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Publication numberUSRE37101 E1
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 08/966,425
Publication dateMar 20, 2001
Filing dateNov 7, 1997
Priority dateJun 11, 1992
Fee statusPaid
Publication number08966425, 966425, US RE37101 E1, US RE37101E1, US-E1-RE37101, USRE37101 E1, USRE37101E1
InventorsGerbrand Deetman
Original AssigneeSolutia Inc.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Stabilized phosphate ester-based functional fluid compositions
US RE37101 E1
Abstract
A fluid composition suitable for use as an aircraft hydraulic fluid is disclosed. The fluid composition comprises a fire resistant phosphate ester base stock comprising between about 10% and about 100% by weight of a trialkyl phosphate, between about 0% and about 70% by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate, and from about 0% to about 25% by weight of an alkyl diaryl phosphate, with the proviso that the sum of the proportionate amount of each base stock component must equal 100%. The alkyl substituents of the trialkyl phosphate, the dialkyl aryl phosphate, and the alkyl diaryl phosphate contain between 3 and 8 carbon atoms, preferably between 4 and 8 carbon atoms, more preferably between 4 and 5 carbon atoms, and are bonded to the phosphate moiety via a primary carbon. It is still further preferred that the alkyl substituents of the trialkyl phosphate, the dialkyl aryl phosphate, and the alkyl diaryl phosphate are isoalkyl groups. The fluid composition further comprises an acid scavenger, an anti-erosion additive, a viscosity index improver, and an antioxidant. A novel additive combination comprises a high molecular weight butyl/hexyl methacrylate viscos ity index improver, a perfluoroalkylsulfonate anti-erosion additive, a 3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate or a diepoxide acid scavenger, a di(alkylphenyl)amine, and a phenolic antioxidant comprising a mixture of a 2,4,6-trialkylphenol and a hindered polyphenol compound selected from the group consisting of bis(3,5-dialkyl-4-hydroxyaryl)methane, 1,3,5-trialkyl-2,4,6-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyaryl)benzene and mixtures thereof. Preferably, the fluid composition further comprises a benzotriazole derivative as a copper corrosion inhibitor, and a 4,5-dihydroimidazole derivative, as an iron corrosion inhibitor and to enhance the stability of the fluid. The issued reissue patent is the reexamination certificate.
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Claims(118)
What is claimed is:
1. A fluid composition suitable for use as an aircraft hydraulic fluid, comprising:
(a) a fire resistant phosphate ester base stock, the basic stock comprising between about 50% and about 85% by weight of a trialkyl phosphate in which the alkyl substituents are substantially isoalkyl C4 or C5 and are bonded to the phosphate moiety via a primary carbon atom, between about 18% and about 35% by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate in which the alkyl substituents are as previously defined, and between about 0% and about 5% by weight of an alkyl diaryl phosphate in which the alkyl substituent is as previously defined, with the proviso that the sum of the proportionate amount of each base stock component must equal 100%;
(b) an acid scavenger in an amount effective to neutralize phosphoric acid and phosphoric acid partial esters formed in situ by hydrolysis of any of the phosphate esters of said base stock, wherein said acid scavenger comprises an epoxide compound;
(c) an anti-erosion additive in an amount effective to inhibit flow-induced electrochemical or zeta corrosion of the flow-metering edges of hydraulic servo valves in hydraulic systems, wherein said anti-erosion additive comprises an alkali metal salt of a perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid;
(d) a viscosity index improver in an amount effective to cause the fluid composition to exhibit a viscosity of at least about 3.0 centistokes at about 210° F., at least about 9.0 centistokes at about 100° F., and less than about 4200 centistokes at −65° F., wherein said viscosity index improver comprises a methacrylate ester polymer at least 95% by weight of the polymer having a molecular weight of between about 50,000 and 1,500,000 ; and
(e) an antioxidant in an amount effective to inhibit oxidation of fluid composition components in the presence of oxidizing agents, wherein said antioxidant is selected from the group consisting of at least one hindered phenol and a combination of at least one hindered phenol and at least one amine compound.
2. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 1 wherein said dialkyl aryl phosphate is a dialkyl phenyl phosphate.
3. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 1 wherein the viscosity index improver is present in an amount effective to cause the fluid composition to exhibit a viscosity between about 3 and about 5 centistokes at about 210° F. and between about 9 and about 15 centistokes at 100° F.
4. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 1 containing a viscosity index improver in a proportion of between about 3% and about 10% by weight of the fluid composition.
5. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 1 91containing a 2,4,6-trialkylphenol in a proportion of between about 0.1% and about 1.0% by weight of the fluid composition, a di(alkylphenyl)amine in a proportion of between about 0.3% and about 1.0% by weight of the fluid composition, and a hindered polyphenol selected from the group consisting of bis(3,5-dialkyl-4-hydroxyaryl)methane and 1,3,5-trialkyl-2,4,6-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyaryl)benzene and mixtures thereof, in a proportion of between about 0.3% and about 1.0% by weight of the fluid composition.
6. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 2 wherein phosphate esters containing an aryl substituent do not constitute more than about 25% by weight of the base stock.
