|Publication number||USRE33883 E|
|Application number||US 07/367,300|
|Publication date||Apr 14, 1992|
|Filing date||Jun 16, 1989|
|Priority date||Feb 4, 1985|
|Publication number||07367300, 367300, US RE33883 E, US RE33883E, US-E-RE33883, USRE33883 E, USRE33883E|
|Inventors||Robert S. Ledley|
|Original Assignee||National Biomedical Research Foundation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (31), Referenced by (5), Classifications (18), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present invention relates to a split-image, multi-power microscopic image display system for use in viewing simultaneously two images of the same object or specimen, each image having a different magnification with respect to the other.
In certain microscopic viewing applications, such as microscopic examination of chromosomes, it is necessary for the technician to view a relatively large area of the specimen under a lower magnification power in order to locate a particular smaller area to be viewed, and then to switch magnifications and refocus in order to view the smaller area of concern under a larger magnification. Much time is wasted performing these manipulations, and it is quite inefficient and inconvenient for the technician to have to refocus the microscope after switching to a higher magnification.
Accordingly, it would be considered highly desirable to provide a split-image microscopic image display system and method having multiple magnification powers, and it would especially be desirable to provide such a system with the capability of simultaneously viewing and displaying on two monitors both the larger area of general interest and the smaller area of specific interest. Moreover, it would also be considered desirable to provide such a system with the capability of producing, on operator command, a hardcopy of the images displayed on either of the monitors (the high-power monitor or the low-power monitor).
In some applications, it might be desirable to provide such a split-image, multi-power microscopic image display system and method with a type of lens switching apparatus whereby lenses of varying physical characteristics can be manually and yet easily employed as the objective lens in the microscopic image display system and method. However, as mentioned previously, the technology of the prior art is such as to require a refocusing of the microscope each time a new lens is switched into place for use as the objective. Therefore, it is considered desirable to provide a lens switching arrangement wherein refocusing is not required each time a new lens is switched into position.
The following patents are generally pertinent to the present invention: U.S. Pat. Nos. 2,527,719; 2,699,092; 2,950,649; 3,030,861; 3,057,259; 3,353,891; 3,459,464; 3,488,104; 3,503,684; 3,871,741; 3,895,854; 4,218,112; and 4,440,475.
The present invention relates to a split-image, multi-power microscopic image display system and method.
Specifically, the present invention relates to a microscopic image display system and method wherein the optical image of a specimen is, as a result of the employment of a splitter, directed along two optical paths. A first optical path includes a trinocular microscope head for operator viewing of the specimen during initial microscopic setup, in combination with a first TV camera to which the image is presented as an optical input and a first TV monitor connected to the first camera for producing a visual image of the specimen magnified in accordance with a first magnification power. The second optical path includes a combination of lenses and a bending prism for presenting to a second TV camera, as an optical input thereto, an image of the specimen magnified in accordance with a second magnification power, and a second TV monitor connected to the second TV camera for presenting a visual image thereof.
Preferably, the microscopic image display system and method of the present invention includes a microcomputer having an operator input means (such as a keyboard) for inputting information pertaining to the specimen being viewed, in combination with a mixer connected between the microcomputer and the TV camera(s), on the one hand, and the TV monitor(s), on the other hand, for displaying on the TV screen, as an inset, the information pertinent to the particular specimen being viewed. As a further preference, the microscopic image display system and method includes a slave monitor or monitors, each slave monitor being connected to an output of a respective one of the TV monitors, the system and method further including one or more respective photographic printers, each photographic printer being connected to a respective one of the slave monitors for producing a hardcopy record of the image being displayed at a particular time.
In accordance with a further feature of the invention, the microscopic image display system and method is provided with an objective lens switching apparatus by means of which the operator can switchably employ two or more lenses of varying characteristics as the objective lens of the microscopic image display system and method. However, in accordance with this feature of the present invention, each time the operator switches the lens into position, it is not necessary for the operator to refocus the microscope.
Therefore, it is a primary object of the present invention to provide a split-image, multi-power microscopic image display system and method.
It is an additional object of the present invention to provide a microscopic image display system and method having at least two optical paths, each optical path providing a visual image of a specimen magnified in accordance with a respective magnification power.
It is an additional object of the present invention to provide a microscopic image display system and method employing at least two TV cameras and at least two respectively associated TV monitors for viewing the respective magnified images of the specimen.
It is an additional object of the present invention to provide a microscopic image display system and method having the capability of producing a hardcopy record of the specimen being viewed.
It is an additional object of the present invention to provide a microscopic image display system and method wherein information relevant to the particular specimen being viewed can be electronically inserted into the TV signals so that it can be viewed simultaneously with the magnified image of the specimen.
It is an additional object of the present invention to provide a microscopic image display screen and method having a lens switching apparatus for providing the operator with the capability of switching various lenses into place without the need for refocusing after each lens switching operation.
The manner in which these and other objects are accomplished by the present invention will become clear from the following detailed description of a preferred embodiment.
