Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUSRE34214 E
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 07/288,287
Publication dateApr 6, 1993
Filing dateDec 21, 1988
Priority dateMar 15, 1984
Also published asCA1228915A1, DE155247T1, DE3583050D1, EP0155247A2, EP0155247A3, EP0155247B1, US4631581
Publication number07288287, 288287, US RE34214 E, US RE34214E, US-E-RE34214, USRE34214 E, USRE34214E
InventorsKjell S. Carlsson, Nils R. D. Aslund
Original AssigneeMolecular Dynamics, Inc.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method and apparatus for microphotometering microscope specimens
US RE34214 E
Abstract
A method of microphotometering individual volume elements of a microscope specimen 10, comprising generating a luminous dot or cursor and progressively illuminating a plurality of part elements in the focal plane 11 of the microscope through the specimen. The mutual position between the specimen and the focal plane is then changed and a plurality of part elements in the focal plane are illuminated. Reflected and/or fluorescent light and transmitted light respectively created by the illumination is collected, detected and stored for generating a three-dimensional image of that part of the specimen composed of the volume elements. Illumination of multiples of part elements is implemented by deflecting the cursor and/or by moving the specimen. The change in the relative mutual position between the specimen and the focal plane of the microscope is effected either by displacing the specimen or the objective. Apparatus for carrying out the method include a specimen table 301, a microscope objective and light source 31-32-33. The table or the objective are arranged for stepwise movement along the main axis of the microscope synchronously with punctilinear light scanning of the specimen. The table is arranged for stepwise movement at right angles to the main axis and/or the light source is arranged for deflection over the focal plane 21 through the specimen.
Images(3)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(15)
I claim:
1. A method for microphotometering and subsequent image combination by generating with the aid of a convergent light beam a luminous dot or cursor in the focal plane (11) of a microscope (30), fitting the cursor to a plurality of part elements in the specimen (10), and collecting light created by the luminous cursor and the specimen (10), detecting the collected light and producing corresponding electric signals, characterized by changing the mutual position between the specimen (10) and the focal plane (11) and re-fitting the luminous cursor to a plurality of part elements in the specimen (10); repeating stepwise changes in the mutual position between the specimen (10) and the focal plane (11) and, subsequent to each such change, again fitting or matching the luminous cursor to a plurality of part elements in the specimen; collecting the light created by the luminous cursor and part elements in the specimen (10) and screening-off any disturbing light created synchronously from adjacent (above, beneath, beside) part elements in the specimen (10); detecting the thus collected light and storing measurement values obtained through said detection, said storage optionally being effected synchronously with the matching of the luminous cursor with part elements in the specimen (10) and with the changes in the mutual position between the specimen (10) and the focal plane (11), said measurement values being representative of locations in various layers through the specimen; and combining the measurement values from locations in a plurality of layers, representative of a given volume of the specimen, in dependence upon a planned/desired analysis of the specimen.[...]. .Iadd.in a manner yielding a projected representation from a desired angle of at least a portion of the specimen. .Iaddend.
2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that matching of the luminous cursor with a plurality of part elements in the specimen (10) is effected by .[.delinking.]. .Iadd.deflecting .Iaddend.stepwise the convergent light beam in two dimensions (x- and y-directions); and in that the stepwise change in the mutual position between the specimen (10) and the focal plane .[.(10).]. .Iadd.(11) .Iaddend.of the microscope is effected by moving stepwise the microscope object table (301) on which the specimen is placed (z-direction).
3. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that matching of the luminous cursor with a plurality of part elements in the specimen (10) is effected by relative rapid stepwise deflection of the convergent light beam in one dimension (y-direction), and by relatively slow stepwise displacement of the microscope object table (401) on which the specimen (10) is placed in a further dimension (x-direction); and in that the stepwise change in the mutual position between the specimen (10) and the microscope focal plane .[.(10).]. .Iadd.(11).Iaddend.is effected by stepwise displacement of the microscope object table (401) (z-direction).
4. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that matching of the luminous cursor with a plurality of part elements in the specimen (10) is effected by stepwise displacement of the microscope object table (501) along a surface (x-y-plane) perpendicular to the main axis of the microscope; and in that the stepwise change in the mutual position between the specimen (10) and the focal plane of the microscope (50) is effected by stepwise displacement of the object table (501) of the microscope (50) (z-direction).
5. A method according to claim 4, characterized in that collection of light (reflected fluorescent light) created by the luminous cursor and part elements in the specimen (10) is effected on that side of the object table (501) on which the microscope (50) is placed.
6. A method according to claim 5, characterized in that collection of light (transmitted light) created by the luminous cursor and part elements in the specimen (10) is effected on the opposite side of the object table (661) to that on which the microscope (60) is placed.
7. Apparatus for the microphotometering and subsequent image combination of a specimen, comprising a microscope (30) having an object table (301), a light source (31-32-33), a detector (35) and a control and data-collecting assembly (36), characterized in that the object table (301) of the microscope (30) is arranged for stepwise movement in a direction corresponding to the main axis (z-direction) of the microscope (30), said movement being controlled and effected in response to guide pulses from the control and data-collecting assembly (36) in synchronization with the scanning of the light source (31-32-33) of part elements in a microscope specimen (10) placed on the object table (301); and in that the apparatus also includes .[.equipment.]. .Iadd.means .Iaddend.(37, 38,39) for storing, processing and visually displaying data originating from said measurement values.[...]. .Iadd.in a manner yielding a projected representation from a desired angle of at least a portion of the specimen. .Iaddend.
8. Apparatus according to claim 7, characterized in that the object table (401) of the microscope (40) is arranged for stepwise movement in a first direction (x-direction) at right angles to the main axis of the microscope (z-direction); in that the light source (41-42-43) is arranged to scan stepwise part elements in the specimen in a further direction (y-direction) at right angles to the main axis of the microscope (z-direction); and in that movements of the object table (401) and the light source (41-42-43) are co-ordinated for scanning a first plurality of part elements in a first plane through the specimen, and then of a second plurality of part elements in a second plane through said specimen, said second plane extending plane parallel with the first plane, etc. for scanning the whole specimen.
9. Apparatus according to claim 7, characterized in that the object table (501) of the microscope (50) is arranged for relatively slow stepwise movement in a first direction (x-direction) at right angles to the main axis (z-direction) of the microscope (50) and in a relatively rapid stepwise movement in a further direction (y-direction) at right angles to the main axis (z-direction) of the microscope, wherewith movements of the object table (501) in planes at right angles to the main axis of the microscope and parallel with the main axis are co-ordinated through control pulses from the control and data-collecting assembly (56) for scanning part element after part element through the whole of the specimen. .Iadd.
10. A method for microphotometering a 3-dimensional specimen using a light detection apparatus, the specimen defining a plurality of layers, each layer defining a plurality of part elements, and the detection apparatus defining a focal plane, the method comprising the following steps:
(a) generating a cursor of light in the focal plane;
(b) positioning at least one of (1) the focal plane and (2) the specimen such that a desired one of the layers lies in the focal plane;
(c) selecting at least one of the part elements in the selected layer;
(d) positioning at least one of (1) the cursor and (2) the specimen to illuminate by means of the cursor the selected part element;
(e) screening-off unwanted light from part elements adjacent the selected part element;
(f) detecting light from the selected part element;
(g) producing signals indicative of predetermined characteristics of the detected light;
(h) storing representations of the signals;
(i) repeating selected ones of steps (a)-(h) a desired number of times; and
(j) analyzing the representations of the signals to produce measurements of the specimen representative of at least one 3-dimensional characteristic of at least a portion of the specimen. .Iaddend. .Iadd.
11. The method of claim 10 wherein the measurements produced in step (j) are volumetric measurements. .Iaddend. .Iadd.12. The method of claim 10 wherein the measurements produced in step (j) are surface area measurements. .Iaddend. .Iadd.13. The method of claim 10 wherein the measurements produced in step (j) are light intensity measurements.
.Iaddend. .Iadd.14. The method of claim 10 wherein the measurements produced in step (j) are distance measurements. .Iaddend. .Iadd.15. The method of claim 10 wherein the measurements produced in step (j) are angular measurements. .Iaddend. .Iadd.16. The method of claim 10 wherein the measurements produced in step (j) are surface parameter measurements.
.Iaddend. .Iadd.17. A method for microphotometering a 3-dimensional specimen using a light detection apparatus, the specimen defining a plurality of layers, each layer defining a plurality of part elements, and the detection apparatus defining a focal plane, the method comprising the following steps:
(a) generating a cursor of light in the focal plane;
(b) positioning at least one of (1) the focal plane and (2) the specimen such that a desired one of the layers lies in the focal plane;
(c) selecting at least one of the part elements in the selected layer;
(d) positioning at least one of (1) the cursor and (2) the specimen to illuminate by means of the cursor the selected part element;
(e) screening-off unwanted light from part elements adjacent the selected part element;
(f) detecting light from the selected part element;
(g) producing signals indicative of predetermined characteristics of the detected light;
(h) storing representations of the signals;
(j) repeating selected ones of steps (a)-(h) a desired number of times; and
(j) analyzing the representations of the signals to produce a projected representation from a desired angle of at least a portion of the specimen.
.Iaddend. .Iadd.18. The method of claim 17 wherein the projected representation is a 2-dimensional representation of a portion of the specimen bordered by arbitrarily oriented parallel virtual planes. .Iaddend. .Iadd.19. The method of claim 17 wherein the projected representation is a 2-dimensional representation of a portion of the specimen bordered by arbitrarily oriented nonparallel virtual planes. .Iaddend. .Iadd.20. An apparatus for microphotometering a 3-dimensional specimen, the specimen defining a plurality of layers, each layer defining a plurality of part elements, the apparatus comprising:
means for detecting light from a focal plane;
means for generating a cursor of light in the focal plane;
means for positioning at least one of (1) the focal plane and (2) the specimen such that a desired one of the layers lies in the focal plane;
means for positioning at least one of (1) the cursor and (2) the specimen to illuminate by means of the cursor a selected part element;
means fore preventing unwanted light from part elements adjacent the selected part element from being detected by the means for detecting light;
means for producing signals indicative of predetermined characteristics of the detected light;
means for storing representations of the signals; and
means for analyzing the representations of the signals to produce measurements of the specimen representative of at least one 3-dimensional
characteristic of at least a portion of the specimen. .Iaddend. .Iadd.21. An apparatus for microphotometering a 3-dimensional specimen, the specimen defining a plurality of layers, each layer defining a plurality of part elements, the apparatus comprising:
means for detecting light from a focal plane;
means for generating a cursor of light in the focal plane;
means for positioning at least one of (1) the focal plane and (2) the specimen such that a desired one of the layers lies in the focal plane;
means for positioning at least one of (1) the cursor and (2) the specimen to illuminate by means of the cursor a selected part element;
means for preventing unwanted light from part elements adjacent the selected part element from being detected by the means for detecting light;
means for producing signals indicative of predetermined characteristics of the detected light;
means for storing representations of the signals; and
means for analyzing the representations of the signals to produce a projected representation from a desired angle of at least a portion of the specimen. .Iaddend.
Description
TECHNICAL FIELD

