|Publication number||USRE34183 E|
|Application number||US 07/617,087|
|Publication date||Feb 23, 1993|
|Filing date||Nov 23, 1990|
|Priority date||Feb 5, 1986|
|Publication number||07617087, 617087, US RE34183 E, US RE34183E, US-E-RE34183, USRE34183 E, USRE34183E|
|Inventors||David I. Wilens, Alexander Long, III|
|Original Assignee||Electromotive Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (111), Non-Patent Citations (32), Referenced by (10), Classifications (31), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates generally to the field of internal combustion engine control systems and, in particular, to those systems that avoid the use of distributors and achieve efficient coil charging, even at higher engine speeds.
2. Description of the Prior Art
It is well-known that rotational forces are derived from internal combustion engines by the igniting of air/fuel (A/F) mixtures injected into cylinders of such engines, to impart rectilinear movement to pistons disposed within the cylinders, whereby rotational forces are imparted to a crankshaft. A spark plug is disposed within each cylinder and is electrically energized to create a spark igniting the A/F mixture. The spark is timed with respect to a top dead center (TDC) position of the crankshaft to cause burning of the A/F mixture to impart forces on the cylinder and, therefore, on the crankshaft at a point in time after the cylinder has reached its TDC position. The angular position of the rotatively driven crankshaft is typically measured with respect to the TDC position of the cylinder. In particular, the spark is generated at a point in time, i.e., spark instant (SI), corresponding to a selected angular position of the engine's crankshaft. Typically, the spark is generated at a position before the TDC position to ensure that the A/F mixture will be ignited and that the A/F mixture burning will produce maximum pressure within the cylinder at a point in time after the piston reaches its TDC position. The angular position of the crankshaft at SI is commonly known as the spark advance angle θa and is measured in reference to the TDC position. Because the spark advance angle θa directly effects when the burning of the A/F mixture takes place, the spark advance angle θa also effects the amount of torque that will be delivered to the crankshaft. The relationship between the spark advance angle θa and the crankshaft torque is a first order function and must be controlled precisely to obtain maximum fuel economy and to minimize the pollutants emitted by the engine.
The prior art has typically employed a switch or, more accurately, an array of mechanical switches rotatively coupled to the engine crankshaft and responsive to crankshaft rotation to close, thus, completing an electrical circuit to apply electrical energy selectively to the spark plugs. Such an array of switches is commonly known as a distributor. In early automobiles, the distributors were coupled to a hand operated lever mounted upon the steering column to manually advance or retard the spark instant. Mechanical governor-type distributors represented an improvement over the manually advanced controls, employing a centrifugal device coupled to the distributor to advance the spark instant automatically as a function of the crankshaft speed. Later, a manifold vacuum gauge was coupled to the internal combustion engine to sense the manifold vacuum and, thus, the load applied to the engine. Typically, such manifold vacuum devices were coupled to a mechanical diaphragm which served to retard the spark instant as the engine load increased and, thus, the manifold vacuum decreased.
Distributors of the prior art typically included a cam that is rotatively coupled by a reduction gear to the internal combustion engine and disposed to contact successively the contacts or points of the distributor, whereby the circuit to a corresponding spark plug is completed. Typically in the prior art, the physical position of the points and, thus, the spark advance angle θa could be adjusted by the governor to vary the spark advance angle θa as a function of crankshaft speed. Further, the prior art suggests that the manifold vacuum be sensed to position the points to retard the spark as a function of engine load.
Because mechanical distributors are limited as to angle θa, the accuracy and the degree to which they may be controlled, electronic controls and, in particular, closed loop ignition systems have been employed to increase fuel efficiency and to decrease pollution emission. It is evident that the goals of decreasing pollution and increasing fuel efficiency are mutually exclusive in that as steps are taken to increase fuel efficiency, it becomes increasingly difficult to maintain the levels of pollution emission. Typically, emission control systems retard the spark advance angle θa, thus, limiting pollution emission, but at the expense of good engine performance. In particular, the spark advance angle θa is advanced as a nonlinear slope function of engine speed. The mechanical devices of the prior art, as well as many of the electronic controls, are able to implement such a function of spark advance angle θa versus engine speed linearly, but with relatively poor accuracy and limited adjustment. As a result, engines with such controls cannot be accurately timed to meet the new, rigid standards imposed by the U.S. Government.
As described above, ignition control is effected by setting the ignition instant in terms of the spark advance angle θa with respect to TDC. Typically of many systems is that disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,015,566 of Walh, which includes an electronic ignition system for a four cycle internal combustion engine that controls the timing of the ignition instants with respect to the measured crankshaft position as a function of engine speed. In particular, the Walh system employs a transducer for providing a first train of pulses indicative of cam shaft position and a second train of pulses indicative of crankshaft speed. The first train of pulses is generated by a crankshaft position transducer coupled to the distributor shaft which is geared down by a ratio of 2 to 1 with respect to its crankshaft. For the four cylinder engine of Walh, the crankshaft position transducer outputs four pulses of the first train for each revolution of the distributor shaft and two pulses for each revolution of the engine crankshaft. In a typical four cylinder auto engine, there are four cycles, or cylinder firings, for each revolution of the distributor shaft and each set of two revolutions of the engine crankshaft. Thus, during the first revolution of the engine crankshaft, the ignition control will consecutively fire cylinders 1 and 3 and, during the second revolution of the engine crankshaft, the ignition control will fire successively cylinders 2 and 4 of the Walh engine.
