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Publication numberUSRE33834 E
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 07/556,101
Publication dateMar 3, 1992
Filing dateJul 20, 1990
Priority dateMay 10, 1984
Fee statusPaid
Publication number07556101, 556101, US RE33834 E, US RE33834E, US-E-RE33834, USRE33834 E, USRE33834E
InventorsGlenfield Warner
Original AssigneeSylvia Warner, Priyamvada Sankar
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Heart-related parameters monitoring apparatus
US RE33834 E
Abstract
A non-invasive method, and an apparatus, for determining heart-related parameters in patients. The method and apparatus determine pulse pressure, time constant of the arterial system, systolic and diastolic pressure, peripheral resistance, cardiac output and mean arterial blood pressure.
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Claims(18)
I claim:
1. Apparatus for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;
comprising;
means for detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient, and for providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said means for detecting being attachable to said patient to thereby detect said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said minimum amplitude and said maximum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of increase of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
means for measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum aplitude, said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second different, said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
means for calculating the magnitude of selected ones of said parameters, said means for calculating being connected to both said means for detecting and means for measuring;
wherein means for calculating calculates the magnitude of the pulse pressure parameter in accordance with the following expression; ##EQU17## wherein Ppi =pulse pressure during cycle i
Kpp =constant determined by a first calibration
r1 =constant
r2 =constant
Ril =(ΔViVm /ΔVi)
where ΔViVm =volume change at time tiVm during cycle i corresponding to maximum rate of volume change, Vimax
ΔVi =maximum volume change during cycle i
ΔtiVm =time interval from start of cycle i to time of maximum rate of volume change Vimax.
2. Apparatus for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;
comprising;
means for detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient, and for providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said means for detecting being attachable to said patient to thereby .Iadd.detect .Iaddend.said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said minimum amplitude and said maximum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of increase of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
means for measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum .[.aplitude,.]. .Iadd.amplitude, .Iaddend.said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second .[.different,.]. .Iadd.difference, .Iaddend.said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
means for calculating the magnitude of selected ones of said parameters, said means for calculating being connected to both said means for detecting and means for measuring;
wherein means for calculating .[.calculates.]. .Iadd.calculates .Iaddend.the magnitude of the mean arterial blood pressure, Pmi parameter in accordance with the following expression: ##EQU18## where K4 =constant determined for each subject
b3 =constant
Pmmi =pseudo mean arterial blood pressure during cycle i
.[.Δi .]. .Iadd.ΔVi .Iaddend.=maximum volume change during cycle i ##EQU19##
3. Apparatus for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;
comprising;
means for detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient, and for providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said means for detecting being attachable to said patient to thereby detect said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said minimum amplitude and said maximum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of increase of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
means for measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum .[.aplitude,.]. .Iadd.amplitude, .Iaddend.said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second .[.different,.]. .Iadd.difference, .Iaddend.said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
means for calculating the magnitude of selected ones of said parameters, said means for calculating being connected to both said means for detecting and means for measuring;
wherein means for calculating calculates the magnitude of the systolic pressure (Psi) parameter in accordance with the following expression:
 Psi =Pmi +(1-g0)P.sub. pi
wherein
g0 =constant.
4. Apparatus for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;
comprising:
means for detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient, and for providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said means for detecting being attachable to said patient to thereby detect said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said minimum amplitude and said maximum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of increase of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
means for measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum .[.aplitude,.]. .Iadd.amplitude, .Iaddend.said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second .[.different,.]. .Iadd.difference, .Iaddend.said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
means for calculating the magnitude of selected ones of said parameters, said means for calculating being connected to both said means for detecting and means for measuring;
wherein means for calculating calculates the magnitude of the systolic pressure (Psi) parameter in accordance with the following expression:
 Psi =Pmi +(1-gi)P.sub. pi
wherein:
gi =(ΔViAV /ΔVi)
Ppi =pulse pressure during cycle i
ΔVi =represented by said first difference
ΔViAV =represented by the difference between said minimum amplitude and an amplitude equal to the average value of a pulse in a cycle i.
5. Apparatus for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;
comprising;
means for detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient, and for providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said means for detecting being attachable to said patient to thereby detect said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being .[.cycle.]. .Iadd.cyclic .Iaddend.in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said minimum amplitude and said maximum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of increase of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
means for measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum .[.aplitude,.]. .Iadd.amplitude, .Iaddend.said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second .[.different,.]. .Iadd.difference, .Iaddend.said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