The invention relates to a method for microphotographing prepared specimens and displaying the resultant images thereof, by generating with the aid of a convergent light beam a luminous dot or cursor in the focal plane of a microscope, matching the cursor with a plurality of part elements in the prepared specimen, collecting the light created by the cursor and the prepared specimen, detecting the collected light, and generating corresponding electric signals. The invention also relates to apparatus for carrying out the method.

BACKGROUND ART

Qualitative and quantitative microscopic investigations (study assays) of prepared specimens of the human body and of animals constitute an important and time-consuming part of research work, for example, within the field of medicine. For example, when wishing to make a close study of a liver there is first prepared a given number of thin specimens of the liver to be examined (these specimens being prepared with the aid of a microtome), whereafter the specimens are subjected to a qualitative and quantitative examination under a microscope. A picture of the general condition of the liver, changes in its state of disease, etc., can then be obtained by combining the results of the assays.

It is also known to obtain the assay result from a plurality of locations on the surface of a microscope specimen with the aid of electronic scanning techniques.

When applying known techniques it is still necessary in general to prepare a relatively large number of specimens (sections) from the subject to be examined, which is expensive, time-consuming and highly laborious. The object of the present invention is to simplify and, in many instances, even to refine the methodology of effecting such microscopic investigations, and at less cost.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The method according to the invention comprises producing a three-dimensional image of a volume of a microscope specimen (i.e. a specimen for microscopic study) taking a starting point from the method described in the introduction, and is mainly characterized by changing the mutual relative positions of the specimen and the focal plane and renewed matching of the cursor or luminous dot with a plurality of part elements in the specimen; collecting light created by the cursor and part elements in the specimen; and screening-off any synchronous disturbing light created by adjacent (above, beneath, beside) part elements in the specimen; detecting the light thus collected and storing the measurement values resulting from said detection, the storage of the measurement values being effected synchronously with the matching of the cursor with the part elements in the specimen and the change in the relative mutual positions of the specimen and the focal plane, the measurement values being representative of locations in various layers through the specimen; and collecting the measurement values derived from locations in a plurality of layers representative of a given volume of the specimen in dependence upon upon planned/desired analysis of the specimen.