The problem in achieving low pollution emission and efficient engine performance resides in the fact that prior art ignition control systems do not accurately measure and provide a high resolution signal indicative of the position of the engine crankshaft. For example, the Walh crankshaft position transducer generates only two output pulses for each revolution of its crankshaft. Thus, if the Walh engine accelerates rapidly, not only its output signal indicative of crankshaft speed, but also its signal indicative of crankshaft position are in error. To overcome these problems. Applicant discloses in his U.S. Pat. No. 4,494,509 entitled "HIGH RESOLUTION ELECTRONIC IGNITION CONTROL SYSTEM", a new and improved electronic ignition control which advances and retards SI with significantly improved accuracy or resolution with respect to the crankshaft position. Applicant hereby incorporates by reference the disclosure of his above identified patent into this application. In particular, Applicant's patent describes an optical encoder connected to the crankshaft of a distributor and comprising first and second encoder discs. The first encoder disc has a relatively large number of transmissive portions to generate a first, relatively high frequency signal, the frequency of which is an accurate indication of the angular rotational velocity of the engine crankshaft. The first train of pulses is applied to a phase locked loop which filters and outputs a signal of increased frequency proportional to that of the first train. The second encoder disc has a relatively few portions to generate a second train of signals of a second, lesser frequency. Each signal of the second train occurs in time when the crankshaft rotates past a fixed reference point in the rotation of the engine crankshaft. The reference point is set illustratively at 45° before top dead center (BTDC). SI is accurately controlled to occur at the end of a variable length arc of crankshaft rotation starting at the 45° BTDC reference point. The variable length of this arc is set dependent upon a selected engine parameter, e.g., the angular or rotational velocity of the engine crankshaft. The first high frequency train of signals is counted or integrated over a fixed period to obtain an accurate indication of crankshaft velocity. This accurate indication of crankshaft velocity is used to address one of a plurality of counts stored in memory. The counts are indicative of the degree or angle of advance or retard for that particular engine as a function of crankshaft velocity. A high resolution signal indicative of the crankshaft position is obtained by applying the high frequency signal of the phase locked loop to a crankshaft position counter, which initiates counting of the high frequency signal upon the occurrence of each signal of the second train. The crankshaft position counter counts to a point corresponding to the desired crankshaft arc as determined by the addressed count to provide an output signal, the occurrence of which controls SI. The SI is determined, not based upon a sensor which provides an output signal once or twice per revolution of the crankshaft, but rather upon the high frequency train of signals, thus, effecting ignition timing with a corresponding high degree of accuracy.
It is evident that fuel efficiency, pollution prevention and engine performance can be enhanced by improving the accuracy with which SI is set. In the ignition controlled system, as described in the above referenced U.S. Patent, a reduction gear mechanism included within the distributor couples the engine crankshaft to the first and second encoder discs, as described. Such a reduction gearing mechanism is a source of "backlash" which produces errors in the definition of the engine crankshaft position. In the ignition control systems of the prior art, the timing signals were of such low resolution that the inclusion of a reduction gearing, as typically employed between the engine crankshaft and the distributor, did not appreciably effect the timing of SI or the engine performance. However, as the accuracy of providing SI improves, the inaccuracies introduced by such reduction gearing are no longer acceptable.
To overcome the problems associated with the use of reduction gearing, Applicant discloses in his U.S. patent application Ser. No. 764,970, entitled "A PRECISION DISTRIBUTORLESS IGNITION CONTROL SYSTEM FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES", filed on Aug. 12, 1985, now U.S. Pat. No. 4,649,881, an electronic ignition system including a rotor directly coupled to the engine's crankshaft and comprising at least one first reference indicium and a plurality of N second reference indicia thereon for each first reference indicia. First and second signal generators are disposed at a point fixed in relation to the rotation of the crankshaft for providing first and second trains of signals in response respectively to the passage of each of the first and second reference indicia. SI is controlled by an arc termination circuit in the form of a counter, which is initiated in response to each first signal for measuring a variable crankshaft arc terminating at SI. The second train of signals is applied to a phase locked loop, which multiplies and outputs a signal of a relatively high frequency, which is applied to the aforementioned arc termination counter. In an illustrative embodiment described in this application, the rotor takes the form of a cylinder directly rotated by the motor's crankshaft and having a first plurality of slots therein corresponding to the first reference indicia and a second set of slots therein corresponding to the N second reference indicia. The first indicia are disposed on the rotor in a fixed relationship with the engine's crankshaft and, therefore, in a fixed relationship with TDC of the engine's cylinder. However, two signal generators are required to sense the first and second indicia, as well as circuitry for decoding and controlling which cylinder is to be fired next. The use of two or more signal generators adds to the cost of such ignition systems, as well as increases the difficulty of synchronizing the high resolution crankshaft signals as derived from the second signal generator.
It would be desirable to employ but a single signal generator that would not only supply a train of high resolution signals or pulses, but also a signal indicative of when the crankshaft rotates past a cylinder reference point such as TDC. The problem of using a single signal generator lies in the ambiguity presented by a single train of high resolution signals particularly when that ignition system must accurately control SI over an extremely wide speed range of the crankshaft varying from low engine speeds below 30 ERPM observed during engine cranking, to high speeds of over 12,000 ERPM required for racing engines. This is a speed range of 400:1. In addition, the rotation of the crankshaft is not constant; it may stop and then immediately start again. Further, rapid acceleration and deceleration is often imposed on the engine's crankshaft.
Further, an electronic ignition system must not only control SI, but also effect ignitions within a predetermined sequence of the cylinders. If a cylinder is fired out of turn, combustion could take place within a cylinder with its intake valve open, thus possibly causing an engine fire. Thus, it is desired to provide a high resolution signal that is capable of giving very accurate indication of crankshaft position, while ensuring that reference data indicative of the relative position of the crankshaft to the engine cylinders is provided so that synchronization is achieved within one resolution of the crankshaft over a very large speed range.
The above-identified patent of applicant further describes a circuit for charging the ignition coils with sufficient current, regardless of crankshaft speed. Charging the ignition coils with sufficient current is vital to produce the required spark energy for the engine's spark plugs. If the coil charging time is too long, power is wasted and the switching devices employed to selectively apply current to the coils, over-heated. In turn, switches, e.g., power transistors, of increased rating and cost must be employed in such systems.
On the other hand, if the coil charging time is to short, the ignition coil will not be sufficiently charged and the coil energy applied to the spark plugs may be insufficient to fire the A/F mixture. It is further realized that battery condition and engine speed may unduly effect the coil charging time. If timing is derived from a sensor connected to the engine's crankshaft and coil cut on time is derived as a function of the crankshaft position, the coil charging time will decrease as engine speed increases. This effect is particularly true for six and eight cylinder engines, because of the increased number of ignitions per crankshaft revolution required for such engine configurations. Further, as a battery grows older, its current output decreases, which may effect the current charging applied to the ignition coil.