7. A fluid composition suitable for use as an aircraft hydraulic fluid, comprising:
(a) a fire resistant phosphate ester base stock comprising between about 10% and about 90% of a trialkyl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituents are substantially isoalkyl C4 and C5 and are bonded to the phosphate moiety via a primary carbon atom, between about 0% and about 70% by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituents are as previously defined, and between about 0% and about 25% by weight of an alkyl diaryl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituent is as previously defined, with the proviso that the sum of the proportionate amount of each base stock component must equal 100%;
(b) a viscosity index improver in a proportion of between about 3% and about 10% by weight of the fluid composition, the viscosity index improver comprising a methacrylate ester polymer, the repeating units of which substantially comprise butyl and hexyl methacrylate, at least 95% by weight of the polymer having a molecular weight of between about 50,000 and about 1,500,000;
(c) an anti-erosion agent in a proportion of between about 0.02% and about 0.08% by weight of the fluid composition, the anti-erosion agent comprising an alkali metal salt of a perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid, the alkyl substituent of which is selected from the group consisting of hexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl, decyl, and mixtures thereof;
(d) an acid scavenger in a proportion of between about 1.5% and about 10% by weight of the fluid composition, the acid scavenger comprising an epoxide compound;
(e) a 2,4,6-trialkylphenol in a proportion of between about 0.1% and about 1.0% by weight of the fluid composition;
(f) a di(alkylphenyl)amine in a proportion of between about 0.3% and about 1.0% by weight of the fluid composition; and
(g) a hindered polyphenol selected from the group consisting of bis(3,5-dialkyl-4-hydroxyaryl)methane, 1,3,5-trimethyl-2,4,6-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl)-4 -hydroxyaryl)benzene and mixtures thereof in a proportion of between about 0.3% and about 1.0% by weight of the fluid composition.
8. A fluid composition suitable for use as an aircraft hydraulic fluid, comprising:
(a) a fire resistant phosphate ester base stock comprising between about 10% and about 90% by weight of a trialkyl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituents are substantially isoalkyl C4 or C5 and are bonded to the phosphate moiety via a primary carbon atom, between about 0% and about 70% by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituents are as previously defined, and between about 0% and about 25% by weight of an alkyl diaryl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituent is as previously defined, with the proviso that the sum of the proportionate amount of each base stock component must equal 100%;
(b) a viscosity index improver in a proportion of between about 3% and about 10% by weight of the fluid composition, the viscosity index improver comprising a methacrylate ester polymer, the repeating units of which substantially comprise butyl and hexyl methacrylate, at least 95% by weight of the polymer having a molecular weight of between about 50,000 and about 1,500,000;
(c) an anti-erosion agent in a proportion of between about 0.02% and about 0.08% by weight of the fluid composition, the anti-erosion agent comprising an alkali metal salt of a perfluoroalkylsulfonic acid, the alkyl substituent of which is selected from the group consisting of hexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl, decyl, and mixtures thereof;
(d) an acid scavenger in a proportion of between about 1.5% and about 10% by weight of the composition, the acid scavenger selected from the group consisting of a derivative of a 3,4-epoxy cyclohexane carboxylate and a diepoxide compound corresponding to the formula
wherein R3 is an organic group containing 1 to 10 carbon atoms, from 0 to 6 oxygen atoms and from 0 to 6 nitrogen atoms, and R4 through R9 are independently selected from among hydrogen and aliphatic groups containing 1 to 5 carbon atoms, and mixtures of the 3,4-epoxycyclohexane carboxylate and the diepoxide compound;
(e) 2,4,6-trialkylphenol in a proportion of between about 0.1% and about 1.0% by weight of the composition;
(f) a di(alkylphenyl)amine in a proportion of between about 0.3% and about 1.0% by weight of the fluid composition; and
(g) a hindered polyphenol selected from the group consisting of bis(3,5-dialkyl-4-hydroxyaryl)methane, 1,3,5-trimethyl-2,4,6-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4 -hydroxyaryl)benzene, and mixtures thereof in a proportion of between about 0.3% and about 1.0% by weight of the fluid composition.
9. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 8 further comprising benzotriazole or a benzotriazole derivative in a proportion of between about 0,005 0.005% and about 0.09% as a copper corrosion inhibitor.
10. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 8 further comprising between about 0.0035% and about 0.010% by weight of an alkali metal arenate.