The aforesaid measurement values together give a detailed description or picture of the whole of the volume determined through all of said plurality of locations. By converting the measurement values to digital form and storing the same in the memory of a data processor, it is possible to produce three-dimensional images suitable for assay and further analysis.

Thus, it is possible--without preparing fresh physical specimens--to study the specimen on a data screen from different projections and to combine two such projections to obtain a stereoscopic image. This enables the person carrying out the investigation to produce in a very short time precisely those views and incident angles which may be desired as the investigation proceeds.

The study of nerve cells is an example of an area in which the method according to the invention is particularly well suited. Nerve cells exhibit an extremely large number of branches and present a complicated three-dimensional structure. Investigatory studies of such structures with the aid of traditional microscope equipment are extremely difficult to carry out and are also very time-consuming. In addition the information obtained therefrom is incomplete. Corresponding studies carried out in accordance with the invention have been found to provide abundantly more information than that obtained when carrying out the studies in accordance with known methods. Other possible areas where the three-dimensional structure is of great interest include studies of the inner structures of cells, for example a study of the configuration of the cell core, chromosomes etc.

The illumination and registration technique according to the invention affords the following advantages. It is possible to select a thin section from the specimen for registration and to combine several such sections to produce a three-dimensional image. The images are made richer in contrast and clearer by decreasing the level of stray light. Sensitive and delicate specimens are protected from harm, because the total light exposure is low.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The invention will now be described in more detail with reference to the accompanying schematic drawings, in which

FIG. 1 illustrates in perspective the contour of a specimen and a section laid through the specimen;

FIG. 2 is a vertical sectional view of a specimen with a section according to FIG. 1 laid in the surface structure of the specimen;

FIG. 3 illustrates apparatus for microphotometering a microscope specimen while using reflected and/or fluorescent light, comprising a two-dimensional scanner and a vertically movable object table;

FIG. 4 illustrates the apparatus according to FIG. 3 modified with a single-dimension scanner and a vertically and laterally adjustable table;

FIG. 5 illustrates the apparatus according to FIG. 3 which lacks the scanner but has an object table which can be moved in three dimensions;

FIG. 6 illustrates the apparatus according to FIG. 5 modified for transmitted or fluorescent light; and

FIG. 7 illustrates a specimen in which a plurality of sections have been laid.

DETAILED DESCRIPTIONS OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

In FIG. 1 the reference 10 identifies a microscope specimen through which there is laid an imaginary horizontal section comprising a plurality of part elements: for reasons relating to the technicalities of the drawing the section exhibits 20 rows in the x-direction and 15 rows in the y-direction, i.e. a total of 300 part elements, such as part elements 12 and 13 for example, but may in practice of course exhibit many more or far less elements and with sections of a different form, such as square or elongated rectangular sections for example, depending entirely upon the form of the specimen.

When microphotometering a microscope specimen, 75, 100 or may be 200 such imaginary sections may be envisaged in practice, these sections being plane parallel and bordering upon one another, two and two, or spaced equidistantly from one another. That part of the section 11 which lies within the specimen 10 has been shown in the figure with a thicker line 14.

The specimen 20 illustrated in vertical sections in FIG. 2 constitutes part of a material surface to be studied. A section 21, corresponding to the section 11 in FIG. 1, is placed in the upper part of the specimen and is thus here seen from the side. The two indicated sections 11 and 21 are representative of what is referred to hereinafter as "the focal plane".

The apparatus illustrated in FIG. 3 includes a microscope 30 having an object table 301, a laser-light source 31 for producing a beam of light through a beam-splitting unit 32, and a scanner 33 operative in panning the beam of light to a plurality of locations in the focal plane (x-y-plane) of the microscope 30, an aperture 34, and a control and data-collection assembly 36 for controlling, inter alia, the scanner 33 via a line 361, and for collecting electric signals deriving from reflected and/or fluorescent light arriving at the detector 35 after having passed from the object table 301 through the microscope 30, the scanner 33 and the aperture 34, this light being converted in the detector 35 to electric signals which are transferred through the line 351 to the control assembly 36, and finally externally located equipment for storing, processing and visually displaying data originating from said signals, this equipment comprising a data processor 37 and an auxiliary store 38, and a display screen 39 connected to the data processor 37.

A luminous dot or cursor created by the light beam from the laser source 31 is deflected by the scanner 33 to a number of positions in a specimen placed on the object table 301, in the focal plane, which focal plane may be the section indicated in FIG. 1. Stray light, possibly eminating from locations (volume elements) above, beneath or beside the location in the x-y-plane just scanned by the scanner 33, is excluded by the aperture 34 and is caused to deliver information relating to its characteristics through, for example, reflected light. When a location has been scanned a control pulse is delivered from the control assembly 36 to the scanner 33, via the line 361, and the scanner therewith reflects the beam to the next location (e.g. an x-square) in the same row (y-row), this procedure being continued until the whole of section 11 has been scanned or sensed. The object table 301 is thereupon moved stepwise (up or down) in response to a control pulse (signal) fed from the control assembly 36 to a drive unit 363 via the line 362, which drive unit guides directly movement of the table 301 is the z-direction. The object table with the specimen thereon is thus displaced through a given distance in the z-direction, whereupon the focal plane of the microscope 30 will obtain a new position through the specimen, this new position being scanned in the same manner as that previously described. The whole of the specimen is thus scanned in this way successively at equidistant locations along equidistant parallel lines in equidistant planes. Signals are transferred from the scanner 33 and the drive unit 363 respectively to the controller assembly 36, bearing information relating to the current position of the cursor created by the light beam (x-y-direction) and of the table 301 (z-direction).

