the 8-bit signal dI indicating the contents of the counter 300 remains unchanged (i.e. dS1 =dI). If, however, signal c has the value 0 and signal d has the value 1, integral signal dI is multiplied by the factor 21 (i.e. dS11 =0, dS12 =dI1, dS13 =dI2, etc). If signal c has the value 1 and signal d has the value 0, integral signal dI is multiplied by the factor 22 (i.e. dS11 =0, dS12 =0, dS13 =dI1, dS14 =dI2, etc).

Shifter S2 also receives control signals c and d and causes amplitude signal dA to vary in accordance with the variation of integral signal dI. Control signals c and d, therefore, provide a simple means for adjusting the weighting of the proportional component and the integral component in the controller according to the present invention in order to adapt the control characteristic to the specific control system.

The present controller also affords the possibility of setting different speeds for the controlled motor. The division ratio of the frequency divider unit FRD can be varied, thereby reducing the frequency of reference signal fr. As can be seen in FIG. 2, frequency divider unit FRD comprises a frequency divider D1, which can be operated with selectable division ratios between 1:1 and 1:255. Two different division ratios for frequency divider D1 can be stored in two shift registers Df1 and Df2. Switching between the two shift registers Df1 and Df2 is possible by means of a binary control signal a1 so that frequency divider D1 operates either with the division ratio stored in shift register Df1 or with the division ratio stored in shift register Df2.

Clock generator D comprises an oscillator OSC which delivers a signal fc1 at a frequency of 10 MHz to a frequency divider D2. Frequency divider D2 delivers a number of parallel frequency signals which are produced by frequency division with different division ratios in the range from 1:4 to 1:56 from the frequency of signal fc1. A multiplexer M1 receives seven different frequency signals from frequency divider D2 and selects one of these frequency signals depending upon a 3-bit signal DFm1.

The selected frequency signal fpwm is fed as a clock signal to output stage ET. Another multiplexer M2 receives fifteen different signals from frequency divider D2 and selects one of these fifteen frequency signals depending upon a 4-bit signal DFm2. The selected frequency signal is fed to a frequency divider D3. Frequency divider D3 comprises a flipflop which halves the frequency of the selected frequency signal delivered by multiplexer M2. Phase-shifted clock signals fs1 and fs2 are generated by a NOR combination of the output signal of multiplexer M2 and the inverting and non-inverting output of the flipflop in frequency divider D3.

Signals DFm1 and DFm2, which determine what frequencies are selected as the outputs of multiplexers M1 and M2, are delivered either by a shift register Df3 or a shift register Df4. The selection of shift register Df3 or Df4 is controlled by a signal a1 which also controls the selection of shift registers Df1 and Df2 of frequency divider unit FRD.

In this way, when PI-controller 100 is switched to a different speed, clock signals fpwm, fs1 and fs2 are also automatically adapted to the new conditions so that controller adjustment is maintained. In particular, the change of clock frequencies fs1 and fs2 also adjusts the proportionality factor in proportional circuit P since clock frequency fs2 forms the counting frequency of counter 200 in proportional circuit P.

As can be seen in FIG. 9, shift registers Df1, Df2, Df3, Df4 and amplitude register A are connected in series and to a common clock signal SCL. On initialization of the controller, the data to be stored in these registers is fed in the form of a serial data signal SDA and is transmitted through shift registers Df1 -Df4 and A. Upon operation of controller 100, the contents of shift registers Df1 or Df2 are transmitted to frequency divider D1 and signals DFm1 and DFm2 which control multiplexers M1 and M2 are transmitted from shift register Df3 or Df4. The transmission of signals from Df1 or Df2 and Df3 or Df4 is effected via electronic switches which are controlled alternately by signal a1.

An advantageous modification of the preferred embodiment described herein is possible by forming shift registers Df1 -Df4 and amplitude register A as parallel registers to which the data is fed for storage in parallel via a bus.

Command signal a1, serial data signal SDA and clock signal SCL are generated by command unit COMM. Command unit COMM also generates control signals c and d for shifters S1 and S2 and reset signals R1 -R5 for resetting the individual controller components, and a signal h which controls the direction of rotation of the motor.

Command unit COMM communicates with a superior control system via an I2 C-bus. This bus is a two-wire data transmission system over which a data signal and a clock signal, or a control signal are transmitted. During transmission of data, the data and clock signal are so modulated that the signals in the two wires of the bus always have opposite polarity. However, during transmission of control signals which, for example, indicate the start or the end of a data transmission, the signal is so modulated that the two wires of the bus have the same polarity. In this way it is possible to distinguish between data signals and control or command signals.

Command unit COMM comprises an I2 C interface which during data transmission recovers the clock signal and the data signal from the modulated signals of the two bus channels. On initialization of the controller, the clock signal is transmitted to shift registers Df1 -Df4 and A and the next five data bytes are read serially into these shift registers. Further commands such as commands for switching the controller on and off, changing the speed (change of state of signal a1) and for changing the multiplication factor of shifters S1, S2 (change of state of signals c and d) can then be transmitted via the I2 C bus. The commands or data transmitted to the command unit COMM can also be acknowledged via the I2 C bus. Similarly, status signal L which indicates the status of counter 300 of integrator I can be sent back to the superior control unit.

Command unit COMM also comprises I/O ports h, i, j and k. Controller 100, therefore, can alternatively be controlled via parallel lines connected to I/O ports h, i and j. I/O ports h, i, j and k also serve for carrying out test operations. If the signal 1 is applied to port i, command unit COMM delivers clock signals fs1, fs2 and fpwm to ports h, k and j, respectively. If the signal 0 is applied to the port i, synchronized speed signal fmu and reference signal fru are sent back via ports h and k, respectively.

The controller can also be adjusted to operate only as a P-controller or only as an I-controller.

The invention is not limited to the above-described presently preferred embodiment. With the teachings disclosed herein, one skilled in the art will be able to carry out numerous modifications of the present invention which has been shown and described with particularity. Such modifications are also embodied within the scope and protection of the following claims.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification388/809, 388/912, 388/906
International ClassificationH02P5/50, H02P23/00
Cooperative ClassificationH02P5/50, H02P23/0068
European ClassificationH02P23/00K, H02P5/50