11. A fluid composition suitable for use as an aircraft hydraulic fluid, comprising:
(a) a fire resistant phosphate ester base stock comprising between about 35% and about 90% by weight of a trialkyl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituents are substantially isoalkyl C4 and C5 and are bonded to the phosphate moiety via a primary carbon atom, between about 0% and about 35% by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituents are as previously defined, and between about 0% and about 20% by weight of a triaryl phosphate, with the proviso that the sum of the proportionate amount of each base stock component must equal 100%;
(b) a viscosity index improver in a proportion of between about 3% and about 10% by weight of the fluid composition, the viscosity index improver comprising a methacrylate ester polymer, the repeating units of which substantially comprise butyl and hexyl methacrylate, at least 95% by weight of the polymer having a molecular weight of between about 50,000 and about 1,500,000;
(c) an anti-erosion agent in a proportion of between about 0.02% and about 0.08% by weight of the fluid composition, the anti-erosion agent comprising an alkali metal salt of a perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid, the alkyl substituent of which is selected from the group consisting of hexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl, decyl, and mixtures thereof;
(d) an acid scavenger in a proportion of between about 1.5% and about 10% by weight of the fluid composition, the acid scavenger selected from the group consisting of a derivative of a 3,4-epoxy cyclohexane carboxylate and a diepoxide compound corresponding to the formula
wherein R3 is an organic group containing 1 to 10 carbon atoms, from 0 to 6 oxygen atoms, and from 0 to 6 nitrogen atoms, and R4 through R9 are independently selected from among hydrogen and aliphatic groups containing 1 to 5 carbon atoms, and mixtures of the 3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate and the diepoxide compound;
(e) a 2,4,6-trialkylphenol in a proportion or between about 0.1% and about 1.0% by weight of the fluid composition;
(f) a di(alkylphenyl)amine in a proportion of between about 0.3% and about 1.0% by weight of the fluid composition; and
(g) a hindered polyphenol selected from the group consisting of bis(3,5-dialkyl-4-hydroxyaryl) methane, 1,3,5-trimethyl-2,4,6-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyaryl)benzene and mixtures thereof in a proportion of between about 0.3% and about 1.0% by weight of the fluid composition.
12. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 11 wherein the base stock comprises between about 80% and about 90% by weight of the trialkyl phosphate and between about 10% and about 208 by weight of a tri(alkylaryl)phosphate.
13. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 12 wherein the tri(alkylaryl) phosphate is selected from the group consisting of tri(isopropylphenyl)phosphate, tri(isobutylphenyl)phosphate, and tri(tert-butylphenyl)phosphate.
14. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 8 wherein the base stock comprises between about 10% and about 72% by weight of the trialkyl phosphate, between about 18% and about 70% by weight of the dialkyl aryl phosphate, and between about 0% and about 25% by weight of the alkyl diaryl phosphate.
15. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 14 wherein the base stock comprises between about 10% and about 25% by weight of the trialkyl phosphate, between about 45% and about 70% by weight of the dialkyl aryl phosphate, and between about 5% and about 25% by weight of the alkyl diaryl phosphate.
16. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 14 wherein the base stock comprises between about 50% and about 72% by weight of the trialkyl phosphate, between about 18% and about 35% by weight of the dialkyl aryl phosphate, and between about 0% and about 10% by weight of the alkyl diaryl phosphate.
17. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 8 wherein the base stock contains between about 0% and about 5% by weight of the alkyl diaryl phosphate.
18. A composition as set forth in claim 8 wherein said alkyl substituents are substantially isobutyl or isopentyl.
19. A fluid composition suitable for use as an aircraft hydraulic fluid, comprising:
(a) a fire resistant phosphate ester base stock, the base stock comprising between about 10 and about 90% by weight of a trialkyl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituents are substantially isobutyl or isopentyl and are bonded to the phosphate moiety via a primary carbon atom, between about 0% and about 70% by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituents are as previously defined, and between about 0% and about 25% by weight of an alkyl diaryl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituent is as previously defined, with the proviso that the sum of the proportionate amount of each base stock component must equal 100%;
(b) an acid scavenger in an amount effective to neutralize phosphoric acid partial esters formed in situ by hydrolysis of any of the phosphate esters of the base stock, wherein said acid scavenger comprises an epoxide compound;
(c) an anti-erosion additive in an amount effective to inhibit flow-induced electrochemical or zeta corrosion of the flow-metering edges of hydraulic servo valves in hydraulic systems, wherein said anti-erosion additive comprises an alkali metal salt of a perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid;
(d) a viscosity index improver in an amount effective to cause the fluid composition to exhibit a viscosity of at least about 3.0 centistokes at about 210° F., at least about 9.0 centistokes at about 100° F., and less than about 4200 centistokes at −65° F., wherein said viscosity index improver comprises a methacrylate ester polymer at least 95% by weight of the polymer having a molecular weight of between about 50,000 and 1,500,000 ; and
(e) an antioxidant in an amount effective to inhibit oxidation of fluid composition components in the presence of oxidizing agents, wherein said antioxidant is selected from the group consisting of at least one hindered phenol and a combination of at least one hindered phenol and at least one amine compound.
20. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 19 wherein the trialkyl phosphate is triisobutyl phosphate and the dialkyl aryl phosphate is diisobutyl phenyl phosphate.
21. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 19 further comprising benzotriazole or a benzotriazole derivative in a proportion of between about 0.005% and about 0.09% by weight as a copper corrosion inhibitor.
22. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 19 further comprising a 4,5-dihydroimidazole compound corresponding to the formula
where R1 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, hydroxyalkyl, hydroxyalkenyl, alkoxyalkyl and alkoxyalkenyl, and R2 is selected from the group consisting of alkyl, alkenyl and aliphatic carboxylate.
23. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 22 wherein the 4,5-dihydroimidazole is selected from the group consisting of 2-(8-heptadecenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole-1-ethanol and the condensation product of a C14 to C18 fatty acid and 4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole.
24. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 23 wherein the 4,5-dihydroimidazole compound is the condensation product of a C16 to C18 fatty acid and 4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole.
25. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 22 19wherein the hindered phenol antioxidant comprises a mixture of a hindered phenol and a hindered polyphenol.
26. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 25 wherein the hindered phenol polyphenol comprises a hindered polyphenol compound selected from the group consisting of bis (3,5-dialkyl-4-hydroxyaryl)methane, 1,3,5-trialkyl-2,4,6-tris(3,5 -di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyaryl) benzene, and mixtures thereof.
27. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 25 wherein the antioxidant further comprises an amine compound.
28. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 27 25wherein the antioxidant amine compound is a diarylamine.
29. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 28 wherein the diarylamine is di(p-octylphenyl)amine.
30. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 28 further comprising up to about 0.7% by weight of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol.
31. A fluid composition suitable for use as an aircraft hydraulic fluid, comprising:
(a) a fire resistant phosphate ester base stock, the base stock comprising between about 10% and about 90% by weight of a trialkyl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituents are substantially isoalkyl C4 or C5 and are bonded to the phosphate moiety via a primary carbon atom, between about 0% and about 70% by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituents are as previously defined, and between about 0% and about 25% by weight of an alkyl diaryl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituent is as previously defined;
(b) an acid scavenger in an amount effective to neutralize phosphoric acid and phosphoric acid partial esters formed in situ by hydrolysis of any of the phosphate esters of the base stock, wherein said acid scavenger comprises an epoxide compound;
(c) an anti-erosion additive in an amount effective to inhibit flow-induced electrochemical or zeta corrosion of the flow-metering edges of hydraulic servo valves in hydraulic systems, wherein said anti-erosion additive comprises an alkali metal salt of a perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid;
(d) a viscosity index improver in an amount effective to cause the fluid composition to exhibit a viscosity of at least about 3.0 centistokes at about 210° F., at least about 9.0 centistokes at about 100° F., and less than about 4200 centistokes at −65° F., wherein said viscosity index improver comprises a methacrylate ester polymer at least 95% by weight of the polymer having a molecular weight of between about 50,000 and 1,500,000 ;
(e) an antioxidant in an amount effective to inhibit oxidation of fluid composition components in the presence of oxidizing agents, wherein said antioxidant is selected from the group consisting of at least one hindered phenol and a combination of at least one hindered phenol and at least one amine compound; and
(f) a 4,5-dihydroimidazole compound in an amount effective to increase the stability of the composition by at least 25% at 300° F. as measured by epoxide depletion, the 4,5-dihydroimidazole compound corresponding to the formula
wherein R1 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, hydroxyalkyl, hydroxyalkenyl, alkoxyalkyl and alkoxyalkenyl, and R2 is selected from the group consisting of alkyl, alkenyl and aliphatic carboxylate.
32. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 31 wherein R1 is hydrogen or lower alkyl and R2 is a fatty acid residue.
33. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 31 wherein R1 is hydroxyalkyl and R2 is alkenyl.
34. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 31 wherein the 4,5-dihydroimidazole is selected from the group consisting of 2-(8-heptadecenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole-1-ethanol and the condensation product of a C14 to C18 fatty acid and 4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole.
35. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 34 wherein the 4,5-dihydroimidazole compound is the condensation product of a C16 to C18 fatty acid and 4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole.
36. A composition as set forth in claim 35 wherein said alkyl substituents of said trialkyl phosphate and said dialkyl aryl phosphate are substantially isobutyl or isopentyl.
37. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 31 wherein the hindered phenol antioxidant comprises a mixture of a hindered phenol and a hindered polyphenol.
38. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 37 wherein the hindered phenol polyphenol comprises a hindered polyphenol compound selected from the group consisting of bis(3,5-dialkyl-4-hydroxyaryl)methane, 1,3,5-trialkyl-2,4,6-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyaryl)benzene, and mixtures thereof.
39. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 37 wherein the antioxidant further comprises an amine compound.
40. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 39 31further comprisingwherein the antioxidant amine compound is a diarylamine antioxidant .
41. A composition as set forth in claim 40 wherein said diarylamine comprises di(p-octylphenyl)amine.
42. A composition as set forth in claim 40 further comprising up to about 1.0% by weight of 2,6-di-tertiary-butyl p-cresol.
43. A composition as set forth in claim 31 wherein said alkyl substituents of said trialkyl phosphate and said dialkyl aryl phosphate are substantially isobutyl or isopentyl.
44. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 1 wherein the viscosity index improver is a methacrylate ester polymer, the repeating units of which substantially comprise butyl and hexyl methacrylate, at least 95% by weight of the polymer having a molecular weight of between about 50,000 and about 1,500,000.
45. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 19 further comprising an anti-foam agent.
46. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 45 wherein the anti-foam agent is a polyalkylsiloxane.
47. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 46 wherein the polyalkylsiloxane is polymethylsiloxane.
48. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 45 wherein the anti-foam agent is present in a concentration of from about 0.0001% to about 0.001% by weight of the fluid composition.
49. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 48 wherein the anti-foam agent is present in a concentration of about 0.0005% by weight of the fluid composition.