When creating a three-dimensional picture of a volume of a microscope specimen with the aid of the apparatus just described, the following operational steps are taken:

a luminous dot or cursor is created in the focal plane 11 of the microscope 30, this plane passing through the specimen;

the cursor is deflected to a plurality of locations in the focal plane 11;

the mutual relative positions of the specimen and the focal plane 11 are changed and deflection of the cursor to a plurality of locations in the focal plane is renewed;

the change in the relative mutual positions of the specimen and focal plane is repeated stepwise, and after each such change the luminous cursor is again deflected to a number of locations in the focal plane;

the light created by the luminous cursor and part elements of the specimen is collected, this light carrying information relating to locations in the specimen, and any disturbing light eminating synchronously from adjacent locations is screened-off; and

the thus collected light is collected and the measurement values obtained through said detection are stored, the storage of the measurement values being effected synchronously with the deflection of the luminous cursor in the focal plane and with the change in the mutual position between the specimen and the focal plane.

In this way there is obtained a description or picture of the whole of the volume of the specimen comprising the individual volume elements (the locations), this being achieved in an extremely short period of time. By way of example it can be mentioned that when microphotometering a specimen through approximately 100 sections and having 2562 measurement values (locations) in each section, the actual apparatus time is approximately 10 minutes. In addition to the highly simplified preparation of the specimen, however, it is also possible to produce through the data processor 37 three-dimensional images with selectable projection directions and with the possibility of making volumetric measurements.

The apparatus illustrated in FIG. 4 coincides with the apparatus illustrated in FIG. 3 with the exception that deflection caused through the scanner 43 is effected only in one direction (e.g. the y-direction), while the object table 401 is moved stepwise in the horizontal direction (x-direction) subsequent to the light beam having been advanced along a whole row or line and been displaced stepwise in a vertical direction (z-direction) subsequent to the light beam having been advanced along a whole section. This modification may be suitable when studying specimens of substantially elongated rectangular shape.

When the aforegiven exceptions in the functioning of the apparatus, the corresponding circuits and devices illustrated in FIGS. 3 and 4 are identified by reference numerals differing only in their first digits.

The apparatus illustrated in FIG. 5 coincides with that illustrated in FIG. 3 with the exception that the scanner 33 is omitted totally and the object table 501 is instead arranged to be moved stepwise along a surface in the horizontal plane (x-y-plane) and stepwise in a vertical direction (z-direction). These movements are controlled from the drive unit 563 which receives, in turn, synchronizing pulses from the control assembly 56.

Mutually corresponding circuits and devices in FIGS. 3 and 5 are identified by reference numerals differing only in their first digits.

The apparatus according to FIGS. 3-5 are intended to utilize reflected and/or fluorescent light from the specimen. It is also possible to work with transmitted light, however, and the apparatus illustrated in FIG. 6 is intended for this case. Light from the laser 61 passes the microscope 60 and is focused on a point in the focal plane in a specimen placed on the object table 601. The light allowed to pass through or excited (fluorescence) by the specimen at the point in question is collected by an objective 602 and permitted to pass an aperture 64 and, in the case of fluorescence, a filter 603 to eliminate exiting laser light, whereupon detection is effected in the detector 65 (conversion to electric signals and analogue/digital conversion) and collection in the control and data collecting assembly 66 in the aforedescribed manner. In a manner similar to that described with reference to FIG. 5, the object table 601 is also caused to move stepwise, in response to control signals from the assembly 66, along a line or row in a surface plane (x-y-plane) and in a direction (z-direction) perpendicular to the surface plane. The function of the apparatus is similar in other respects to the function of the previously described apparatus.

The various remaining circuits or devices in FIG. 6 corresponding to the circuits or devices in FIG. 5 are identified by reference numerals differing only in their first digits.

The invention is not restricted to the aforedescribed and illustrated embodiments. For example, although the methods forming the basis for the apparatus illustrated in FIGS. 3 and 4, see also the following claims 2 and 3, probably give optimal results in respect of reflected light, modifications can be made in principle for the use of transmitted light. In addition, the drive units 363, 463 and 563 of respective apparatus according to FIGS. 3--5 can also be used to advantage for controlling movement of the microscope objective in z-directions instead of respective object tables 301, 401 and 501. There is obtained in both instances (fixed objective, movable object table in z-direction; movable objective in z-directions, fixed object table in z-directions) a change in the mutual distance between the specimen 10 and the focal plane 11.

In the aforegoing mention has been made as to how the light beam is stepped forward along a line on (in) the specimen with the aid of control signals from the control assembly (e.g. 36 in FIG. 3). Modifications may be made, however, to enable the light beam to be swung continuously forwards and backwards for example, but so that detection of the reflected signal takes place exactly at moments in time corresponding to given positional locations in the focal plane in the specimen.

It has been mentioned in the aforegoing that images in selectable projections can be readily obtained once the specimen has been microphotometered in accordance with the invention.