It is, therefore, an object of this invention to provide a new and improved "distributorless" engine control system employing a simplified sensor for measuring crankshaft position and velocity.
It is a further object of this invention to provide a simplified crankshaft position sensing mechanism including but a single sensor for sensing the rotation of a rotor, which is directly connected to the crankshaft.
It is a still further object of this invention to provide a new and improved ignition control system which insures sufficient charging time of the ignition coils, regardless of engine speed or battery condition.
In accordance with these and other objects of the invention, there is disclosed an electronic ignition system for controlling as a function of at least one selected engine parameter the ignition or spark instants of an internal combustion engine having at least one cylinder with a piston and a rotatable crankshaft coupled to the piston to be rotatably driven as combustions occur within the cylinder at spark instant. The crankshaft has at least one reference position defining a positional relationship of the crankshaft to the cylinder. The electronic ignition system comprises a rotor fixed to rotate with the crankshaft and having a plurality of reference indicia thereon positionally related with respect to the reference position. The reference indicia are disposed at points equally spaced from each other by a predetermined arc of crankshaft rotation about the rotor. At least one of the points has a missing indicium and is disposed in a predetermined relation to the reference position of the crankshaft. A single sensor is disposed at a point fixed in relation to the rotation of the crankshaft for providing a train of signals, each signal occurring in time when each of the plurality of reference indicia rotates past the fixed point. The missing indicium is determined by circuitry responsive to each sensor signal for measuring the arc of crankshaft rotation from the current, corresponding reference indicium and, if the measured arc is greater than the predetermined arc, for providing a missing indicium signal.
This missing pulse circuit applies the missing indicium signal to initiate a synchronization counter to count the train of signals, to accumulate a count or manifestation indicative of crankshaft position. The crankshaft manifestation is decoded to provide a signal indicative of the one reference position of the crankshaft. A crankshaft position circuit or counter is initiated to measure a variable crankshaft arc and when the measured crankshaft arc equals the variable crankshaft arc set as a function of a selected engine parameter, an ignition signal is generated to control the spark instant.
In a further aspect of this invention, the electronic ignition system includes a switch for applying a voltage source to the ignition coil to initiate a dwell period and for disconnecting the voltage source at spark instant to terminate the dwell period and initiate the timing of an anti-dwell period. A circuit is provided for measuring the current charging an ignition coil for firing a spark plug to cause combustion within the cylinder, and for measuring that arc of crankshaft rotation required for the voltage source to charge the ignition coil to a reference level. A further circuit or counter times the anti-dwell period and, thus, the actuation of the switch to disconnect the voltage source from the ignition coil to initiate the anti-dwell period and for actuating the switch to apply the voltage source to the ignition coil after a variable arc of crankshaft rotation set in accordance with the measured arc to ensure that the ignition coil is fully charged and the spark plug is energized at a sufficiently high level regardless of the crankshaft speed and the voltage source condition. In an illustrative embodiment of this invention, the circuit for deactuating and actuating the switch takes the form of a counter for counting a signal proportional to crankshaft velocity until the accumulated count corresponds to the measured arc.
A detailed description of the preferred embodiment of this invention is hereafter made with specific reference being made to the drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is a functional block diagram showing the manner in which a single sensor is directly coupled to an internal combustion engine for generating signals to be processed in accordance with an ignition control system of this invention, whereby the timing of the coil charging time and spark or ignition instant (SI) is accurately controlled;
FIGS. 2A and 2B are functional block diagrams illustrating the components of the ignition control system as generally shown in FIG. 1;
FIGS. 3A to 3Z show respectively the wave forms of various signals as generated within the ignition control system as shown in FIGS. 1, 2A and 2B; and
FIG. 4 is a detailed circuit diagram of the logic elements comprising the synchronization decoding circuit, as shown in FIG. 2B.
Referring now to the drawings and in particular to FIG. 1, there is shown an ignition control system identified by the general number 10, which includes a rotor 16 illustratively comprising a gear directly connected to a crankshaft 14 of an internal combustion engine 12. The rotor 16 includes some 58 tooth like protrusions 18-1 to 18-58, each protrusions being spaced 6" from each other to leave a space between protrusions 18-58 and 18-1 for two missing teeth or protrusions. Protrusions 18-1 is affixed to the crankshaft 14 so that it is oriented 60" before top dead center (BTDC) of a cylinder of the engine 12.
A sensor 20, illustratively in the form of a magnetic sensor, is mounted stationary with respect to the engine 12 and the rotating rotor 16. The sensor 20 responds to the passage of a protrusion 18 by generating a pulse, which is applied to a zero-crossing comparator 22 in the form of an operational amplifier. The passage of a protrusion 18 drives the output of the sensor 20 to output a positive going speed pick-up (SPU) signed. The placement of the two missing protrusions identifies a reference position of the crankshaft 14 with respect to the cylinder of the engine 12. The SPU signal is illustrated in FIG. 3A and is the only signal applied to a timing and charging system 24, which operates to determine the occurrence of the two missing SPU signals, corresponding to the absence of the two protrusions, to provide a timing or reference signal indicative of 60° BTDC of a cylinder of the engine 12, whereby an indication of the position of the rotating crankshaft 14 may be accurately provided.
A phase locked loop 26 is coupled to the timing and charging system 24 and generally functions to multiply the frequency of the SPU signals by a selected, constant value, e.g., 25.5, so that its output frequency Fvco is 25.5 times the frequency of the SPU signal. The function and circuitry of the phase locked loop 26 will be explained in detail later. The timing and charging system 24 applies timing signals C1, C2 and C3 to power electronics 40, whereby energy as supplied by a voltage source in the form of a battery is selectively applied to charge one of a plurality of ignition coils 36a, 36b and 36c. In particular, the output signals C1, C2 and C3 drive or actuate one of a plurality of coils drivers 38a, 38b and 38c, whereby the voltage source is applied to and disconnected from the selected one of the ignition coils of 36a, 36b and 36c. When its coil driver 38 is turned off, a corresponding high voltage appears at the secondary of that coil 36 which is applied at SI to fire a corresponding pair of spark plugs 39. The power electronics 40, as illustrated in FIG. 1, serves to produce the spark at the SI of a six cylinder engine 12, with each of the three ignition coils 36 being associated with a pair of spark plugs 39.