FIG. 1 is a front view of the microscopic image display system of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a top view of the microscopic image display system of the present invention.
FIG. 3 is a side view of a portion of the microscopic image display system of FIG. 1, as viewed along the arrow D in FIG. 1.
FIG. 4 is a block diagram further disclosing the microscopic image display system of the present invention.
FIGS. 5A and 5B are a top view and a section view (along line B--B' of FIG. 5A), respectively, of a lens switching arrangement employed in accordance with the present invention.
The invention will now be described in more detail with reference to the figures of the drawings.
FIG. 1 is a front view of the microscopic image display system of the present invention, while FIG. 2 is a top view of the microscopic image display system. As seen therein, the system 10 comprises a stage 12, specimen slide 14, objective lens 16, splitter 18, trinocular microscopic head 20, first camera 22, first TV monitor 24, converging lens 26, diverging lens 28, reduction lens 30, bending prism 32, neutral density filter 33, second TV camera 34, and second TV monitor 36.
The objective 16 is preferably a 100X microscope objective having a high numerical aperture (1.3-1.4). Moreover, the optical output of the objective 16 must be characterized by a 15° divergence.
In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention, the amount of image provided as an optical output of the objective 16 covers an area of approximately 700 microns, but an image area of only 350 microns is desired for display on the monitor 36; moreover, the image area of 350 microns preferably fills the entire display area of the monitor 36. This is accomplished by proper design choice of the following parameters: (1) the distance between the objective 16 and the converging lens 26; (2) the distance between the converging lens 26 and the lens 38 of camera 22; and (3) the reduction factor, that is, the ratio of the focal length of reduction lens 30 to the focal length of diverging lens 28.
Converging lens 26 is preferably a 61 mm. double-convex lens measuring 16 (±5) diopters. As is well-known, a diopter is the inverse of the focal length.
Diverging lens 28 is preferably a 102 mm. compound lens, such as a projection lens, which takes converging light (emanating from the converging lens 26) and converts it to parallel light.
Reduction lens 30 is preferably a 28 mm. lens, such as is typically employed in a 35 mm. camera, for reducing the parallel light image coming from the diverging lens 28.
Bending prism 32 is any conventional light-bending prism employed for the purpose of bending the light coming from reduction lens 30 so as to direct it toward camera 34. In this regard, it is to be noted that a first inversion of the image of the specimen takes place as a result of bending by the splitter 18, whereas a second inversion of the image takes place as a result of bending by the prism 32. It is to be further noted that the camera 34 is disposed in an inverted manner, with its top facing downward (in FIG. 1), whereas the monitor 36 is disposed on its side (as also shown in FIG. 1).
As a result of the latter arrangement, the image viewed on monitor 36 corresponds precisely, in orientation, to that viewed through the microscope directly (via the trinocular microscope head 20). Moreover, the arrangement is such that movement of the slide 14 (and its specimen) in a given direction will result in a movement of the image on monitor 36 in the corresponding direction on monitor 36. Finally, the placement of monitor 36 on its side results in vertical orientation of the scan lines of the monitor, thus facilitating viewing by the user.
Neutral density filter 33 (preferably, a Kodak Wratten No. 96) is disposed at some point in the optical path to the camera 34, preferably between prism 32 and camera 34 (FIG. 2), to compensate for an increase in light intensity occurring due to reduction in the second optical path.
FIG. 3 is a side view of a portion of the system of the present invention, as viewed along the line D in FIG. 1. As seen in FIG. 1, and as confirmed in FIG. 3, the camera 22 is preferably oriented with its top facing to the left in FIG. 1, while the monitor 24 is disposed on its side. As a result, the specimen as viewed through the trinocular microscope head 20 will correspond precisely in orientation to the view of the specimen displayed on the monitor 24 and viewing is facilitated. As best seen in FIG. 3, the trinocular microscope head 20 provides the user with the capability of viewing the fully magnified (100X) image of the specimen directly, that image being conveyed via the objective 16, splitter 18, further splitter 40 in the trinocular microscope head 20, and binocular viewing arrangement 42. The trinocular microscope head 20 is a conventional item available in the marketplace; for example, such a trinocular microscope head is manufactured by Olympus of Japan.
In order to provide the system with the aforementioned viewing capability, the present invention calls for the mounting of the trinocular microscope head 20, by suitable means, on the end of the camera 22 such that the distance B+C from the objective 16 to the binocular viewing arrangement 42 equals the distance A from the objective 16 to the camera 22 (specifically, the input lens 38 thereof).
Referring to FIGS. 1, 2 and 3, the operation of the system is as follows. The specimen to be viewed is placed on the slide 14, and the slide 14 is placed on the stage 12. The technician then adjusts the slide 14, using the trinocular microscope head 20 or the monitor 36 to view the specimen on slide 14. As mentioned previously, the arrangement is such that movement of the slide 14 in a given direction will result in precisely the same movement of the specimen on the monitor 36.