means for calculating the magnitude of selected ones of said parameters, said means for calculating being connected to both said means for detecting and means for measuring;
wherein means for calculating calculates the magnitude of the arterial blood pressure, Pmi parameter in accordance with the following expression: ##EQU20## where K4 =constant determined for each subject
b3 =constant
Pmmi =pseudo mean arterial blood pressure during cycle i
ΔVi =maximum volume change during cycle i ##EQU21## Po =constant where
G(t)=a function of t.
6. A method for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;
comprising:
detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient and providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of change of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum change of rate of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum amplitude, said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second difference, said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
calculating the magnitude of the pulse pressure parameter in accordance with the following expression: ##EQU22## wherein Ppi =pulse pressure during cycle i
Kpp =constant determined by a first calibration
r1 =constant
r2 =constant
Ril =(ΔViVm /ΔVi)
where
.[.ΔViVm =volume change at time tiVm during cycle i corresponding to maximum rate of volume change, Vimax.].
.Iadd.ΔViVm =volume change at time tiVm during cycle i corresponding to maximum rate of volume change, Vimax .Iaddend.
ΔVi =maximum volume change during cycle i
ΔtiVm =time interval from start of cycle i to time of maximum rate of volume change Vimax.
7. A method for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;
comprising:
detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient and providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of change of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum change of rate of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum amplitude, said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second difference, said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
calculating the magnitude of the mean .[.artial.]. .Iadd.arterial .Iaddend.pressure Pmi in accordance with the following expression: ##EQU23## where K4 =constant determined for each subject
b3 =constant
Pmmi =pseudo mean arterial blood pressure during cycle i
ΔVi =maximum volume change during cycle i
ΔVimax =maximum time rate of change of ΔVi =Vimax ##EQU24##
8. A method for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;
comprising:
detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient and providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of change of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum change of rate of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum amplitude, said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second difference, said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
calculating the magnitude of the systolic pressure (Psi parameter in accordance with the following expression:
 Psi =Pmi +(1-g0)P.sub. pi
wherein
g0 =constant.
9. A method for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;
comprising:
detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient and providing a signal representive of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of change of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum change of rate of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum amplitude, said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second difference, said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
calculating the magnitude of the systolic pressure (Psi) parameter in accordance with the following expression:
 Psi =Pmi +(1-gi)P.sub. pi
wherein:
gi =(ΔViAV /ΔVi)
Ppi =pulse pressure during cycle i
ΔVi =represented by said first difference
ΔViAV =represented by the difference between said minimum amplitude and an amplitude equal to the average value of a pulse in a cycle i.
10. A method for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;
comprising:
detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient and providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of change of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum change of rate of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum amplitude, said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second difference, said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
calculating the magnitude of the arterial blood pressure, Pmi parameter in accordance with the following expression: ##EQU25## where
K4 =constant determined for each subject
b3 =constant
Pmmi =pseudo mean arterial blood pressure during cycle i
ΔVi =maximum volume change during cycle i
ΔVimax =maximum time rate of change of Vi =Vimax
Po =constant
G(t)=a function of t and T.
11. Apparatus for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;
comprising:
means for detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient, and for providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said means for detecting being attachable to said patient to thereby detect said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said minimum amplitude and said maximum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of increase of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
means for measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum .[.aplitude,.]. .Iadd.amplitude, .Iaddend.said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second .[.different,.]. .Iadd.difference, .Iaddend.said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
means for calculating the magnitude of selected ones of said parameters, said means for calculating being connected to both said means for detecting and means for measuring;
wherein means for calculating calculates the magnitude of the pulse pressure parameter in accordance with the following expression: ##EQU26## wherein Ppi =pulse pressure during cycle i
Kpp =constant determined by a first calibration
r1 =constant
r2 =constant
Ri1 =ΔViVm /ΔVi
where
ΔViVm =volume change at preselected time tiVm during cycle i
ΔVi =maximum volume change during cycle i
ΔtiVm =time interval from start of cycle i to preselected time of tiVm.
12. A method for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;
comprising:
detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient and providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of .[.charge.]. .Iadd.change .Iaddend.of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum change of rate of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum amplitude, said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second difference, said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
calculating the magnitude of the pulse pressure parameter in accordance with the following expression: ##EQU27## wherein Ppi =pulse pressure during cycle i
Kpp =constant determined by a first calibration
r1 =constant
r2 =constant
Ri1 =(ΔViVm /Vi)
where
ΔViVm =volume change at preselected time tiVm during cycle i