FIG. 7 illustrates schematically a specimen 10 through which sections 1-n have been laid (at right angles to the plane of the drawing) in accordance with the invention. A researcher who during the course of his/her work finds that he needs to view a section through a given part of the specimen from a different angle, e.g. through sections 70--70, is able to immediately obtain from the measurement value equipment an image comprised of measuring results from a plurality of sections 1-n, and with a starting point from this view image can then find reason to concentrate his/her interest to another part of the specimen, perhaps along an additional section. The possibilities are manifold and afford a high degree of flexibility in respect of research work.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2969708 *Apr 3, 1957Jan 31, 1961American Optical CorpMeans for analyzing microscopic particles and the like
US3013467 *Nov 7, 1957Dec 19, 1961Marvin MinskyMicroscopy apparatus
US3049047 *Dec 5, 1960Aug 14, 1962American Optical CorpMethod for analyzing microscopic particles and the like
US3719776 *Aug 11, 1970Mar 6, 1973Hitachi LtdApparatus for photographing an image of a specimen
US3764512 *May 2, 1972Oct 9, 1973Singer CoLaser scanning electrophoresis instrument and system
US3782823 *Mar 23, 1972Jan 1, 1974American Optical CorpLaser microprobe
US3790281 *Feb 26, 1973Feb 5, 1974Zenith Radio CorpCombined system for acoustical-optical microscopy
US3926500 *Dec 2, 1974Dec 16, 1975IbmMethod of increasing the depth of focus and or the resolution of light microscopes by illuminating and imaging through a diaphragm with pinhole apertures
US3947628 *Aug 21, 1974Mar 30, 1976Imant Karlovich AlienDevice for selective search of objects using images thereof
US3980818 *Jun 27, 1974Sep 14, 1976Sydnor-Barent, Inc.Recorder and reproducer system
US4045772 *Apr 22, 1976Aug 30, 1977Geometric Data CorporationAutomatic focusing system
US4068381 *Oct 29, 1976Jan 17, 1978The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of CommerceScanning electron microscope micrometer scale and method for fabricating same
US4125828 *Jul 17, 1975Nov 14, 1978Med-El Inc.Method and apparatus for automated classification and analysis of cells
US4141032 *Jun 9, 1977Feb 20, 1979Ernst Leitz Wetzlar GmbhMethod of and apparatus for the expansion of the range of the depth of focus beyond the limit given by conventional images
US4160263 *May 15, 1978Jul 3, 1979George R. CogarDual or multiple objective video microscope for superimposing spaced images
US4194217 *Mar 31, 1978Mar 18, 1980Bosch Francois J G Van DenMethod and apparatus for in-vivo spectroscopic analysis
US4207554 *Aug 24, 1978Jun 10, 1980Med-El Inc.Method and apparatus for automated classification and analysis of cells
US4211924 *Jan 29, 1979Jul 8, 1980Siemens AktiengesellschaftTransmission-type scanning charged-particle beam microscope
US4218112 *Jul 3, 1978Aug 19, 1980C. Reichert Optische Werke, AgPhotometer microscope for microphotometer scanning of fine specimen structures
US4223354 *Aug 30, 1978Sep 16, 1980General Electric CompanyPhase corrected raster scanned light modulator and a variable frequency oscillator for effecting phase correction
US4236179 *Jun 29, 1979Nov 25, 1980International Business Machines CorporationVersatile microsecond multiple framing camera
US4255971 *Nov 1, 1978Mar 17, 1981Allan RosencwaigThermoacoustic microscopy
US4284897 *Mar 13, 1978Aug 18, 1981Olympus Optical Company Ltd.Fluorescence determining microscope utilizing laser light
US4311358 *Oct 25, 1979Jan 19, 1982De Forenede Bryggerier A/SIllumination device for fluorescence microscopes
US4314763 *Jan 4, 1979Feb 9, 1982Rca CorporationDefect detection system
US4348263 *Sep 12, 1980Sep 7, 1982Western Electric Company, Inc.To reduce diameters of metal grains in substrate
US4350892 *Jul 31, 1980Sep 21, 1982Research CorporationX'-, Y'-, Z'- axis multidimensional slit-scan flow system
US4354114 *Oct 9, 1979Oct 12, 1982Karnaukhov Valery NApparatus for investigation of fluorescence characteristics of microscopic objects
US4362943 *Sep 8, 1980Dec 7, 1982Bell Telephone Laboratories, IncorporatedMethod of measuring the refractive index profile and the core diameter of optical fibers and preforms
US4366380 *Mar 12, 1981Dec 28, 1982George MirkinMethod and apparatus for structural analysis
US4379135 *Oct 1, 1981Apr 5, 1983Lion CorporationMethod for enumeration of oral gram-negative bacteria
US4379231 *Mar 12, 1980Apr 5, 1983Hitachi, Ltd.Electron microscope
US4381963 *Jul 30, 1980May 3, 1983The University Of RochesterMicro fabrication molding process
US4405237 *Feb 4, 1981Sep 20, 1983The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The NavyCoherent anti-Stokes Raman device
US4406015 *Apr 28, 1981Sep 20, 1983Kabushiki Kaisha Daini SeikoshaFluorescent X-ray film thickness gauge
US4406525 *Nov 7, 1980Sep 27, 1983Asahi Kogaku Kogyo Kabushiki KaishaLight beam scanning device
US4407008 *Oct 7, 1981Sep 27, 1983Carl Zeiss-StiftungMethod and apparatus for light-induced scanning-microscope display of specimen parameters and of their distribution
US4485409 *Mar 29, 1982Nov 27, 1984Measuronics CorporationData acquisition system for large format video display
DE2360197A1 *Dec 3, 1973Jun 5, 1975Ibm DeutschlandVerfahren zur erhoehung der schaerfentiefe und/oder des aufloesungsvermoegens von lichtmikroskopen
DE2655525A1 *Dec 8, 1976Jun 15, 1978Leitz Ernst GmbhVerfahren zur erweiterung des schaerfentiefebereiches ueber die durch die konvnetionelle abbildung gegebene grenze hinaus sowie einrichtung zur durchfuehrung dieses verfahrens
DE3243890A1 *Nov 26, 1982Jun 9, 1983Secr Defence BritAbbildungssystem
EP0112401A1 *Dec 27, 1982Jul 4, 1984International Business Machines CorporationOptical near-field scanning microscope
GB2184321A * Title not available
Non-Patent Citations
Reference
1"A Laser Flying Spot Scanner for Use in Automated Fluorescence Antibody Instrumentation", A. F. Slomba, D. E. Wasserman, G. I. Kaufman, J. F. Nester, Journal of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, vol. 6, No. 3, May-Jun., 1972, pp. 230-234.