50. A fluid composition suitable for use as an aircraft hydraulic fluid, comprising:
(a) a fire resistant phosphate ester base stock, the base stock comprising between about 10% and about 100% by weight of a trialkyl phosphate in which the alkyl substituents are substantially isoalkyl C4 or C5 and are bonded to the phosphate moiety via a primary carbon atom, between about 0% and about 70% by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate in which the alkyl substituents are as previously defined, and between about 0% and about 25% by weight of an alkyl diaryl phosphate in which the alkyl substituent is as previously defined, with the proviso that the sum of the proportionate amount of each base stock component must equal 100%;
(b) an acid scavenger in an amount effective to neutralize phosphoric acid partial esters formed in situ by hydrolysis of any of the phosphate esters of the base stock, wherein said acid scavenger comprises an epoxide compound;
(c) an anti-erosion additive in an amount effective to inhibit flow-induced electrochemical or zeta corrosion of the flow-metering edges of hydraulic servo valves in hydraulic systems, wherein said anti-erosion additive comprises an alkali metal salt of a perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid;
(d) a viscosity index improver in an amount effective to cause the fluid composition to exhibit a viscosity of at least about 3.0 centistokes at about 210° F., at least about 9.0 centistokes at about 100° F., and less than about 4200 centistokes at −65° F., wherein said viscosity index improver comprises a methacrylate ester polymer at least 95% by weight of the polymer having a molecular weight of between about 50,000 and 1,500,000 ; and
(e) an antioxidant in an amount effective to inhibit oxidation of fluid composition components in the presence of oxidizing agents, wherein said antioxidant is selected from the group consisting of at least one hindered phenol and a combination of at least one hindered phenol and at least one amine compound.
51. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 50 further comprising benzotriazole or a benzotriazole derivative in a proportion of between about 0.005% and about 0.09% by weight as a copper corrosion inhibitor.
52. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 50 or 51 further comprising a 4,5-dihydroimidazole compound corresponding to the formula
wherein R1 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, hydroxyalkyl, hydroxyalkenyl, alkoxyalkyl and alkoxyalkenyl, and R2 is selected from the group consisting of alkyl, alkenyl and aliphatic carboxylate.
53. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 52 wherein the 4,5-dihydroimidazole compound is present in a proportion of between about 0.01% and about 0.1% by weight of the fluid composition.
54. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 52 wherein the 4,5-dihydroimidazole is selected from the group consisting of 2-(8-heptadecenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole-1-ethanol and the condensation product of a C14 to C15 fatty acid and 4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole.
55. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 54 wherein the 4,5-dihydroimidazole compound is the condensation product of a C16 to C18 fatty acid and 4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole.
56. A fluid composition suitable for use as an aircraft hydraulic fluid, comprising:
(a) a fire resistant phosphate ester base stock, said base stock comprising between about 10% and about 100% by weight of a trialkyl phosphate in which the alkyl substituents are substantially isoalkyl C4 or C5 and are bonded to the phosphate moiety via a primary carbon atom, between about 0% and about 70% by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate in which the alkyl substituents are as previously defined, and between about 0% and about 25% by weight of an alkyl diaryl phosphate in which the alkyl substituent is as previously defined, with the proviso that the sum of the proportionate amount of each base stock component must equal 100%;
(b) an acid scavenger in an amount effective to neutralize phosphoric acid and phosphoric acid partial esters formed in situ by hydrolysis of any of the phosphate esters of the base stock, wherein said acid scavenger comprises an epoxide compound;
(c) an anti-erosion additive in an amount effective to inhibit flow-induced electrochemical or zeta corrosion of the flow-metering edges of hydraulic servo valves in hydraulic systems, wherein said anti-erosion additive comprises an alkali metal salt of a perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid;
(d) a viscosity index improver in an amount effective to cause the fluid composition to exhibit a viscosity of at least about 3.0 centistokes at about 210° F., at least about 9.0 centistokes at about 100° F., and less than about 4200 centistokes at −65° F., wherein said viscosity index improver comprises a methacrylate ester polymer at least 95% by weight of the polymer having a molecular weight of between about 50,000 and 1,500,000 ; and
(e) an antioxidant in an amount effective to inhibit oxidation of fluid composition components in the presence of oxidizing agents, wherein said antioxidant is selected from the group consisting of at least one hindered phenol and a combination of at least one hindered phenol and at least one amine compound.
57. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 56 wherein the phosphate esters containing an aryl substituent do not constitute more than about 25% by weight of the base stock.
58. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 56 wherein the viscosity index improver is present in a proportion of between about 3% and about 10% by weight of the fluid composition.
59. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 56wherein the viscosity index improver is a methacrylate ester polymer, the repeating units of which substantially comprise butyl and hexyl methacrylate, at least 95% by weight of the polymer having a molecular weight of between about 50,000 and about 1,500,000wherein the hindered phenol antioxidant comprises a mixture of a hindered phenol and a hindered polyphenol.
60. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 56 98wherein the antioxidant comprises a 2,4,6-trialkylphenol in a proportion of between about 0.1% and about 1.0% by weight of the composition, a di(alkylphenyl)amine in a proportion of between about 0.3% and about 1.0% by weight of the fluid composition, and a hindered polyphenol selected from the group consisting of bis(3,5-dialkyl-4-hydroxyaryl)methane and 1,3,5-trialkyl-2,4,6-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyaryl)benzene, and mixtures thereof, in a proportion of between about 0.3% and about 1.0% by weight of the fluid composition.
61. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 60 wherein the 2,4,6-trialkylphenol is 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol and the hindered polyphenol is selected from the group consisting of bis (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)methane, 1,3,5-trimethyl-2,4,6-tris (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4 -hydroxyphenyl)benzene, and mixtures thereof.
62. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 56 further comprising benzotriazole or a benzotriazole derivative in a proportion of between about 0.005% and about 0.09% by weight as a copper corrosion inhibitor.
63. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 56 or 62 further comprising a 4,5-dihydroimidazole compound corresponding to the formula
where R1 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, hydroxyalkyl, hydroxyalkenyl, alkoxyalkyl and alkoxyalkenyl, and R2 is selected from the group consisting of alkyl, alkenyl and aliphatic carboxylate.
64. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 63 wherein the 4,5-dihydroimidazole compound is present in a proportion of between about 0.01% and about 0.1% by weight of the fluid composition.
65. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 63 wherein the 4,5-dihydroimidazole is selected from the group consisting of 2-(8-heptadecenyl)-4,5 -dihydro-1H-imidazole-1-ethanol and the condensation product of a C14 to C18 fatty acid and 4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole.
66. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 65 wherein the 4,5-dihydroimidazole compound is the condensation product of a C6 to C8 fatty acid and 4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole.
67. A fluid composition suitable for use as an aircraft hydraulic fluid, comprising:
(a) a fire resistant phosphate ester base stock, the base stock comprising between about 10% and about 100% by weight of a trialkyl phosphate in which the alkyl substituents are substantially isoalkyl C4 or C5 and are bonded to the phosphate moiety via a primary carbon atom, between about 0% and about 35% by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate in which the alkyl substituents are as previously defined, and between about 0% and about 20% by weight of a triaryl phosphate, with the proviso that the sum of the proportionate amount of each base stock component must equal 100%;
(b) an acid scavenger in an amount effective to neutralize phosphoric acid partial esters formed in situ by hydrolysis of any of the phosphate esters of the base stock, wherein said acid scavenger comprises an epoxide compound;
(c) an anti-erosion additive in an amount effective to inhibit flow-induced electrochemical or zeta corrosion of the flow-metering edges of hydraulic servo valves in hydraulic systems, wherein said anti-erosion additive comprises an alkali metal salt of a perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid;
(d) a viscosity index improver in an amount effective to cause the fluid composition to exhibit a viscosity of at least about 3.0 centistokes at about 210° F., at least about 9.0 centistokes at about 100° F., and less than about 4200 centistokes at −65° F., wherein said viscosity index improver comprises a methacrylate ester polymer at least 95% by weight of the polymer having a molecular weight of between about 50,000 and 1,500,000 ; and
(e) an antioxidant in an amount effective to inhibit oxidation of fluid composition components in the presence of oxidizing agents, wherein said antioxidant is selected from the group consisting of at least one hindered phenol and a combination of at least one hindered phenol and at least one amine compound.
68. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 67 wherein the phosphate esters containing an aryl substituent do not constitute more than about 25% by weight of the base stock.
69. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 67 wherein the viscosity index improver is present in a proportion of between about 3% and about 10% by weight of the fluid composition.
70. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 67wherein the viscosity index improver is a methacrylate ester polymer, the repeating units of which substantially comprise butyl and hexyl methacrylate, at least 95% by weight of the polymer having a molecular weight of between about 50,000 and about 1,500,000wherein the hindered phenol antioxidant comprises a mixture of a hindered phenol and a hindered polyphenol.
71. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 67 99wherein the antioxidant comprises a 2,4,6-trialkylphenol in a proportion of between about 0.1% and about 1.0% by weight of the composition, a di(alkylphenyl)amine in a proportion of between about 0.3% and about 1.0% by weight of the fluid composition, and a hindered polyphenol selected from the group consisting of bis(3,5-dialkyl-4-hydroxyaryl)methane and 1,3,5-trialkyl-2,4,6-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyaryl)benzene, and mixtures thereof, in a proportion of between about 0.3% and about 1.0% by weight of the fluid composition.
72. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 71 wherein the 2,4,6-trialkylphenol is 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol and the hindered polyphenol is selected from the group consisting of bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)methane, 1,3,5-trimethyl-2,4,6-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)benzene, and mixtures thereof.
73. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 67 further comprising benzotriazole or a benzotriazole derivative in a proportion of between about 0.005% and about 0.09% by weight as a copper corrosion inhibitor.
74. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 67 or 73 further comprising a 4,5-dihydroimidazole compound corresponding to the formula
where R1 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, hydroxyalkyl, hydroxyalkenyl, alkoxyalkyl and alkoxyalkenyl, and R2 is selected from the group consisting of alkyl, alkenyl and aliphatic carboxylate.
75. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 74 wherein the 4,5-dihydroimidazole compound is present in a proportion of between about 0.01% and about 0.1% by weight of the fluid composition.
76. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 74 wherein the 4,5-dihydroimidazole is selected from the group consisting of 2-(8-heptadecenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole-1-ethanol and the condensation product of a C14 to C15 fatty acid and 4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole.
77. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 16 wherein the 4,5-dihydroimidazole compound is the condensation product of a C16 to C18 fatty acid and 4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole.