Further, a resistor R1 is disposed in circuit with each of the coil drivers 38a, 38b and 38c, whereby the voltage applied across resistor R1 is proportional to the current charging the ignition coil 36. The voltage appearing across resistor R1 is compared with a reference voltage illustratively set equal to one-half the desired charging current, as will be explained. When the coil charging current equals the reference current, the comparator 32 applies a signal to the timing and charging system 24. A crystal oscillator 30 is coupled to the timing and charging system 24 to provide a high frequency clock, whereby the timing operations of the ignition control system 10 are carried out.
A microcomputer 28 computes the optimal spark advance angle θa as a function of at least one selected engine parameter, e.g., engine speed ERPM, and engine pressure (or vacuum) MAP, as is well known in the art. The spark advance angle θa is illustratively output as an 8 bit binary number to the timing and charging system 24. These 8 bit binary numbers are stored in a ROM of the microcomputer 28 and are empirically determined by applying controlled loads to the engine 12 and determining the spark advance angle θa, which will deliver an optimum mean torque output to its crankshaft 14 for a particular rotational speed. The timing and charging system 24 provides filtered voltages proportional to the rotational speed ERPM of the crankshaft 14 in two scales ERPM Hi and ERPM Lo. These two speed signals are scaled for rotational speeds of 0 to 8000 ERPM and 0 to 4000 ERPM, respectively. These speed voltages are filtered by a corresponding pair of low pass filters as comprised respectively of resistor R2 and capacitor C1, and resistor R3 and capacitor C2 to provide smooth voltages which are proportional to the respective speeds and are directed to the microcomputer 28. The ROM of the microcomputer 28 stores a three dimensional spark advance map, corresponding to the parameters of engine speed, engine pressure and coolant temperature junction CLT. In order to limit the size of the ROM, the micro computer 28 employs an interpolation routine to process the data read out from the ROM for specific values of engine speed, engine pressure and coolant temperature junction.
The timing and charging system 24 applies an IRQ signal to the microcomputer 28 to initiate calculation of the desired spark advance angle θa in view of the current values of engine speed, engine pressure and coolant temperature junction. Illustratively, the IRQ signal is applied to the microcomputer 28 at 78° BTDC so that the microcomputer 28 has sufficient time to compute the 8 bit spark advance angle θa, before the timing of SI is carried out by the timing and charging system 24. The timing and charging system 24 responds to the reference signal to initiate at the reference position, e.g., 60° BTDC, by timing a variable arc of rotation of the crankshaft 14 in accordance with the calculated spark advance angle θa. At the end of the variable crankshaft arc, the system 24 deactivates the driven coil driver 38 to effect spark plug firing at the SI. In a particular embodiment, the timing and charging system 24, operates over a particular arc of interest for timing SI, e.g. 60° to 0° BTDC.
It is important to take values of the engine speed ERPM and engine pressure EMAP immediately before they are to be used in the computations of the microcomputer 28, since such data rapidly changes and significant errors may be introduced in determining the spark advance angle θa, if such engine parameters are old. To prevent such errors, system 24 applies the IRQ signal to an interrupt of the microcomputer 28 to initiate the reading of its ROM and the subsequent interpolation of the read spark advance data. The coil drivers 38 are actuated by applying a digital coil-on signal, whereby a voltage source is applied to the respective ignition coils 36, which permits them to be charged with the voltage source. A power supply 34 is also connected to the battery voltage whereby a regular five volt signal is applied to the various elements of the ignition control system 10.
Referring now to FIGS. 2A and 2B, the timing and charging system 24 generally shown in the FIG. 1, is more fully shown in FIGS. 2A and 2B. In FIGS. 2A and 2B, the signals appearing at various portions of the circuitry of the timing and charging system 24 are indicated by corresponding designations of the wave forms shown in FIGS. 3A-3Z. For example, the output of the zero-crossing comparator 22 is identified by 3A, indicating that the wave form of those SPU signals is shown in FIG. 3A. The SPU signals as developed by the zero-crossing comparator 22 are applied to the timing and charging system 24 and, in particular, to its signal conditioning circuit 50. It is understood that electrical noise is a severe problem in the environment of an automotive engine. For example, the ignition control system 10 and, in particular the power electronics 40 can produce a 45,000 volt spark. Typically, the signals as developed within the timing and charging system 24 and the microcomputer 28 are in the order of five volts. If such high voltage, electrical noise were introduced into the timing and charging system 24 or the microcomputer 28, not only would the signal processing be interrupted, but potentially the circuitry would be damaged. To avoid these problems, the signal condition circuit 50 measures the width of the inputted signals and, if less then the normal pulse width of a SPU signal e.g., 20 microsecond, such signals are not applied to the remaining circuit elements of the timing and charging system 24. If the pulse width of the inputted signal is longer, it is assumed that these signals are SPU signals, which are inputted to the timing and charging system 24.
The SPU signals are illustrated in FIG. 3A as being equally spaced from each other by 6°. If two protrusions were not missing from the rotor 16, 60 equally spaced SPU signals would be produced. However, the removal of the two protrusions deletes two signals from the train of SPU signals, the two missing signals occurring between the 58th and 1st SPU signals. The two missing protrusions are set respectively at 72° and 66° BTDC, so that the first protrusion 18-1 thereafter rotates past the sensor 20 at a point fixed relative to the crankshaft 14 at 60° BTDC. As will be explained, the timing and charging system 24 detects the two missing protrusions to synchronize its operation and, in particular, to initiate the timing of the spark advance angle θa at 60° BTDC and the sequencing of the energizing of the ignition coils 36a, 36b, and 36c so that cylinder combustions occur in a desired sequence.
