|Publication number||USRE34591 E|
|Application number||US 07/885,343|
|Publication date||Apr 26, 1994|
|Filing date||May 19, 1992|
|Priority date||Nov 9, 1989|
|Also published as||DE69009398D1, DE69009398T2, EP0427266A1, EP0427266B1, US5090620|
|Publication number||07885343, 885343, US RE34591 E, US RE34591E, US-E-RE34591, USRE34591 E, USRE34591E|
|Inventors||Takeo Yoshida, Minoru Suzuki|
|Original Assignee||Yamaha Hatsudoki Kabushiki Kaisha|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (14), Referenced by (13), Classifications (19), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This invention relates to a high pressure fuel injection unit for an engine, and more particularly to an improved arrangement for energizing the electromagnetic assemblies of the injection unit which control fuel injection timing and the lift of the injection valve respectively so as to reduce the risk of burning damage to the electromagnetic assemblies and to improve the durability of the injection unit.
One popular form of fuel injection unit for engines is the so-called "accumulator type." This type of injection nozzle includes an accumulator chamber that is charged with fuel under pressure and which communicates with a nozzle port. An injection valve is supported within the accumulator chamber and controls the discharge through the nozzle port. An actuating device is associated with the injection valve and is moveable within a control chamber that is also pressurized with fuel. A valve is associated with the control chamber and is opened so as to reduce the pressure and cause the pressure in the accumulator chamber to unseat the injection valve and initiate fuel injection. Typically, the valve is operated by a main electromagnetic assembly that is contained within the housing of the fuel injection nozzle.
To control the amount of fuel injected, the inventors have proposed to provide an additional and separate subelectromagnetic assembly within the accumulator chamber to control the lift movement of the injection valve. This assembly is provided with a coil which, when energized, attracts a lift regulating member downward against a holder member which supports the coil to permit only a relatively small upward lift movement of the injection valve to allow injection of a smaller amount of fuel when injection is initiated. On the other hand, when the coil is not energized, the regulating member moves freely within a bore of the holder member so the injection valve is able to move upward a greater distance to permit injection of a larger amount of fuel.
Although previous injection units of this type have been generally satisfactory, effective operation of such units has typically required that regulating member be held down against the holding member with a magnetic flux which is greater than the magnetic flux generated by the main electromagnet during the entire time of small lift operation. Generation of such a large magnetic flux in the sub-electromagnetic coil has typically required that the coil be supplied with a relatively large current during the entire small lift operation. This may cause burning damage to the coil and may also decrease the durability of the coil.
It is, therefore, a principal object of this invention to provide an improved energizing arrangement for an electromagnetic assembly which controls the lift amount of an injection valve so as to eliminate or greatly decrease the likelihood of causing burning damage to the electromagnetic assembly.
It is another object of this invention to provide an improved energizing arrangement for an electromagnetic assembly which controls fuel injection, wherein this electromagnetic assembly does not require a large current for a long period of time during injection process so as to eliminate or greatly decrease the likelihood of causing burning damage to the electromagnetic assembly.
This invention is adapted to be embodied in an accumulator type of injection nozzle that is comprised of an outer housing assembly defining a cavity partitioned into an accumulator chamber which is adapted to be supplied with high pressure fuel and a coil chamber. A nozzle port leads from the accumulator chamber and an injection valve is moveable between a closed position and an open position for controlling the discharge of fuel from the accumulator chamber through the nozzle port. A control chamber is also incorporated that receives pressurized fuel. An actuating member is supported for movement within this control chamber and is associated with the injection valve for retaining the injection valve in its closed position when the control chamber is pressurized and for movement of the injection valve to its open position when pressure is relieved in the control chamber. A valve means is moveable between a closed position for maintaining pressure in the control chamber and an open position for relieving pressure in the control chamber for effecting fuel discharge through the nozzle port.
In accordance with the invention, a first electromagnet is positioned within the outer housing assembly for moving the valve means to one of the positions when the first electromagnet is energized. A second electromagnet is also positioned within the outer housing assembly for controlling the lift amount of the injection valve when the second electromagnet is selectively energized or de-energized. In accordance with the invention, when the second electromagnet is energized, energization thereof is started before energization of the first electromagnet for a given fuel injection cycle.
FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional front view of a fuel injection nozzle constructed in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional side view of the fuel injection nozzle.
FIG. 3 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of the control chamber portion of the fuel injection nozzle.
FIG. 4 (a) is a bottom view of the shim plate of the fuel injection nozzle.