ΔVi =maximum volume change during cycle i
ΔtiVm =time interval from start of cylcle i to predetermined time of tiVm.
13. Apparatus for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;
comprising;
means for detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient, and for providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said means for detecting being attachable to said patient to thereby detect said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said minimum amplitude and said maximum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of increase of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
means for measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum amplitude, said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second different, said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
means for calculating the magnitude of selected ones of said parameters, said means for calculating being connected to both said means for detecting and means for measuring;
wherein the means for calculating calculates the magnitude of the mean pressure parameter in accordance with the following expression:
(1) P'mi =K1 ric a
where
K1 =calibration constant
.[.P'mi =(Ps +Pd)/2-Po.].
Psi =systolic blood pressure, in cycle i
.[.Pmi =(Ps +Pd)/2.].
Pdi =diastolic blood pressure, in cycle i
a=constant
Po =constant.
14. A method for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;
comprising:
detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient and providing a signal .[.representation.]. .Iadd.representative .Iaddend.of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of change of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum change of rate of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum amplitude, said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second difference, said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
calculating the magnitude of mean pulse pressure in accordance with the following expression:
.[.(1) Pmi =K1 ric a.].
.Iadd.(1) P'mi =Kl ric a .Iaddend.
where
K1 =calibration constant
.[.P'mi =(Ps +Pd)/2-Po.].
.Iadd.P'mi =(Psi +Pdi)/2-Po .Iaddend.
Psi =systolic blood pressure, in cycle i
.[.Pmi =(Ps +Pd)/2.].
.Iadd.Pmi =(Psi +Pdi)/2 .Iaddend.
Pdi =diastolic blood pressure, in cycle i
a=constant
Po =constant.
15. Apparatus for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;
comprising;
means for detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient, and for providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said means for detecting being attachable to said patient to thereby detect said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said minimum amplitude and said maximum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of increase of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
means for measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum amplitude, said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second .[.different,.]. .Iadd.difference, .Iaddend.said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
means for calculating the magnitude of selected ones of said parameters, said means for calculating being connected to both said means for detecting and means for measuring;
wherein the means for calculating calculates implicitly the magnitude of the mean pulse pressure in accordance with the following expression: ##EQU28## where Pmo =constant at calibration
φ1i2i =PPi =pulse pressure during cycle i
k=constant
j=constant
Psi =Pmo2i +Po
Pdi =Pmo1i +Po
Pmi =(P.sub. si +Pdi)/2
Po =constant
ri =ratio of exponentials
K3 =coefficient (variable or constant).
16. A method for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;
comprising:
detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient and providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said maximum amplitude and the said minimum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of change of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum change of rate of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum amplitude, said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second difference, said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
wherein the means for calculating calculates implicitly the magnitude of mean pulse pressure in accordance with the following .[.expressure.]. .Iadd.expression.Iaddend.: ##EQU29## where Pmo =constant at calibration
φ1i2i =PPi =pulse pressure during cycle i
k=constant
j=constant
.[.P2i =Pmo2i +Po.].
.Iadd.Psi =Pmo2i +Po .Iaddend.
Pdi =Pmo1i +Po
Pmi =(P.sub. si +Pdi)/2
Po =constant
ri =ratio of exponentials
K3 =coefficient (variable or constant). .Iadd.
17. Apparatus for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;
comprising:
means for detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient, and for providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said means for detecting being attachable to said patient to thereby detect said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said minimum amplitude and said maximum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of increase of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
means for measuring said maximum amplitude; said minimum amplitude, said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second difference, said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
means for calculating the magnitude of selected ones of said parameters, said means for calculating being connected to both said means for detecting and means for measuring;
wherein means for calculating calculates the magnitude of the pulse pressure parameter in accordance with the following expression; ##EQU30## where PPi =Pulse Pressure-- Ps -Pd
Ps =Systolic blood pressure
Pd =diastolic blood pressure
k=constant
K'=constant..Iaddend. .Iadd.
18. A method for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;
comprising:
detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient and providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of change of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum change of rate of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum amplitude, said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second difference, said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
calculating the magnitude of the mean arterial pressure Pmi in accordance with the following expression: ##EQU31## where PPi =Pulse Pressure=Ps -Pd
Ps =Systolic blood pressure
Pd =Diastolic blood pressure
k=constant
K'=constant.
Description
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This .Iadd.application is a reissue of application Ser. No. 105,803, filed Oct. 8, 1987, now U.S. Pat. No. 4,834,107, which .Iaddend.application is a continuation-in-part application Ser. No. 059,520, filed June 8, .Iadd.now abandoned .Iaddend. which is a continuation-in-part application Ser. No. 807,693, filed Dec. 11, 1985, now abandoned which is a continuation-in-part of parent application Ser. No. 608,955, filed May 10, 1984, now all abandoned.