2"Automatic Moving Part Measuring Equipment", H. M. Nier, IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin, vol. 22, No. 7, Dec., 1979, pp. 2856-2857.
3"Depth of Field in the Scanning Microscope", C. J. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, Optics Letters, vol. 3, No. 3, Sep., 1978, pp. 115-117.
4"Digital Image Processing of Confocal Images", I. J. Cox, C. J. R. Sheppard, Image and Vision Computing, 1983, Butterworth & Co., Ltd. (Publishers), pp. 52-56.
5"Dynamic Focusing in the Confocal Scanning Microscope", T. Wilson D. K. Hamilton, Journal of Microscopy, vol. 128, pt. 2, Nov., 1982, pp. 139-143.
6"Electronic Image Processing of Scanning Optical Microscope Images", I. J. Cox, presented at International Conference on Electronic Image Processing, Jul. 26-28, 1982.
7"Experimental Observations of the Depth-Discrimination Properties of Scanning Microscopes", D. K. Hamilton, T. Wilson, C. J. R. Sheppard, Optics Letters, Dec., 1981, vol. 6, No. 12, pp. 625-626.
8"Image-analyzing Microscopes", Phillip G. Stein, Analytical Chemistry, vol. 42, No. 13, Nov., 1970, pp. 103A-106A.
9"Laser Scanning Microscopy", W. Jerry Alford, Richard D. Vanderneut, Vincent J. Zaleckas, Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 70, No. 6, Jun., 1982, pp. 641-651.
10"Morphoquant-An Automatic Microimage Analyzer of VEB Carl Zeiss Jena", Shura Agadshanyan, Peter Dopel, Peter Gretscher, Werner Witsack, JR 6, 1977, pp. 270-276.
11"Optical Microscopy with Extended Depth of Field", C. J. R. Sheppard, D. K. Hamilton, I. J. Cox, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, vol. 387, pp. 171-186.
12"PHOIBOS, A Microscope Scanner Designed for Micro-fluorometric Applications, Using Laser Induced Fluoroscence", N. Aslund, K. Carlsson, A. Liljeborg, L. Majlof, Physics IV, Royal Institute of Technology, S-100 44 Stockholm 70, 1983, pp. 338-343.
13"Scanning Laser Microscope for Biological Investigations", P. Davidovits, M. D. Egger, Applied Optics, vol. 10, No. 7, Jul., 1971, pp. 1615-1619.
14"Scanning Laser Microscope", Paul Davidovits, M. David Egger, Nature, vol. 223, Aug. 1969, p. 831.
15"Scanning Optical Microscope Incorporating a Digital Framestore and Microcomputer", I. J. Cox, C. J. R. Sheppard, 2219 Applied Optics vol. 22, No. 10, May, 1983, New York, U.S.A., pp. 1474-1478.
16"Tandem Scanning Reflected Light Microscopy of Internal Features in Whole Bone and Tooth Samples" A. Boyde, M. Petran, M. Hadravsky, Journal of Microscopy, vol. 132, part 1, Oct., 1983, pp. 1-7.
17"Tandem-scanning Reflected-light Microscope", Mojmir Petran, Milan Hadravsky, M. David Egger, Robert Galambos, Journal of the Optical Society of America, vol. 58, No. 5, May, 1968, pp. 661-664.
18"Three-dimensional Architecture of a Polytene Nucleus", David A. Agard, John W. Sedat, Nature, vol. 302, Apr. 21, 1983, pp. 676-681.
19 *A Laser Flying Spot Scanner for Use in Automated Fluorescence Antibody Instrumentation , A. F. Slomba, D. E. Wasserman, G. I. Kaufman, J. F. Nester, Journal of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, vol. 6, No. 3, May Jun., 1972, pp. 230 234.
20 *Automatic Moving Part Measuring Equipment , H. M. Nier, IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin, vol. 22, No. 7, Dec., 1979, pp. 2856 2857.
21D. K. Hamilton et al., "Three-Dimensional Surface Measurement Using the Confocal Scanning Microscope", Applied Physics B27, pp. 211-213 (1982).
22 *D. K. Hamilton et al., Three Dimensional Surface Measurement Using the Confocal Scanning Microscope , Applied Physics B27, pp. 211 213 (1982).
23 *Depth of Field in the Scanning Microscope , C. J. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, Optics Letters, vol. 3, No. 3, Sep., 1978, pp. 115 117.
24 *Digital Image Processing of Confocal Images , I. J. Cox, C. J. R. Sheppard, Image and Vision Computing, 1983, Butterworth & Co., Ltd. (Publishers), pp. 52 56.
25 *Digital Image Processing, Kenneth R. Castleman, 1979 Prentice Hall, Inc.
26Digital Image Processing, Kenneth R. Castleman, 1979 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
27 *Dynamic Focusing in the Confocal Scanning Microscope , T. Wilson D. K. Hamilton, Journal of Microscopy, vol. 128, pt. 2, Nov., 1982, pp. 139 143.
28 *Electronic Image Processing of Scanning Optical Microscope Images , I. J. Cox, presented at International Conference on Electronic Image Processing, Jul. 26 28, 1982.
29 *Experimental Observations of the Depth Discrimination Properties of Scanning Microscopes , D. K. Hamilton, T. Wilson, C. J. R. Sheppard, Optics Letters, Dec., 1981, vol. 6, No. 12, pp. 625 626.
30G. J. Brakenhoff, "Imaging modes in confocal scanning light microscopy (CSLM)", Journal of Microscopy, vol. 117, pt. 2, Nov. 1979, pp. 233-242.
31 *G. J. Brakenhoff, Imaging modes in confocal scanning light microscopy (CSLM) , Journal of Microscopy, vol. 117, pt. 2, Nov. 1979, pp. 233 242.
32 *Image analyzing Microscopes , Phillip G. Stein, Analytical Chemistry, vol. 42, No. 13, Nov., 1970, pp. 103A 106A.
33 *Laser Scanning Microscopy , W. Jerry Alford, Richard D. Vanderneut, Vincent J. Zaleckas, Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 70, No. 6, Jun., 1982, pp. 641 651.
34 *Morphoquant An Automatic Microimage Analyzer of VEB Carl Zeiss Jena , Shura Agadshanyan, Peter Dopel, Peter Gretscher, Werner Witsack, JR 6, 1977, pp. 270 276.
35 *Optical Microscopy with Extended Depth of Field , C. J. R. Sheppard, D. K. Hamilton, I. J. Cox, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, vol. 387, pp. 171 186.
36 *PHOIBOS, A Microscope Scanner Designed for Micro fluorometric Applications, Using Laser Induced Fluoroscence , N. Aslund, K. Carlsson, A. Liljeborg, L. Majlof, Physics IV, Royal Institute of Technology, S 100 44 Stockholm 70, 1983, pp. 338 343.
37 *Scanning Laser Microscope , Paul Davidovits, M. David Egger, Nature, vol. 223, Aug. 1969, p. 831.
38 *Scanning Laser Microscope for Biological Investigations , P. Davidovits, M. D. Egger, Applied Optics, vol. 10, No. 7, Jul., 1971, pp. 1615 1619.