FIG. 4(b) is a cross-sectional view taken alnog line IV(b)--IV(b) of FIG. 4(a).
FIG. 5 is an enlarged cross-sectional view showing the armature portion of the regulating member.
FIG. 6(a) is a side view of the stopper plate for the regulating member.
FIG. 6(b) is a bottom view of the stopper plate.
FIGS. 7(a) through (i) are wave form diagrams illustrating the operation of the fuel injection nozzle.
Referring to the drawings, and in particular to FIGS. 1 and 2, a fuel injection nozzle constructed in accordance with an embodiment of the invention is identified generally by the reference numeral 11. The injection nozzle 11 is comprised of an outer housing assembly, indicated generally by the reference numeral 12, that is adapted to be mounted, in a manner to be described, in the cylinder head of an internal combustion engine with a nozzle port 13 communicating with the combustion chamber for delivering fuel to it in a manner to be described. The invention may be used for direct cylinder injection, or instead may be utilized in conjunction with manifold injection systems. The invention, however, has particular utility with direct fuel injection, for example, as used with high speed diesel engines.
Fuel is supplied to the injection nozzle 11 from a remotely positioned fuel tank (not shown) by means of a high pressure pump (not shown). Excess fuel is returned back to the fuel tank or reservoir through a return line.
The outer housing assembly 12 is comprised of a casing body 14 and a cover member 15 which is removably seated within an opening 16 at the top of the casing body 14. The casing body 14 has a threaded lower end 17 which is adapted to be threaded into a suitable aperture in the cylinder head of the associated engine (not shown) in a known manner. The nozzle port 13 is defined by a tip 18 that has a threaded portion which is received in a threaded bore 19 formed at the lower end of the casing body 14. An adjusting shim 21 is interposed between the nozzle piece 18 and the lower end of the casing body 14 for length adjustment of the fuel injection nozzle 11.
An injection valve 22 is slidably supported within a bore 23 of the nozzle piece 18 and has a guide portion 24 formed with a helical groove at its lower portion, and a flow controlling tip 25 which, when in the closed position, closes the injection nozzle port 13.
An accumulator chamber 26 is formed at the upper end of and above the bore 23 in the lower portion of the casing piece 14. The accumulator chamber 26 is closed at its upper end by means of a partitioning plate 27 that is held against a shoulder 28 in the casing body 14 by a bottomed cylindrical pipe portion 29 of the cover member 15. A cap 31 having a threaded bore engages a threaded portion of the upper portion of the casing body 14 and presses against a top plate 32 of the cover member 15 to hold it in position.
The cover member 15 is formed with an inlet conduit 33 that has a threaded external portion 34 so as to receive a fitting 35 for connecting a supply line 36 extending from the pressure pump to the inlet conduit 33. The inlet conduit 33, which is generally a drilled opening, extends axially along the cover member 15 at its periphery at one side thereof and communicates at its lower end with the accumulator chamber 26 through a corresponding fuel groove 37 formed in the partitioning plate 27 and groove 39 in spacer 40 for delivering fuel to the accumulator chamber 26.
The partitioning plate 27 is generally disc-shaped, and serves to separate the accumulator chamber 26 from a coil chamber 38 in the upper portion of the casing body 14. The partitioning plate 27 has a centrally positioned aperture 41 into which an actuator portion 42 of the injector valve 22 is slidably supported and which closes a control chamber 43 formed within the partitioning plate 27 in a space defined by the upper portion of this aperture 41 and an inner face 44 of the partitioning plate 27, as shown in FIG. 3. A shim plate 45 is positioned between a top face 46 of the actuator portion 42 and the partitioning plate face 44 as shown in FIG. 3 for adjusting the lift of the injection valve 22.
The shim plate 45 is an annular plate, as shown in FIGS. 4(a) and 4(b), and has raised portions 47 projected every 90 degrees which abut against the partitioning plate face 44. Grooved portions 48 are interposed in between for receiving pressurized fluid. This shim plate 45 may be installed upside down.
A restricted orifice 49 communicates the control chamber 43 with the coil chamber 38. As shown in FIG. 3, a throttle hole 51 fixed in the end of the actuator portion 42 and an axial passage 52 formed through the upper portion of the injection valve 22 communicate the control chamber 43 with the accumulator chamber 26. The control chamber 43 communicates with the throttle hole 51 to receive the pressurized fluid and normally urge the injection valve 22 toward its downward or closed position.