BACKGROUND OF INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

The invention relates to a non-invasive method of measuring arterial blood pressure and cardiac output. The invention also relates to an apparatus for carrying out the method.

2. Description of Prior Art

Non-invasive methods and apparatus for measuring arterial blood pressure and cardiac output are known in the art. Once such method and apparatus is illustrated in U.S. Pat. No. 4,030,485, Warner, issued June 21, 1977. A second such method and apparatus is taught in U.S. Pat. No. 4,418,700, Warner, issued Dec. 6, 1983. The present invention constitutes an improvement and refinement of the method and apparatus as taught in the latter patent.

SUMMARY OF INVENTION

The invention relates to a non-invasive method, and an apparatus for determining heart-related parameters in patients. The method and apparatus determine pulse pressure, time constant of the arterial system, systolic and diastolic pressure, peripheral resistance, and cardiac output and means arterial blood pressure.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

The invention will be better understood by an examination of the following description together with the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a block diagram of the apparatus for carrying out the inventive method;

FIG. 2 is a typical sensor output of the system as illustrated in FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 illustrates arterial blood pressure pulses;

FIGS. 4, 4a and 4b illustrate a blood volume pulse;

FIG. 5 illustrates a blood volume pulse and a blood pressure pulse to illustrate the ratio g; and

FIG. 6 is a simplified flowchart for a computer program for performing calculations in accordance with the invention.

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

As seen in FIG. 1, an apparatus in accordance with the invention comprises a volume sensor such as a photo-electric plethysmograph S, an amplifier A1, an analog to digital converter A2, a microcomputer M and a display device D. The plethysmograph sensor S is attached to, for example, the earlobe of a subject. The sensor could also be attached to other suitable parts of the body such as the forehead, fingertips or toes.

As is known, the plethysmograph, detects changes in blood volume of the region to which it is attached. A typical sensor output signal is shown in FIG. 2. As seen in FIG. 2, the output signal has a pulsating component and a DC component.

The output of the sensor is applied to the plethysmograph amplifier A1 where it is amplified and filtered and the DC component is discarded. The output of A1 has a DC component, but this is not directly related to the sensor DC component.

The output of A1 is fed to the analog to digital (A/D) converter A2 which digitizes the signal. In a preferred embodiment, the sampling rate is 100 per second.

Microcomputer M accepts signals from A2 and processes them according to the instructions it contains. These instructions are schematically represented in the simplified flowchart of FIG. 6.

The computer quantities are then displayed on a CRT monitor D or other suitable display means.

THEORY

Arterial blood pressure pulses are shown in FIG. 3. The shape of these curves vary according to the site where they are measured. The highest pressure reached during a cycle i is called the arterial systolic blood pressure, Psi. The lowest pressure reached during the same cycle is called the arterial diastolic blood pressure, Pdi. The pressure rise from Pdi to psi in the same cycle is the pulse pressure, ppi.