39 *Scanning Optical Microscope Incorporating a Digital Framestore and Microcomputer , I. J. Cox, C. J. R. Sheppard, 2219 Applied Optics vol. 22, No. 10, May, 1983, New York, U.S.A., pp. 1474 1478.
40 *Tandem scanning Reflected light Microscope , Mojmir Petran, Milan Hadravsky, M. David Egger, Robert Galambos, Journal of the Optical Society of America, vol. 58, No. 5, May, 1968, pp. 661 664.
41 *Tandem Scanning Reflected Light Microscopy of Internal Features in Whole Bone and Tooth Samples A. Boyde, M. Petran, M. Hadravsky, Journal of Microscopy, vol. 132, part 1, Oct., 1983, pp. 1 7.
42 *The Engineering Index Annual, 1983, pp. 3434 and 4491.
43 *Three dimensional Architecture of a Polytene Nucleus , David A. Agard, John W. Sedat, Nature, vol. 302, Apr. 21, 1983, pp. 676 681.
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5479252 *Jun 17, 1993Dec 26, 1995Ultrapointe CorporationLaser imaging system for inspection and analysis of sub-micron particles
US5621532 *Jan 31, 1995Apr 15, 1997Nikon CorporationLaser scanning microscope utilizing detection of a far-field diffraction pattern with 2-dimensional detection
US5713364 *Aug 1, 1995Feb 3, 1998Medispectra, Inc.Spectral volume microprobe analysis of materials
US5813987 *Dec 24, 1996Sep 29, 1998Medispectra, Inc.Spectral volume microprobe for analysis of materials
US5880880 *Jul 15, 1996Mar 9, 1999The General Hospital Corp.Three-dimensional scanning confocal laser microscope
US5923430 *Feb 3, 1997Jul 13, 1999Ultrapointe CorporationMethod for characterizing defects on semiconductor wafers
US6288782May 5, 1999Sep 11, 2001Ultrapointe CorporationMethod for characterizing defects on semiconductor wafers
US6369379Sep 8, 2000Apr 9, 2002General Nanotechnology LlcScanning probe microscope assembly and method for making confocal, spectrophotometric, near-field, and scanning probe measurements and associated images
US6385484Dec 15, 2000May 7, 2002Medispectra, Inc.Spectroscopic system employing a plurality of data types
US6396054Sep 11, 2000May 28, 2002General Nanotechnology LlcScanning probe microscope assembly and method for making confocal, spectrophotometric, near-field, and scanning probe measurements and associated images
US6411838Dec 22, 1999Jun 25, 2002Medispectra, Inc.Systems and methods for optical examination of samples
US6515277Sep 8, 2000Feb 4, 2003General Nanotechnology L.L.C.Scanning probe microscope assembly and method for making confocal, spectrophotometric, near-field, and scanning probe measurements and associated images
US6599694Dec 18, 2000Jul 29, 2003Cytokinetics, Inc.Quantitative analysis
US6615141Nov 21, 2000Sep 2, 2003Cytokinetics, Inc.Finding the effects of substances on cell function based upon searching and analyzing cellular information; high throughput
US6631331 *Nov 21, 2000Oct 7, 2003Cytokinetics, Inc.Database system for predictive cellular bioinformatics
US6651008Nov 21, 2000Nov 18, 2003Cytokinetics, Inc.Database system including computer code for predictive cellular bioinformatics
US6661515Sep 11, 2001Dec 9, 2003Kla-Tencor CorporationMethod for characterizing defects on semiconductor wafers
US6684092Aug 21, 1998Jan 27, 2004Lucid, Inc.System for facilitating pathological examination of a lesion in tissue
US6738716Nov 21, 2000May 18, 2004Cytokinetics, Inc.Database system for predictive cellular bioinformatics
US6743576May 14, 1999Jun 1, 2004Cytokinetics, Inc.System for capturing cellular information, including an image acquisition system comprising a charged coupled device camera and optical source; use in drug discovery
US6752008Mar 7, 2002Jun 22, 2004General Nanotechnology LlcMethod and apparatus for scanning in scanning probe microscopy and presenting results
US6760613Jun 24, 2002Jul 6, 2004Medispectra, Inc.Substantially monostatic, substantially confocal optical systems for examination of samples
US6768918Jul 10, 2002Jul 27, 2004Medispectra, Inc.Fluorescent fiberoptic probe for tissue health discrimination and method of use thereof
US6787768Mar 7, 2002Sep 7, 2004General Nanotechnology LlcA single-body structure is presented for use as a tool tip for making modifications and/or collecting measurements on a target
US6802646Mar 7, 2002Oct 12, 2004General Nanotechnology LlcLow-friction moving interfaces in micromachines and nanomachines
US6813937Nov 26, 2002Nov 9, 2004General Nanotechnology LlcMethod and apparatus for micromachines, microstructures, nanomachines and nanostructures
US6818903Sep 13, 2002Nov 16, 2004Medispectra, Inc.Method and apparatus for identifying spectral artifacts
US6826422Jan 11, 2000Nov 30, 2004Medispectra, Inc.Spectral volume microprobe arrays
US6831994Jul 17, 2001Dec 14, 2004Lynx Therapeutics, Inc.System and apparatus for sequential processing of analytes
US6839661Dec 15, 2000Jan 4, 2005Medispectra, Inc.System for normalizing spectra
US6847490Jun 9, 2000Jan 25, 2005Medispectra, Inc.Optical probe accessory device for use in vivo diagnostic procedures
US6856458Oct 9, 2001Feb 15, 2005Lucid, Inc.Tissue specimen holder
US6865927Feb 18, 2003Mar 15, 2005General Nanotechnology LlcSharpness testing of micro-objects such as miniature diamond tool tips
US6876760Dec 4, 2000Apr 5, 2005Cytokinetics, Inc.Classifying cells based on information contained in cell images
US6880388Aug 26, 2002Apr 19, 2005General Nanotechnology LlcActive cantilever for nanomachining and metrology
US6902935Dec 15, 2000Jun 7, 2005Medispectra, Inc.Methods of monitoring effects of chemical agents on a sample
US6923044Mar 7, 2002Aug 2, 2005General Nanotechnology LlcActive cantilever for nanomachining and metrology
US6931710Feb 14, 2003Aug 23, 2005General Nanotechnology LlcManufacturing of micro-objects such as miniature diamond tool tips
US6933154Nov 15, 2002Aug 23, 2005Medispectra, Inc.Optimal windows for obtaining optical data for characterization of tissue samples
US6956961Feb 20, 2001Oct 18, 2005Cytokinetics, Inc.Extracting shape information contained in cell images
US6998689Sep 9, 2003Feb 14, 2006General Nanotechnology LlcFluid delivery for scanning probe microscopy
US7016787Feb 20, 2001Mar 21, 2006Cytokinetics, Inc.Characterizing biological stimuli by response curves