A coil compression spring 53 encircles the injection valve 22, and at its lower end engages a cup-shaped retainer 54 that is held axially in position against the helical groove of the guide portion 24. The upper end of the spring 53 bears against an upper spring seat 55 which is positioned against a shoulder formed by an enlarged portion 56 at the lower end of a bore 57 formed in a holder member 58. The coil compression spring 53 acts to further assist in maintaining the injection valve 22 in the closed position, as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2.
A valve 59 is supported at the upper end of the partitioning plate 27 and controls the opening of the restricted orifice 49. The valve 59 comprises a headed portion 61 that is received within a corresponding recess formed in an enlarged disc-like armature plate 62, and a stem portion 63 which is in engagement with a spring 64 so as to bias the valve 59 toward its closed position to maintain the orifice 49 in its closed position.
The valve 59 is opened and closed so as to control the discharge of fuel from the nozzle port 13 by means of an electromagnetic assembly, indicated generally by the reference numeral 65. This electromagnetic assembly 65 includes a generally cylindrical yoke 66 that has a threaded opening at an enlarged diameter lower end portion which is received on a threaded portion of the partitioning plate 27 so as to secure the electromagnetic assembly 65 in position. The electromagnetic assembly 65 is further comprised of a solenoid coil or winding 67 that is disposed within the housing or yoke 66 and which encircles an armature 68. The armature 68 is formed with a bore that slidably supports the valve stem 63 of the valve 59.
A circuit (not shown) is used for energizing the coil 67 of the electromagnetic assembly 65 for opening and closing the valve 59.
The condition shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 is that which occurs when the winding 67 is de-energized. When the winding 67 is deenergized, the valve 59 will be held in its closed position by the spring 64 so that the accumulator chamber 26 and control chamber 43 may be pressurized.
At the appropriate instant for fuel injection to begin, which may be controlled by any suitable strategy, the winding 67 is energized. When this happens, the valve armature 62 will be attracted upwardly by the flux in the armature 68 so as to urge the stem portion 63 upwardly and open the valve 59 against the action of the spring 64. This will open the orifice 49 to rapidly deplete the pressure in the control chamber 43. The higher pressure of the fuel acting in the accumulator chamber 26 will then urge the injection valve 22 upwardly to its open position and permit fuel to issue from the nozzle port 13. When the fuel pressure in the accumulator 26 has been depleted, the spring 64 will move the injection valve 22 to its closed position and the fuel pressure can then build up in the accumulator chamber 26. This action is initiated by discontinuing the energization of the winding 67 so as to close the valve 59 and permit pressure in the control chamber 43 to again build up.
The amount of fuel injected can be varied by varying the lift distance of the injection valve 22 by energizing or deenergizing a coil 72 of a sub-electromagnetic assembly, indicated generally by the reference numeral 71, and which is positioned within the accumulator chamber 26 for adjusting the lift and/or for detecting the lift of the injection valve 22. The coil 72 is supported within the holder member 58. A regulating member 73 comprised of an armature 74 fixed on the upper end of a cylindrical guide portion 75 which is slidably supported within the bore 57 of the holder member 58 regulates the lift amount of the injection valve 22. The lower end of the cylindrical guide portion 75 is positioned above a stopper portion 76 of the injection valve 22 to define a smaller lift distance of the injection valve 22. A stopper plate 78 made of non-magnetic material is positioned above the armature 74 and has a contacting face 79 in contact with the lower end of the partitioning plate 27 so as to provide a stop surface for the regulating member 73 and to prevent transmission of stray magnetic flux paths through the partitioning plate 27. The contacting face 79 has radially extending grooves 80 for receiving pressurized fluid. A stopper plate 78 having a different thickness may be substituted to adjust the maximum lift of the regulating member 73 and thus the lift of the injection valve 22.
If injection of a larger amount of fuel is desired, the coil 72 is maintained in a de-energized state so as to allow the regulating member 73 to move freely between the top surface of the holder member 58 and the stopper plate 78. In this condition, the injection valve 22 will be urged upward the distance defined by the space between the top face of the shim plate 45 and the partitioning plate face 44. On the other hand, if injection of a smaller amount of fuel is desired, the coil 72 is energized. When this occurs, the armature 74 is attracted downwardly by the flux in holder member 58 so as to lower the cylindrical guide portion 75. In this state, the injection valve 22 will be moved upward the distance defined by the space between the lower end face of the guide portion 75 and the upper face of the injection valve stopper portion 76 so as to permit a smaller amount of fuel to issue from the nozzle port 13.
With this type of arrangement, the amount of fuel delivered to the combustion chamber during each cycle of operation can be controlled as well as the injection pattern so as to provide optimum fuel delivery and control.