By definition

 psi -pdi =ppi                              (1)

To find Ppi

A plethysmographic pulse is shown in FIG. 4. The minimum value at the beginning of the pulse is Vimin. The maximum value of the pulse is Vimax. As the pulse volume rises from Vimin to Vimax, the time rate of volume change reaches a maximum Vimax at time tiVm. The pulse volume at time tiVm is ViVm.

let ##EQU1##

In addition to finding the values of ViVm corresponding to Vimax, see U.S. Pat. No. 4,418,700, Warner, values of ViVm are also found corresponding to Vimax -1, Vimax -2, . . . Vimax -k, where k is a function of Vimax.

All of the values of ViVm corresponding to the time rates of volume change lying between and including Vimax and vimax -k are averaged and used to compute ΔViVm.

The average value of ViV m is ##EQU2## where n0=number of values of ViV.sbsb.0 m corresponding to Vimax ##EQU3## nk=number of values of ViV.sbsb.k m corresponding to Vimax -k

k=(Vimax/m) (integral values only)+1

m=constant . . . a preferred value of m=20

l=constant . . . a preferred value of l=1 ##EQU4## Kpp =constant determined by a first calibration r1 =constant . . . preferably equal to 0

r2 =constant . . . preferably equal to 0

0≦α≦1

Ri1 can now be defined, as per equation (2) above, but using the average value of ViVm so that equation (2) can be rewritten ##EQU5##

From FIG. 4 ##EQU6## wherein

R'i =1-Ri 

or

Ri =1-R'i 

No other calibration should be required with different subjects. However, if desired, Kpp can be determined for each subject.

To find mean blood pressure

The mean blood pressure Pmi during a cycle i is given by ##EQU7## b3 =exponent . . . the preferred value of b3 is equal to 0.5 K4 =constant determined at calibration for each subject. It is only necessary to find this constant once for each subject. The measurements carried out at different times on the same subject do not require separate calibration

P0 =constant . . . preferred 25 mmHg ##EQU8## where gi =(ΔViAV /ΔVi)

ΔViAV =average value of ΔVi over the time interval Ti

 Pdi =Psi -Ppi                              (8)

The variable gi can take on a constant value g0 whose preferred value is 0.333.

Alternatively, mean blood pressure can be determined using the following expression: ##EQU9## (for definition of ri see Equation 10 below); where

G(t)=a function of t, in a particular case,

G(t)=(φci)

φc =.[.(.].(1/Δtc).[.).].Y

φi =.[.(.].(1/Δti).[.).].Y

Δtc =(Δt'iφc

Δti =Δt'iφ

where

.[.Tc =T at calibration.]. .Iadd.Δtc =Δt at calibration Δt'iφ (see FIG. 4B) .Iaddend.

.[.tc =t at calibration Δt'iφ.sbsb.c (see FIG. 4B).].

.[.φc =(Tc /tc)=(T/t) at calibration.]. .Iadd.φc =(1/Δt)y at calibration.Iaddend.

y=constant

The remainder of the terms in equation 5' are the same as similar terms in equation 5.

Determination of ratio R (FIG. 4b)

From FIG. 4b, the ratio R is

Ri =(ΔVit /ΔVi)

where

ΔVit =change in volume at predetermined time ti

ΔVi =total volume change during cycle i

ti =time such that Δti =KT Δt'iφ

KT =constant

Estimation of pulse pressure, PP ##EQU10## where PPi =pulse pressure=ps -Pd

Ps =systolic blood pressure

Pd =diastolic blood pressure

k=constant

K'T =constant ≃ KT

In FIG. 4B

Δ V'i =ΔVi -ΔVit ##EQU11## wherein from the above equation: ##EQU12## multiply numerator and denominator by ekPP i ##EQU13##

Determination of r

From FIG. 4

 ri = (Vimax /ΔVi)G(t)

where

Vimax =maximum time rate of volume increase in cycle i

ΔVi =total volume increase during cycle i

From FIG. 4b

.[.ri = (Vit ΔVi)G(t).].

.Iadd.ri =(Vit /Vi)G(t) .Iaddend.