Once the specimen is properly positioned, the technician views the specimen under a lower magnification power (for example, 20X) on monitor 36 and under a higher magnification power (for example, 100X) on monitor 24. This simultaneous viewing of the specimen under lower and higher magnification powers is achieved without the need for switching of lenses and without any need for refocusing.
FIG. 4 is a block diagram further disclosing the system of the present invention. As seen therein, the system comprises the previously discussed cameras 22 and 34 and monitors 24 and 36, and further comprises a microcomputer 50, keyboard (or other input means) 52, mixers 54 and 60, slave monitors 56 and 62, and photographic printers 58 and 64.
In operation, in the course of positioning a specimen on the slide 14 (FIG. 1), the technician uses the keyboard 52 to enter information relevant to the specimen into the microcomputer 50, the microcomputer 50 being appropriately programmed and configured to provide analog representations of the entered information to the mixers 54 and 60. As an example, the microcomputer 50 can be configured to include a Video Memory Board MFB-512-8-4-M and an A/D, D/A board MFB-512-8-1-M, manufactured by Imaging Technology, Inc. of Woburn, Mass., for the purpose of generating analog representations of information entered via keyboard 52.
The mixers 54 and 60 are conventional analog mixing devices, available in the marketplace, for mixing the analog video signals from the cameras 22 and 34, respectively, with the analog representations of operator-entered information provided by microcomputer 50, so as to generate a mixed video signal for provision to the monitors 24 and 36, respectively. As a result, monitors 24 and 36 display both the operator-entered information and the image of the specimen.
The system further provides the capability, via photographic printers 58 and 64, of producing a hardcopy record of the image displayed on the monitors 24 and 36, respectively. This can be accomplished in either one of two alternate ways: first, the cameras 22 and 34 can provide a direct optical output to the photographic printers 58 and 64, respectively; or second, slave monitors 56 and 62 can be connected to the output of monitors 24 and 36, respectively, so as to produce appropriate inputs to the photographic printers 58 and 64, respectively. The photographic printers 58 and 64 are, by way of example, implemented by an automatic print processor such as the "47th Street Photo Speed Printer" manufactured by the 47th Street Darkroom Center of New York, N.Y.
FIGS. 5A and 5B are top and sectional views, respectively, of a lens switching arrangement which can be employed with the system of the present invention. As seen in the figures, the lens switching arrangement comprises a frame member 160 in which a rotatable, circular disclike member 162 is positioned, member 162 being rotatable within the member 160. The member 162 includes receptacles in which are disposed respective lens arrangements 164, 165 and 166.
More specifically, each of the lens arrangements 164, 165 and 166 has a different magnification power so that, by rotating the member 162 within the frame member 160, lens arrangements of different magnification powers can be moved into position in the optical path, thus providing variable magnification of the object being viewed.
In the prior art, it is well-known to provide a lens switching arrangement wherein lenses of differing magnification may be rotated into position in the optical path. However, a significant drawback to such prior art arrangements resides in the fact that, after rotating each lens into position, it is necessary to refocus the microscope with which the lens switching arrangement is being used.
In accordance with a feature of the present invention, there is no necessity to refocus the microscope when a new lens is switched into position in the optical path. This is due to the fact that, in accordance with the invention, and as seen in FIG. 5B, each lens arrangement 164, 165 and 166 includes a pair of lenses 164a and 164b, 165a and 165b, and 166a and 166b, respectively. More specifically, the present inventor has discovered that, by superimposing positive diopter lenses 164b, 165b and 166b on top of the negative diopter lenses 164a, 165a and 166a, respectively, and by arranging for a predetermined distance to be established between the negative diopter lens and its superimposed positive diopter lens, refocusing of the microscope after each switch to a new lens arrangement is unnecessary.
Accordingly, referring to FIGS. 1, 5A and 5B, in accordance with a further feature of the invention, a lens switching arrangement as shown in FIGS. 5A and 5B can be substituted for the objective lens 16 of FIG. 1. This will provide the microscopic image display system with the capability of switching objective lenses, thus providing the user with further flexibility in the establishment of split-image, multi-power displays.
It is to be understood that the split-image, multi-power microscopic image display system and method of the present invention must comply with the Koler technique (well-known in the art) in order to avoid focusing of the filament. In brief, every microscope has a filament which generates light which passes through the objective and is focused by one or more lenses in an objective plane. It is possible, in certain arrangements, to obtain a spurious image resulting from focusing of the filament. In order to avoid this problem, Koler developed lens arrangements and procedures so that the filament image was positioned quite a distance away, and thus was out of focus insofar as the microscopic viewer was concerned.
While preferred forms and arrangements have been shown in illustrating the invention, it is to be understood that various modifications can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of this disclosure.
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|U.S. Classification||348/79, 359/381, 359/368, 348/335, 359/372|
|International Classification||G02B21/36, H04N7/18, G02B21/00|
|Cooperative Classification||H04N7/18, G02B21/367, G02B21/365, G02B21/00, G02B21/361|
|European Classification||H04N7/18, G02B21/36D, G02B21/00, G02B21/36V1, G02B21/36V|
|Jan 24, 1995||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Jun 18, 1995||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|