US7042828Jul 29, 2003May 9, 2006General Nanotechnology LlcNanometer scale data storage device and associated positioning system
US7045780Jul 8, 2003May 16, 2006General Nanotechnology, LlcScanning probe microscopy inspection and modification system
US7053369Oct 18, 2002May 30, 2006Rave LlcScan data collection for better overall data accuracy
US7091476Jan 14, 2002Aug 15, 2006General Nanotechnology LlcScanning probe microscope assembly
US7103401Jul 10, 2002Sep 5, 2006Medispectra, Inc.Colonic polyp discrimination by tissue fluorescence and fiberoptic probe
US7109482Jun 22, 2004Sep 19, 2006General Nanotechnology LlcObject inspection and/or modification system and method
US7127282Apr 12, 2002Oct 24, 2006Medispectra, Inc.Optical methods and systems for rapid screening of the cervix
US7136518Apr 18, 2003Nov 14, 2006Medispectra, Inc.Methods and apparatus for displaying diagnostic data
US7137292Mar 31, 2005Nov 21, 2006General Nanotechnology LlcActive cantilever for nanomachining and metrology
US7151847Feb 20, 2001Dec 19, 2006Cytokinetics, Inc.Image analysis of the golgi complex
US7178387Jun 10, 2004Feb 20, 2007General Nanotechnology LlcMethod and apparatus for scanning in scanning probe microscopy and presenting results
US7187810Oct 18, 2002Mar 6, 2007Medispectra, Inc.Methods and systems for correcting image misalignment
US7194118 *Nov 10, 2000Mar 20, 2007Lucid, Inc.System for optically sectioning and mapping surgically excised tissue
US7196328Mar 7, 2002Mar 27, 2007General Nanotechnology LlcNanomachining method and apparatus
US7218764Apr 1, 2005May 15, 2007Cytokinetics, Inc.Ploidy classification method
US7235353Jul 18, 2003Jun 26, 2007Cytokinetics, Inc.Exposing liver tissue with enhanced cytochrome p450 expression to stimulus and using imaging analysis to detect cytotoxic features/damages generated after exposure to stimulus
US7246012Jul 16, 2004Jul 17, 2007Cytokinetics, Inc.Characterizing biological stimuli by response curves
US7253407Mar 22, 2005Aug 7, 2007General Nanotechnology LlcActive cantilever for nanomachining and metrology
US7260248Mar 15, 2002Aug 21, 2007Medispectra, Inc.Image processing using measures of similarity
US7266998Nov 3, 2004Sep 11, 2007General Nanotechnology LlcMethod and apparatus for micromachines, microstructures, nanomachines and nanostructures
US7269278Jun 24, 2005Sep 11, 2007Cytokinetics, Inc.Extracting shape information contained in cell images
US7282723Apr 18, 2003Oct 16, 2007Medispectra, Inc.Methods and apparatus for processing spectral data for use in tissue characterization
US7309867Apr 18, 2003Dec 18, 2007Medispectra, Inc.Methods and apparatus for characterization of tissue samples
US7310547Jul 19, 2004Dec 18, 2007Medispectra, Inc.Fluorescent fiberoptic probe for tissue health discrimination
US7323318Mar 15, 2005Jan 29, 2008Cytokinetics, Inc.Assay for distinguishing live and dead cells
US7459696Apr 18, 2003Dec 2, 2008Schomacker Kevin TMethods and apparatus for calibrating spectral data
US7469160Apr 18, 2003Dec 23, 2008Banks Perry SMethods and apparatus for evaluating image focus
US7485856Apr 25, 2006Feb 3, 2009General Nanotechnology LlpScanning probe microscopy inspection and modification system
US7535817Jan 3, 2006May 19, 2009General Nanotechnology, L.L.C.Nanometer scale data storage device and associated positioning system
US7547882Mar 17, 2006Jun 16, 2009Rave LlcScan data collection for better overall data accurancy
US7615738Feb 14, 2006Nov 10, 2009General Nanotechnology, LlcScanning probe microscope assembly and method for making spectrophotometric, near-field, and scanning probe measurements
US7631549Aug 20, 2007Dec 15, 2009General Nanotechnology LlcMethod and apparatus for micromachines, microstructures, nanomachines and nanostructures
US7657076Jul 20, 2005Feb 2, 2010Cytokinetics, Inc.Characterizing biological stimuli by response curves
US7817840Mar 13, 2006Oct 19, 2010Cytokinetics, Inc.Predicting hepatotoxicity using cell based assays
US7864996Feb 17, 2006Jan 4, 2011Lucid, Inc.System for macroscopic and confocal imaging of tissue
US7947952Mar 26, 2007May 24, 2011General Nanotechnology LlcNanomachining method and apparatus
US8005527Dec 12, 2007Aug 23, 2011Luma Imaging CorporationMethod of determining a condition of a tissue
US8149506Jun 4, 2002Apr 3, 2012Lucii, Inc.Cassette for facilitating optical sectioning of a retained tissue specimen
US8311788Jul 1, 2009Nov 13, 2012Schlumberger Technology CorporationMethod to quantify discrete pore shapes, volumes, and surface areas using confocal profilometry
US8361713Oct 12, 2007Jan 29, 2013Illumina, Inc.System and apparatus for sequential processing of analytes
US8369591Oct 1, 2009Feb 5, 2013Carl Zeiss Microimaging GmbhSilhouette image acquisition
US8725477Apr 8, 2009May 13, 2014Schlumberger Technology CorporationMethod to generate numerical pseudocores using borehole images, digital rock samples, and multi-point statistics
USH1530 *Jun 17, 1993May 7, 1996Ultrapointe CorporationSurface extraction from a three-dimensional data set
USRE43097May 18, 2010Jan 10, 2012Illumina, Inc.Massively parallel signature sequencing by ligation of encoded adaptors
EP0533330A1 *Aug 3, 1992Mar 24, 1993Hitachi, Ltd.A scanning microscope and a method of operating such a scanning microscope
EP1873232A1Nov 20, 2006Jan 2, 2008Fujitsu LimitedMicroinjection apparatus and automatic focal point adjustment method
Classifications
U.S. Classification348/79, 356/308, 348/141, 356/318
International ClassificationG03B15/00, G02B27/40, G01N21/59, G03B17/48, H01J37/22, G02B21/00, G02B21/36
Cooperative ClassificationG01N2201/1087, G02B21/0096, G01N21/474, G01N21/5911, G01N21/6456, G02B21/002
European ClassificationG02B21/00P, G02B21/00M4, G01N21/59B2
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Apr 2, 2003ASAssignment
Owner name: AMERSHAM BIOSCIENCES (SV) CORP., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:MOLECULAR DYNAMICS, INC.;REEL/FRAME:013897/0650
Effective date: 20011203
Owner name: AMERSHAM BIOSCIENCES (SV) CORP. 928 EAST ARQUES AV
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:MOLECULAR DYNAMICS, INC. /AR;REEL/FRAME:013897/0650