In accordance with the invention, the wire of coil 67 has a larger diameter than the wire of coil 72 of the subelectromagnetic assembly 71, and coil 67 is also wound by a lesser number of turns. The coil 67 is also designed and operated so that, for a given voltage and resistance and inductance characteristics, the current in amperes (A) supplied to it is greater than its number of turns (T); that is, the amp-turn characteristics of coil 67 are given by the relationship: A is greater than T. With these characteristics, the peak magnetic flux produced by the coil 67 is reached very quickly when a relatively large current is supplied to the coil 67, thus giving the coil 67 relatively quick start-up characteristics.
On the other hand, the wire of coil 72 has a smaller diameter and coil 72 is wound by a greater number of turns. The design and operational characteristics of this coil 72 are such that, for a given voltage and resistance and inductance characteristics, the current in amperes (A) supplied to it is less than its number of turns (T); that is, the amp-turn characteristics of coil 72 is such that A is less than T. Hence, the resulting peak magnetic flux generated by coil 72 is reached more gradually, giving the coil 72 slower start-up characteristics.
In addition, the holder member 58 has a stepped portion 58a projected up around its axis which serves to form a gap, designated by A in FIG. 5, which functions as a magnetic circuit interrupting portion for abruptly reducing the magnetic flux applied to the armature 74 when the electric current being supplied to coil 72 is interrupted.
With this type of arrangement, the amount of fuel injected can be varied by changing the lift distance of the injection valve 22 between a smaller lift indicated by (1) in FIG. 7(i) and a larger lift indicated by (L) in FIG. 7(i) while substantially reducing the risk of either of the coils 67 or 72 suffering burn damage.
When injection of a smaller amount of fuel and hence the smaller lift distance (1) for the injection valve 22 is desired, a control signal is first transmitted to the electromagnetic assembly 71, as shown in FIG. 7(e), which causes a driving current to be supplied to coil 72 causing a magnetic flux to be generated by coil 72, as illustrated in FIGS. 7(f) and 7(g) respectively. When the magnetic flux in coil 72 reaches a predetermined magnitude, the armature 74 is attracted onto the holder member 58, as graphically shown in FIG. 7(h). Because the amp-turn characteristics of coil 72 are given by the relationship: A<T, the start-up characteristics of coil 72 is more gradual, as illustrated in FIGS. 7(g). Once peak magnetic flux is reached in coil 72 and movement of the regulating member 73 is completed, the coil 67 is energized to initiate fuel injection. This timing may vary depending on the characteristics of the coils 67 and 72; however, coil 67 should not be energized until movement of member 73 is completed.
After peak magnetic flux is applied to the regulating member 73 by coil 72 so as to complete movement of the regulating member 73, a control signal is transmitted to the electromagnetic assembly 65, as shown in FIG. 7(a), which initially causes a relatively large driving current to be supplied to coil 67 whereby peak magnetic flux in the coil 67 is generated very rapidly, as shown in FIGS. 7(b) and 7(c) respectively. This causes a rapid upward movement of valve armature 62 and stem 63 which, in turn, causes upward movement of the injection valve 22 until the stopper portion 76 engages the lower end face of the guide portion 75. Once the valve 59 is completely lifted and fuel injection occurs, the driving current for coil 67 is immediately decreased, as shown in FIG. 7(b), which results in a corresponding decrease in the peak magnetic flux generated by the coil 67.
When a larger amount of fuel and therefore a large lift distance (L) for the injection valve 22 is desired following a smaller injection, the control signal to the sub-electromagnetic assembly 71 is greatly reduced, as shown in FIG. 7(e), so as to abruptly interrupt the driving current being supplied to coil 72 (FIG. 7(f)), causing gradual reduction of its peak magnetic flux (FIG. 7(g)). This reduces the attracting force applied to the regulating member 73 so that the injection valve 22 may be lifted up the distance L, pushing up the regulating member 73 in the process, as illustrated in FIG. 7(i).
After this larger amount of fuel is injected, the control signal to the electromagnetic assembly 65 drops as illustrated in FIG. 7(a). The magnetic flux of coil 67 is then reduced through interruption of its driving current (FIGS. 7(c) and 7(b)), thereby causing the valve 59 to close the orifice 49 by action of the spring 64 which, in turn, causes the pressure in the control chamber 43 to again build up.
By employing a lift coil 72 which has slower start-up characteristics but which is able to achieve a relatively large magnetic flux during the small injection process without the need for a large current, and by utilizing an arrangement wherein energization of coil 72 occurs before energization of coil 67 so as to complete movement of the regulating member 73 before injection is initiated, the chance that coil 72 will be damaged by burning is greatly reduced. This also improves the durability of the electromagnetic assembly 71.