First, the train of SPU signals, as shown in FIG. 3A, is applied via OR gates 52 and 54 to the phase locked loop 26, comprising a phase comparator 42, a filter storage 44 and a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) 46. The phase locked loop 26 and, in particular, the VCO 46 multiplies the SPU signals by a constant, e.g., 25.5 to output the signal Fvco at a frequency selected to have 255 pulses per 60° of crankshaft rotation or 1,530 signals per revolution of the crankshaft 14. As will be seen later, the selection of the constant 25.5 permits the use of standard 8 bit counters for performing the timing operations of the timing and charging system 24. The Fvco signal is applied to the clk input of a device-by-N counter 58, where N is selected equal to the constant 25.5. The output of the divide-by-N counter 58 is applied to a second input of the phase comparator 42, which outputs an error signal equal to the phase difference between the leading edge of each counter input and SPU signal. This error signal is filtered by the filter storage circuit 44 to further minimize the noise that is introduced into the timing and charging system 44. The filtered output is in turn applied to the VCO 46, which varies the frequency of its output signal Fvco proportionally to the inputted filtered signal. The phase locked loop 26 acts as an electronic servo, whose speed change limits can be programmed to allow the engine dynamic characteristics to be imitated. Such control allows continuous simulation of engine speed from the high resolution crankshaft data, while imposing optimum dynamic limitations to protect against noise and to provide realistic dynamic characteristics to the output signal.
The train of SPU signals, as shown in FIG. 3A, is applied to the reset of a missing pulse counter 62, which detects output signals when the two missing protrusions of the rotor 16 rotate past the sensor 20, to provide an output signal which is used for synchronization purposes, as will be described. Since the pulse width of each of the SPU signals varies with engine speed, the signal conditioning circuit 50 includes a monostable circuit to sense each SPU signal to provide a pulse of a width of 4 microseconds. Such pulses are applied to the reset of the missing pulse counter 62 to initiate the counting of the Fvco signal outputted by the phase locked loop 26. As the protrusions 18 rotate past the sensor 20, each SPU signal (or its corresponding monostable output) will reset the missing pulse counter 62. The protrusions 18 are disposed 6° apart so that the phase lock loop 26 generates 25.5 counts of the signal Fvco. Upon occurrence of the two missing protrusions, the missing pulse counter 62 will count more than 25.5 pulses of the Fvco signal, causing the missing pulse counter 62 to overrun, as shown in FIG. 3C, and to output a missing protrusion or indicium signal, as shown in FIG. 3D. FIG. 3D is an indication of the magnitude of the digital output of the missing pulse counter 62, which rises when two missing protrusions occur. In actual practice, the missing pulse counter 62 is set to count 48 pulses of the Fvco signal before outputting its synchronizing pulse.
When the missing pulse counter 62 overruns or goes high as seen in FIG. 3D, its missing indicium signal is applied via OR gates 66 and 68 to reset a synchronization counter 70. The synchronization counter 70 counts the SPU signals to provide at its Q1 to Q6 outputs a digital signal indicative of the position of the crankshaft 14 in 6° steps. The output of the missing pulse counter 62 resets the synchronization counter 70 to zero. The Q1 to Q6 outputs of the synchronization counter 70 are coupled to a synchronization decoding circuit 72, which decodes the binary output of the synchronization counter to provide output signals indicative of the instantaneous, angular position of the crankshaft and, in particular, of a reference position of the crankshaft 14 with respect to at least one selected cylinder, e.g., 60° BTDC. The synchronization decoding circuit 72 outputs a reference signal, e.g. a 60° BTDC position signal, indicative of the selected reference position, only after the synchronization counter 70 has been reset by the missing indicium signal and has counted at least the first SPU signal, corresponding to the rotation of the first protrusion 18-1 past the sensor 20. Such logic removes any ambiquity in the timing of the reference signal, noting that the missing indicium signal occurs at a point in time estimated as to where that signal should occur. The synchronization decoding circuit 72 outputs: (1) a 78° BTDC signal, as shown in FIG. 3Y, which is applied to the IRQ input of the microcomputer 28 to initiate calculating of the spark advance angles θa, as explained above; (2) a 60° BTDC position signal, as shown in FIG. 3J, which initiates the timing of the SI over the arc of 60° BTDC and TDC position of the crankshaft 14; (3) 12° BTDC and TDC position signals, as shown in FIGS. 3K and 3L, respectively; and (4) an output indicative of the counting of the 58th SPU signal, as shown in FIG. 3E, which is applied to a monostable 74, which in turn applies a 1 microsecond pulse through the NOR gate 68 to reset the synchronization counter 70. The 12° BTDC and TDC position signals are used, as will be explained, for redundant fire or firing of the ignition coils 36 at very low speed, e.g., crankshafts speeds below 300 ERPM.
As shown in FIG. 2B, engine cylinder select signals S1 and S2 are applied to the synchronization decoding circuit 72 to define the number of cylinders and, in particular, the number of ignition events per revolution of the crankshaft 14. As seen in FIG. 3A for a four cylinder engine, two cylinder events occur per crankshaft revolution, thus requiring two crankshaft revolutions to fire all four cylinders. The rotor 16 has two missing teeth occurring at points 59 and 60, which are detected as described above to reset the synchronization counter at a reference point, e.g., 60° BTDC, and to provide a sequence of signals at its outputs Q1 to Q6 indicative of the instantaneous position of the crankshaft 14 with respect to the fixed position of the sensor 20. In such an arrangement, only one missing pulse signal will be outputted from the missing pulse counter 62 per revolution of the crankshaft 16. Dependent upon the number of ignition events per crankshaft revolution as indicated by the engine select signals S1 and S2, the synchronization decoding circuit 72 outputs a corresponding number of sequences of signals including an arc initiation signal at 60° BTDC and the other signals as mentioned above. For example as shown in FIG. 3A where two ignition events occur per crankshaft revolution, a 60° BTDC or initiation signal is outputted corresponding to the first indicium 18-1 to initiate the timing of the variable arc terminating at the first ignition event; thereafter, during the same crankshaft revolution, a second 60° BTDC or initiate signal is generated at indicium 31 to initiate the timing of the second ignition event. It is understood that if three ignition events occur per crankshaft revolution, as for a six cylinder engine, then three sets of these signals would be outputted by the synchronization decoding circuit 72. For an eight cylinder engine 12, the operation of the first four cylinders is the same as that represented in FIG. 3A, and the signals for the second four cylinders are 90° displaced from the shown signals; illustratively, ignition control could be effected for an eight cylinder engine 12 by employing two timing and charging systems 24.