Vit =time rate of increase of volume Vi(t) at time ti

.[.ΔVi =total volume increase of volume during.]. .Iadd.ΔVi =total increase of volume during time interval Δtiφ.Iaddend.

Estimation of Mean Blood Pressure

(1) Pmi '=K1 ric a

K1 =calibration constant

Pmi '=(P.sub. s +Pd)/2-Po

Psi =systolic blood pressure, in cycle i

Pmi =(P.sub. s +Pd)/2

Pdi =diastolic blood pressure, in cycle i

a=constant

Po =constant

.[.(2) ekp mi=K2 Ric b.]. (2) .Iadd.ekp mi=K2 ric b .Iaddend.

where

K2 =constant (calibration)

b=constant ##EQU14## where Pmo =constant at calibration

φ1i2i =PPi =pulse pressure during cycle i

k=constant

j=constant

solve equation by making LHS=RHS by varying φ1i and φ2i2i =PPi1i)

then

Psi =Pmo2i +P0

Pdi =Pmo1i +Po

Pmi =(P.sub. si +Pdi)/2

P0 =constant

ri =ratio of exponentials

K3 =coefficient (variable or constant)

Correction for ri

ri (corrected)=ric =ri em(φ.sbsp.o-φ.sbsp.i)

m=constant

φ0 =PPi at calibration

φi =current value of PPi.

Equation (9) above is only one form which this particular equation can take. By simple mathematical manipulations, the invention may take two other forms as per (10) and (11) below. What follows is the manipulations as well as the two other forms of the equation:

As above noted

φ2i1i =PPi =Psi -Pdi 

φ2i1i =(P.sub. si -Po)-(P.sub. di -Po)

Let

P'si =Psi -Po

p'di =Pdi -P0

φ2i1i =P'si -P'di

add and subtract Pmo on RHS above

φ2i1i =P'si -Pmo +Pmo -P'di (A)

φ2i and φ1i can take on any values in satisfying the above equation (A)

Put φ2i =P'si -Pmo

and φ1i =Pmo -P'di in equation (9)

then ##EQU15## simplifying the denominator ##EQU16##

To solve equation 11:

(1) Set P'di =P'si -PPi and solve for P'si

.Iadd.P'mi =(Psi +Pdi)/2-Po .Iaddend.

(2) Set P'si =P'di -PPi and solve for P'di

Although particular embodiments have been illustrated, this was for the purpose of describing, but not limiting, the invention. Various modifications, which will come readily to the mind of one skilled in the art, are within the scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims.

.Iadd.Pmi =(Psi +Pdi)/2 .Iaddend.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
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GB2092309A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5365924 *Jul 31, 1992Nov 22, 1994Frederick Erdman AssociationMethod and apparatus for non-invasive cardiovascular diagnosis
US5542421 *Aug 30, 1994Aug 6, 1996Frederick Erdman AssociationMethod and apparatus for cardiovascular diagnosis
US5865755 *Oct 11, 1996Feb 2, 1999Dxtek, Inc.Method and apparatus for non-invasive, cuffless, continuous blood pressure determination
US6986744Feb 2, 1999Jan 17, 2006Transonic Systems, Inc.Method and apparatus for determining blood flow during a vascular corrective procedure
US20050171446 *Mar 25, 2005Aug 4, 2005Transonic Systems, IncMethod and apparatus for determining a blood flow during a vascular access dysfunction corrective procedure
WO1994010903A1 *Nov 17, 1993May 26, 1994Kunig Horst EMeasuring myocardial impairment, dysfunctions, and sufficiency/insufficiency
WO1995016391A1 *Dec 15, 1994Jun 22, 1995Pulse Metric, Inc.Method and apparatus for treating cardiovascular pathologies
WO2010072416A1 *Dec 23, 2009Jul 1, 2010Charite-Universitätsmedizin BerlinMethod and device for monitoring and improving arteriogenesis
Classifications
U.S. Classification600/481, 600/507, 600/504, 600/531, 600/479
International ClassificationA61B5/029, G06F17/00, A61B5/021
Cooperative ClassificationA61B5/029, A61B5/021, A61B5/02007
European ClassificationA61B5/02D, A61B5/021, A61B5/029
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