Moreover, the gap A created between the holder member 58 and the armature 74 permits the magnetic force applied to the regulating member 73 to be abruptly eliminated when the electric current supplied to the coil 72 is interrupted. As a result, the regulating member 73 is freed once the electric current is interrupted so that the lift distance of the injection valve 22 can be rapidly changed. This permits greater control accuracy of the injection process.
Referring again to FIGS. 1 and 2, a feeder wire structure is provided for energizing the coil 72 of the sub-electromagnetic assembly 71 so as to vary the lift distance of the injection valve 22, as desired. This structure includes a pair of bores 81 which extend axially through the cap 31 and cover member 15 in the periphery thereof to provide a wire passage for feeder wires to the coil 72. The feeder wires are defined by a pair of terminal feeder rods 82, preferably made of copper, which extend through the bores 81 with insulating sleeves 83 being interposed between holding portions 84 of the bores 81 and larger diameter portions 85 of the feeder rods 82. The larger diameter portions 85 of the feeder rods 82 are fixed to the inner surface of the insulating sleeves 83 with a high strength adhesive to withstand the high fuel pressure within the injection nozzle 11. A soft sealing adhesive 87 is interposed between a smaller diameter portion 88 of each feeder rod 82 and a sealing portion 89 of the bores 81. This sealing adhesive 87 is longitudinally compressed by the fuel pressure within the accumulator chamber 26 which acts on the lower end of the adhesive 87 causing it to radially expand so as to provide a strong seal around the smaller diameter portion 88 of each feeder rod 82 within the coil chamber 38. A nut 86 is affixed on the posts 90 of each rod 82 so as to afford attachment to an appropriate lead wire (not shown).
The lower ends of the smaller diameter portions 88 extend through circumferential grooves 91 in the partitioning plate 27 and are positioned in proximity to guide holes 92 in the spacer 40. A pair of wire harnesses 94 are connected to the coil 72 and extend downwardly through guide holes 95, and then upwardly through guide grooves 96 and 97, where the wires 94 are soldered to the lower ends of the smaller diameter portions 88.
With this type of feeder wire structure, the wire passages 81 can be sealed along their entire length to insure a sufficient seal against the high pressure which forms within the fuel injection nozzle 11, without the need for increasing the outer diameter of the injection nozzle 11. The seal is particularly effective when the wire passages 81 is formed in the cover member 15 or like structure which is originally formed thicker to accommodate the inlet conduit 33. This construction also eliminates the need for increasing the outer diameter of the injection nozzle 11. It should be noted that, although the wire passages 81 are formed through the cover member 15 in the preferred embodiment, these wire passages 81 may instead be formed through another structure in which the inlet conduit 33 is formed, for example, through the casing body 14 when the inlet conduit 33 is formed therein.
This type of feeder wire structure also provides for easy installation of the injection nozzle into the engine and permits the injection nozzle 11 to be oriented in any number of different positions within the engine without interference from the engine or other components.
Moreover, the cylindrical pipe portion 29 of the cover member 15 has a pair of knock pin holes 101 formed in the lower portion. Knock pins 102 are fitted into these pin holes 101 and extend downwardly through knock pin grooves 103, 104 and 105 formed through the periphery of the partitioning plate 27, the spacer 40 and the holder member 58 respectively, and are fitted into oppositely oriented knock pin holes 106 formed in the shoulder 28. These knock pins 102 serve to prevent these components from rotating relative to each other, and thus to prevent the feeder wire structure from becoming displaced.
It should be readily apparent from the foregoing description that the described fuel injection nozzle is constructed and arranged so as to improve its durability. The injection nozzle described herein is particularly adapted for supplying varying amounts of fuel to the engine while reducing the probability of coil burn damage occurring. It is to be understood, however, that the foregoing description is only that of a preferred embodiment of the invention, and that various changes and modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, as defined by the appended claims.
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|U.S. Classification||239/96, 239/533.4, 239/533.12, 239/585.1, 239/533.8|
|International Classification||F02M51/06, F02M59/46, F02M47/02, F02M61/16|
|Cooperative Classification||F02M47/027, F02M45/12, F02M61/161, F02M63/0017, F02M63/0068|
|European Classification||F02M63/00E2B1, F02M45/12, F02M63/00E10K, F02M47/02D, F02M61/16B|
|Aug 7, 1995||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Aug 16, 1999||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8