The number of points for defining the positions of the protrusions 18 is selected in accordance with the number of cylinders of the engine 12 and, in particular, the number of ignition events per revolution of the crankshaft 14. These rotor points, even points where the missing protrusions would have occurred, are equally spaced from each other by a predetermined arc of crankshaft rotation. The number of such points must satisfy certain logical relationships to permit a given number of cylinders and, in particular, a given number of ignition events per crankshaft revolution, to be fired. At minimum, the quotient of the number of points divided by the number of ignition events per crankshaft revolution, must be a whole number. In an illustrative embodiment of this invention, the rotor 16 is selected to have 60 such points, thus providing a minimum number of protrusions 18 that would supply SPU signals to control the ignition events of engines with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 ignitions events per crankshaft revolution. As will be explained with respect to FIG. 4, a rotor 16 with 60 protrusions 18 permits the logical operations as carried out by the synchronization counter 70 and the synchronization decoding circuit 72 to control ignition timing for each of 4, 6 and 8 cylinder engines, but may also be adapted readily to control the ignition firings of 1, 2, 3, 5, 10 and 12 cylinder engines.
A coil ID counter 84 selects which of the ignition coils 36 is to be charged and then fired. The output of the missing pulse counter 62, corresponding to the occurrence of the missing two protrusions, is applied via the NOR gate 66 to reset the coil ID counter 84 once per revolution of the crankshaft 14 at a known or reference position corresponding to the first ignition coil 36 to be fired. The coil ID counter 84 is clocked or toggled by the SI signals and controls the coil drivers 38 as will be explained below. These coded outputs are derived from the coil ID counter 84 and are applied to AND gates 86a, 86b and 86c, which are in turn coupled to the coil drivers 38a, 38b, 38c, respectively, as shown in FIG. 1. Engine cylinder select signals S1 and S2 are applied to a cylinder multiplexer 82 dependent upon whether the engine 12 is a four, six or eight cylinder engine, whereby the operation of the synchronization decoding circuit 72 and the coil ID counter 84 may be adjusted accordingly. When a four cylinder engine 12 is selected by the cylinder multiplexer 82, only the second and third output signals are realized and applied to the AND gates 86c and 86b. If a six cylinder engine 12 is selected, all three outputs of the coil ID counter 84 and the three AND gates 86a, 86b and 86c are utilized.
the synchronization decoding circuit 72 shown generally in FIG. 2B is more fully shown in FIG. 4 as comprised of a series of logic elements including a first array of OR gates 110A to 110K connected selectively as shown to the digital outputs of the synchronization counter 70. In turn, the OR gates 110 are connected to a set of AND gates 112A to 112K, which are selectively enabled in accordance to whether the electronic ignition system 10 is to be employed with a four, six or eight cylinder engine 12. The outputs of the AND gates 112 are in turn connected to OR gates 114A to 114D to respectively provide the 78° BTDC signal, the TDC signal, the 12° BTDC signal and the 60° BTDC signal. If a four cylinder engine is to be controlled, buses A and B as coupled to the inputs of the AND gates 112 are disposed high, whereby the aforementioned signals are generated as shown by the wave forms of FIGS. 3A-3Z. If a six cylinder engine is to be controlled, the bus A is maintained low, while bus B is disposed high whereby the outputs obtained from the synchronization decoding circuit 72 are timed to occur three times per revolution of the crankshaft 14. For an eight cylinder engine 12, the buses A and B are disposed low, whereby four initiating signals are outputted at 60° BTDC for each of four of the eight cylinders, during each revolution of the crankshaft 14.
Due to the use of a rotor 16 with missing protrusions, it is necessary to modify the normal operation of the phase locked loop 26. After the occurrence of the 58th SPU signal, there is no 59th and 60th SPU signals as would be normally be generated from the sensor 20 to be applied to the phase comparator 42 of the phase locked loop 26. However, the signal stored by the filter storage 44 actuates the VCO 46 to continue to generate the output signal Fvco, whereby the divide-by-N counter 58 outputs pulses at 6° and 12° BTDC during the missing pulse interval, even though there are no 59th and 60th SPU signals. The phase comparator 42 tends in the absence of such 59th and 60th SPU signals to generate a large error signal tending to decelerate the engine 12. In one aspect of this invention, the timing and charging system 24 is responsive to the missing 59th and 60th SPU signals to generate these missing signals and to apply them to the phase locked loop 26, whereby the frequency of the signal Fvco is maintained and the timing operations carried out by the timing and charging system 24 are continued in an accurate fashion. As explained above, upon occurrence of the 58th SPU signal, the synchronization decoding circuit 72 actuates the monostable 74 to output a pulse, which is applied to a flip flop 76. In turn, the flip flop 76 resets a two pulse insertion counter 78. The modulo of the counter 78 is two, whereby the counter 78 functions to count two output pulses of the divide-by N counter 58 and to combine or "or" these two pulses to provide an output pulse of a width corresponding to the rotation of the crankshaft 14 through an arc of 12°. The output of the two pulse insertion counter 78 is applied to an AND gate 51, the other input being supplied by the divide-by-N counter 58, whereby two output pulses of the counter 58 are applied to the phase locked loop 26 in place of the 59th and 60th SPU signals. Since the phase locked loop 26 continues to generate its output Fvco at a frequency corresponding to the last inputs of the SPU signals, the placement of the pulses from the divide-by-N counter 58 is accurate.
The two pulse insertion counter 78 may be only used to control the insertion of missing pulses after the synchronization counter 70 has counted at least 58 SPU pulses and, thus, is not available to supply missing pulses during cranking or start-up of the engine 12. The timing and charging system 24 includes an error limiter counter 60 which is operative during crank-up, i.e., speeds of the engine 12 below 350 ERPM to supply a single missing pulse to the phase locked loop 26. In the absence of a pulse to the phase locked loop 26, the output pulse of the divide-by-N counter 58 will cause the phase comparator 42 to discharge the signal stored by the filter storage 44, thereby tending to rapidly decrease the frequency of the Fvco signal. Under these conditions, the phase comparator 42 generates and applies a deceleration signal to reset and enable the error limiter counter 60 to count a 4 KHz clock signal. In an illustrative embodiment of this invention, the phase comparator 42 is comprised of two "D" flip flops. If an SPU signal is delayed with respect to the output pulse of the divide-by-N counter 58 or is missing, one of the two "D" flip flops is set to provide an output signal as applied to eliminate the reset of the error limiter counter 60. The counter 60 then counts a real time clock pulse; after a count of 56 of the four KHz clock signal, corresponding to 14 milliseconds, the error limiter counter 56 indicates that crankshaft 14 has stopped or at least severly slowed and outputs a missing pulse to be applied via the OR gate 54 to the phase locked loop 26. At higher engine speeds, the length of the deceleration pulse as output by the phase comparator 42 of the phase locked loop 26 will not exceed 14 milliseconds and, therefore, the error limiter counter 60 is effectively disabled at higher speeds. The insertion of missing pulses or pulse, whether by the two pulse insertion counter 78 or the error limiter counter 60, prevents discharging of the filter storage 44, as would otherwise occur in the absence of inputted SPU signals, and, thereby, maintains the accuracy of the output Fvco of the phase locked loop 26; as a result, the timing operations as carried out by the missing pulse counter 62 and the other timing counters of the timing and charging system 24 is ensured.
As shown in FIG. 2A, the output of the missing pulse counter 62 is also applied to set a flip flop 64; the output Q of the flip flop 64 is coupled to the reset of a no run counter 80. The output pulse of the error limiter counter 60 is applied to reset the flip flop 64, which resets and disables the no run counter 80 to a no run condition. In particular, the no run counter 80 is reset and enabled from flip flop 64 by the counter reset going low allowing the clock input to the counter 80 to count SPU pulses. The modulo of the counter 80 is set at value nine so that in the event nine SPU pulses do not arrive after the 2 missing pulses are detected, the counter 80 would not time out thus leaving its output to AND gate 103 low, thus preventing coil outputs to occur after 12 BTDC, which is the 9th protrusion 18 past the 2 missing protrusions. Under normal circumstances, if the engine 12 is rotating above 25 ERPM, the error limiter counter 60 will not count out and will not reset the no run counter 80, before it counts nine or more SPU signals to output a run or high signal to the AND gate 103, whereby the AND gate 103 is enabled to apply and dwell signals to the AND gates to permit energization of the ignition coils 36. The no run counter 80 determines whether the crankshaft 14 is in a no run condition, i.e., has stopped or is rotating at a very slow speed of less than 25 ERPM. If the crankshaft 14 is rotating at less than 25 ERPM or is stopped, the sensor 20 will not produce pulses as the protrusions 18 rotate there past. As a result, the synchronization counter 70 no longer provides accurate data indicative of crankshaft position. Thus if the crankshaft 14 were to restart or to accelerate rapidly, the output of the synchronization decoding circuit 72 and the coil ID counter 84 could be in error, thus causing a misfire whereby a spark plug 39 is fired when a cylinder valve is opened, thus possibly causing a carburetor fire. Thus, the no run counter 80 functions to determine a no run condition and, thus, to reset the synchronization counter 70 and the coil ID counter 84 and, further, to disable the AND gate 103 to prevent the spark plugs 39 from being fired.
As explained above, the coil drivers 38 are selectively turned on and off to charge the respective ignition coils 36 for a four cylinder engine 12 illustrated in the wave forms of FIGS. 3A-3Z. In particular, a coil driver 38b is turned on and its corresponding ignition coil 36b, is permitted to charge for that interval as illustrated in FIG. 3U, whereas the coil driver 38c and its ignition coil 36c are turned on for that interval illustrated in FIG. 3T. When the actuating signals applied to the coil drivers 38b and 38c are removed, spark ignition 38 occurs as shown in FIG. 30. The timing of when a driver 38 is turned on is controlled by a dwell counter 98, as shown in FIG. 2A. The interval that the drivers 38 are turned on is termed the dwell angle, and is controlled, as will be explained, to permit the corresponding ignition coil 36 to sufficiently charge. The period, as shown in FIG. 3R, from SI to the turn-on of the drivers 38 is termed the anti-dwell period and is timed by the dwell counter 98. As explained above and shown in FIG. 3P, the variable crankshaft arc terminating at SI, is timed from a point 60° BTDC by a position counter 90, as initialized by the 60° BTDC signal outputted from the synchronization decoding circuit 72. When the position counter 90 times out, as shown in FIG. 3P or 3N, SI occurs as shown in FIG. 3Q or 3O at which time energization is removed from ignition coil 36 and a firing current applied to its spark plug 39.
Referring to FIG. 2B, the 60° BTDC signal outputted by the synchronization decoding circuit 72 is applied to trigger a monostable 117. The 60° BTDC pulse, as shown in FIG. 3J, is 6° wide. Monstable 117 is triggered on the positive edge of the 60° BTDC pulse and outputs a one microsecond pulse to set position flip flop 92. Thus, the flip flop 92 is held on set only for the microsecond and can be reset by the output of the position counter 90 any time after one microsecond. When the position flip flop 92 is set, its Q output is applied to the load input of the position counter 90, whereby the 8 bit signal calculated by the microcomputer 28, as seen in FIG. 1, is loaded into the position counter 90. As explained above, the synchronization decoding circuit 72 outputs an interrupt signal to the IRQ terminal of the microcomputer 28 to initiate the calculation of the 8 bit data representing the spark advance angle θa. When the Q signal goes low the position counter 90 counts the output signal Fvco of the phase locked loop 26 to decrement the loaded 8 bit signal indicative of the spark advance angle θa. Upon overflowing, the position counter 90 outputs at its terminal CO a signal occurring at SI, as seen in FIGS. 3Q or 3O, to reset the position flip flop 92 in preparation to receive the next 60° BTDC signal from the synchronization decoding circuit 72.
The scale set by the VCO 46 of the phase locked loop 26 provides 25.5 pulses of the Fvco signal for each SPU signal. The SPU signals are spaced exactly 6° apart, whereby the number of Fvco pulses for a 60° crankshaft rotation is 10×25.5 corresponding to the capacity of the 8 bit position counter 90. Such scaling permits the 8 bit signal calculated by the microcomputer 28 to vary from a value 000 corresponding to 0° BTDC or TDC and a value of 255 corresponding to 60° BTDC. In other words, the 8 bit data signal derived from the microcomputer 28 permits the spark advance angle θa to occur anywhere between 60° BTDC and TDC to provide a resolution 0.25° of crankshaft resolution (60/255=1/4°).
When the position counter 90 overflows, its output signal is applied via an OR gate 94 to set a dwell flip flop 96, whereby its Q output is applied to the load input of the dwell counter 98, whereby the 8 bit data signal calculated by a coil on angle counter 104 is loaded into the dwell counter 98. As explained above and shown in FIG. 1, a voltage as developed across the resistor R1 and illustrated in FIG. 3V, is compared with a reference signal indicative of one-half of the desired current. The coil on angle counter 104 counts 2K1 Fvco from the scaling counter 106 starting from the time the dwell flip flop 96 is reset until the time one-half the desired coil current is reached and comparator 32 goes high, thus resetting the flip flop 115 and disabling the counting of the coil on counter 104. The comparator 32 goes high, when an ignition coil 36 has charged to one-half the desired current. The coil on angle counter 104 operates as an analog to digital converter to convert the analog time required for ignition coil 36 to reach one-half the desired coil current into an 8 bit signal proportional to the arc of crankshaft rotation occurring during this time. The coil on angle counter 104 counts a clock signal 2K1 Fvco, so that its digital output signal is indicative of the time and the arc of crankshaft rotation required for the ignition coils 36 to become fully energized. The scaling factor K1 is changed so that the full range of the counter 104 covers 180° for four and eight cylinder engines and 120° for six cylinder engines. The reference signal indicative of one-half the desired current is set so that if the battery voltage as generating the current applied to the ignition coils 36, is low and may not otherwise supply a current of the desired level that the current applied to the ignition coils 36 will at least increase to the reference level and will cause the comparator 32 to initiate counting, as described above.
The dwell counter 98 is an 8 bit presettable counter similar to the position counter 90. The scale of the dwell counter 98 is set by a scale counter 105 for varying the frequency of the signal Fvco by a factor K2, as set by the cylinder select mixer 82. The dwell counter 98 is scaled for a four or eight cylinder engine from 0° to 180°, as shown in FIGS. 3A-3Z, and for a six cylinder engine from 0° to 120°. When the dwell counter 98 counts out, its output CO is applied through an OR gate 100 to reset the dwell flip flop 96, thus rendering its Q output high to enable the AND gate 103 and to turn on a selected one of the coil drivers 38, as described above.
An AND gate 102, as shown in FIG. 2A, implements a back-up or redundant fire function. In particular, the synchronization decoding circuit 72 generates its 12° BTDC signal, which is applied to one input of the AND gate 102, whereas the other input is derived from the Q output of the position flip flop 92. If the position counter 90 has not timed out to effect SI, the Q output of the position flip flop 92 is high, whereby the 12° BTDC signal is passed through the enabled AND gate 102 and the OR gate 100 to reset the dwell flip flop 96 and thereby to commence the energization of a selected ignition coil 36. At TDC, the TDC signal of the synchronization decoding circuit 72 is applied through the OR gate 94 to set the dwell flip flop 96 to terminate the energization of the selected ignition coil 36 and to effect SI.
An indication of motor speed or ERPM is provided over two ranges of 0 to 4,000 ERPM and 0 to 8,000 ERPM. As indicated in FIG. 2B, the output signal Fvco of the phase locked loop 26 is applied to trigger a monostable 117, which in turn sets a flip flop 114, whose Q output resets an ERPM HI counter 110 to count a 2 MHz signal provided from the crystal oscillator 30. The monostable 117 is triggered on the positive edge of the Fvco signal to output a one microsecond pulse so that flip flops 114 and 116 are not held on set for a long period of time. The counter 110 overflows to reset the flip flop 114, whereby its Q outputs a pulse of a width equal to 5 microseconds and a frequency proportional to ERPM. This output pulse is applied to be integrated by a low pass filter comprised of the capacitor C2 and resistor R3, as shown in FIG. 1, to output a voltage is indicative of ERPM. Similarly, the Fvco signal is applied to set a flip flop 116, whereby the Q output resets an ERPM LO counter 112. The counter 112 overflows to reset the flip flop 116, whereby its Q output generates a pulse of a 10 microsecond width to be applied to a low pass filter comprised of the capacitor C1 and resistor R2, as shown in FIG. 1, to output a voltage proportional to the 0 to 4,000 ERPM. The different scaling is effected by applying a 2 MHz signal to be counted by the counter 110, and a 1 MHz signal to be counted by the counter 112.
In considering this invention, it should be remembered that the present disclosure is illustrative only and the scope of the invention should be determined by the appended claims.
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|DE2347839A1||Sep 22, 1973||Apr 10, 1975||Bosch Gmbh Robert||Phasenregelkreis|
|FR2204226A5||Title not available|
|FR2355165B1||Title not available|
|FR2422043B1||Title not available|
|JP60125756A||Title not available|
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|US5493496 *||Dec 15, 1992||Feb 20, 1996||Ford Motor Company||Cylinder number identification on a distributorless ignition system engine lacking CID|
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|U.S. Classification||123/406.19, 327/20, 123/406.6, 123/609|
|International Classification||G01M15/06, F02P7/067, F02P7/03, F02P3/045, F02P3/05, F02P5/15, G01D5/249, F02P7/077|
|Cooperative Classification||G01M15/06, F02P7/035, F02P3/0456, F02P7/067, F02P5/1518, F02P7/0775, F02P3/053, F02P5/1502, G01D5/2492, Y02T10/46|
|European Classification||F02P3/045B2, F02P7/067, G01M15/06, F02P7/077B, F02P5/15D, F02P5/15B, F02P3/05B2, F02P7/03B, G01D5/249B|
|May 20, 1996||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8
|May 30, 2000||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 12