78. A fluid composition suitable for use as an aircraft hydraulic fluid, comprising:
(a) a fire resistant phosphate ester base stock comprising between about 35% and about 99% by weight of a trialkyl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituents are substantially isoalkyl C4 or C5 and are bonded to the phosphate moiety via a primary carbon atom, between about 0% and about 35% by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituents are as previously defined, and between about 0% and about 20% by weight of a triaryl phosphate, with the proviso that the sum of the proportionate amount of each base stock component must equal 100%;
(b) a viscosity index improver in a proportion of between about 3% and about 10% by weight of the fluid composition, the viscosity index improver comprising a methacrylate ester polymer, the repeating units of which substantially comprise butyl and hexyl methacrylate, at least 95% by weight of the polymer having a molecular weight of between about 50,000 and about 1,500,000;
(c) an anti-erosion agent in a proportion of between about 0.02% and about 0.08% by weight of the fluid composition, the anti-erosion agent comprising an alkali metal salt of a perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid, the alkyl substituent of which is selected from the group consisting of hexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl, decyl, and mixtures there of;
(d) an acid scavenger in a proportion of between about 1.5% and about 10% by weight of the fluid composition, the acid scavenger selected from the group consisting of a derivative of a 3,4-epoxy cyclohexane carboxylate and a diepoxide compound corresponding to the formula
wherein R3 is an organic group containing 1 to 10 carbon atoms, from 0 to 6 oxygen atoms and from 0 to 6 nitrogen atoms, and R4 through R9 are independently selected from among hydrogen and aliphatic groups containing 1 to 5 carbon atoms, and mixtures of the 3,4-epoxycyclohexane carboxylate and the diepoxide compound;
(e) 2,4,6-trialkylphenol in a proportion of between about 0.1% and about 1.0% by weight of the fluid composition;
(f) a di(alkylphenyl)amine in a proportion of between about 0.3% and about 1.0% by weight of the fluid composition; and
(g) a hindered polyphenol selected from the group consisting of bis(3,5-dialkyl-4-hydroxyaryl)methane, 1,3,5-trimethyl-2,4,6-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyaryl)benzene and mixtures thereof in a proportion of between about 0.3% and about 1.0% by weight of the fluid composition.
79. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 78 wherein the base stock comprises between about 80% and about 99% by weight of the trialkyl phosphate and between about 1.0% and about 20% by weight of the triaryl phosphate wherein the aryl substituents are alkyl-substituted phenyl.
80. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 79 wherein the alkyl substituent of the alkyl-substituted phenyl is C2 to C9.
81. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 80 wherein the alkyl substituent of the alkyl-substituted phenyl is C3 to C4.
82. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 81 wherein the alkyl-substituted phenyl is selected from the group consisting of isopropylphenyl, isobutylphenyl, and tert-butylphenyl.
83. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 79 wherein the triaryl phosphate is a tri(alkylaryl) phosphate selected from the group consisting of tri(isopropylphenyl)phosphate, tri(isobutylphenyl) phosphate, and tri(tert-butylphenyl) phosphate.
84. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 83 wherein the tri(alkylaryl) phosphate is tri(tert-butylphenyl) phosphate.
85. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 78 further comprising benzotriazole or a benzotriazole derivative in a proportion of between about 0.005% and about 0.09% by weight as a copper corrosion inhibitor.
86. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 78 or 85 further comprising a 4,5-dihydroimidazole compound corresponding to the formula
where R1 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl alkenyl, hydroxyalkyl, hydroxyalkenyl, alkoxyalkyl and alkoxyalkenyl, and R2 is selected from the group consisting of alkyl, alkenyl and aliphatic carboxylate.
87. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 86 wherein the 4,5-dihydroimidazole compound is present in a proportion of between about 0.01% and about 0.1% by weight of the fluid composition.
88. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 86 wherein the 4,5-dihydroimidazole is selected from the group consisting of 2-(8-heptadecenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole-1-ethanol and the condensation product of a C14 to C18 fatty acid and 4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole.
89. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 88 wherein the 4,5-dihydroimidazole compound is the condensation product of a C16 to C18 fatty acid and 4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole.
90. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 1 wherein the hindered phenol antioxidant comprises a mixture of a hindered phenol and a hindered polyphenol.
91. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 90 wherein the amine antioxidant is a diaryl amine.
92. A fluid composition as a set forth in claim 1 wherein said epoxide acid scavenger is selected from the group consisting of a derivative of a 3,4-epoxy cyclohexane carboxylate and a diepoxide compound corresponding to the formula
wherein R 3 is an organic group containing 1 to 10 carbon atoms, from 0 to 6 oxygen atoms and from 0 to 6 nitrogen atoms, and R 4 through R 9 are independently selected from among hydrogen and aliphatic groups containing 1 to 5 carbon atoms, and mixtures of the 3,4- epoxycyclohexane carboxylate and the diepoxide compound.
93. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 7 wherein said epoxide acid scavenger is selected from the group consisting of a derivative of a 3,4-epoxy cyclohexane carboxylate and a diepoxide compound corresponding to the formula
wherein R 3 is an organic group containing 1 to 10 carbon atoms, from 0 to 6 oxygen atoms and from 0 to 6 nitrogen atoms, and R 4 through R 9 are independently selected from among hydrogen and aliphatic groups containing 1 to 5 carbon atoms, and mixtures of the 3,4 -epoxycyclohexane carboxylate and the diepoxide compound.
94. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 50 wherein the hindered phenol antioxidant comprises a mixture of a hindered phenol and a hindered polyphenol.
95. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 94 wherein the amine antioxidant is a diaryl amine.
96. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 95 containing a 2,4,6-trialkylphenol in a proportion of between about 0.1 and about 1.0 % by weight of the fluid composition, a di(alkylphenyl)amine in a proportion of between about 0.3 % and about 1.0 % by weight of the fluid composition, and a hindered polyphenol selected from the group consisting of bis( 3,5 -dialkyl- 4 -hydroxyaryl)methane and 1,3,5 -trialkyl- 2,4,6 -tris( 3,5 -di-tert-butyl- 4 -hydroxyaryl)benzene and mixtures thereof, in a proportion of between about 0.3 % and about 1.0 % by weight of the fluid composition.
97. A fluid composition as a set forth in claim 50 wherein said epoxide acid scavenger is selected from the group consisting of a derivative of a 3,4-epoxy cyclohexane carboxylate and a diepoxide compound corresponding to the formula
wherein R 3 is an organic group containing 1 to 10 carbon atoms, from 0 to 6 oxygen atoms and from 0 to 6 nitrogen atoms, and R 4 through R 9 are independently selected from among hydrogen and aliphatic groups containing 1 to 5 carbon atoms, and mixtures of the 3,4 -epoxycyclohexane carboxylate and the diepoxide compound.
98. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 59 wherein the amine antioxidant is a diaryl amine.
99. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 70 wherein the amine antioxidant is a diaryl amine.
100. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 19 wherein said epoxide acid scavenger is selected from the group consisting of a derivative of a 3,4-epoxy cyclohexane carboxylate and a diepoxide compound corresponding to the formula
wherein R 3 is an organic group containing 1 to 10 carbon atoms, from 0 to 6 oxygen atoms and from 0 to 6 nitrogen atoms, and R 4 through R 9 are independently selected from among hydrogen and aliphatic groups containing 1 to 5 carbon atoms, and mixtures of the 3,4 -epoxycyclohexane carboxylate and the diepoxide compound.
101. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 31 wherein said epoxide acid scavenger is selected from the group consisting of a derivative of a 3,4-epoxy cyclohexane carboxylate and a diepoxide compound corresponding to the formula
wherein R 3 is an organic group containing 1 to 10 carbon atoms, from 0 to 6 oxygen atoms and from 0 to 6 nitrogen atoms, and R 4 through R 9 are independently selected from among hydrogen and aliphatic groups containing 1 to 5 carbon atoms, and mixtures of the 3,4 -epoxycyclohexane carboxylate and the diepoxide compound.
102. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 56 wherein said epoxide acid scavenger is selected from the group consisting of a derivative of a 3,4-epoxy cyclohexane carboxylate and a diepoxide compound corresponding to the formula
wherein R 3 is an organic group containing 1 to 10 carbon atoms, from 0 to 6 oxygen atoms and from 0 to 6 nitrogen atoms, and R 4 through R 9 are independently selected from among hydrogen and aliphatic groups containing 1 to 5 carbon atoms, and mixtures of the 3,4 -epoxycyclohexane carboxylate and the diepoxide compound.
103. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 67 wherein said epoxide acid scavenger is selected from the group consisting of a derivative of a 3,4-epoxy cyclohexane carboxylate and a diepoxide compound corresponding to the formula
wherein R 3 is an organic group containing 1 to 10 carbon atoms, from 0 to 6 oxygen atoms and from 0 to 6 nitrogen atoms, and R 4 through R 9 are independently selected from among hydrogen and aliphatic groups containing 1 to 5 carbon atoms, and mixtures of the 3,4 -epoxycyclohexane carboxylate and the diepoxide compound.
104. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 7 wherein the base stock comprises between about 20% and about 90 % by weight of a trialkyl phosphate, between about 0 % and about 70 % by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate and between about 0 % and about 25 % by weight of an alkyl diaryl phosphate.
105. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 104 wherein the base stock comprises between about 50% and about 90 % by weight of a trialkyl phosphate, between about 0 % and about 70 % by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate and between about 0 % and about 25 % by weight of an alkyl diaryl phosphate.
106. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 8 wherein the base stock comprises between about 20% and about 90 % by weight of a trialkyl phosphate, between about 0 % and about 70 % by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate and between about 0 % and about 25 % by weight of an alkyl diaryl phosphate.
107. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 106 wherein the base stock comprises between about 50% and about 90 % by weight of a trialkyl phosphate, between about 0 % and about 70 % by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate and between about 0 % and about 25 % by weight of an alkyl diaryl phosphate.
108. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 19 wherein the base stock comprises between about 20% and about 90 % by weight of a trialkyl phosphate, between about 0 % and about 70 % by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate and between about 0 % and about 25 % by weight of an alkyl diaryl phosphate.
109. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 108 wherein the base stock comprises between about 50% and about 90 % by weight of a trialkyl phosphate, between about 0 % and about 70 % by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate and between about 0 % and about 25 % by weight of an alkyl diaryl phosphate.
110. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 31 wherein the base stock comprises between about 20% and about 90 % by weight of a trialkyl phosphate, between about 0 % and about 70 % by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate and between about 0 % and about 25 % by weight of an alkyl diaryl phosphate.
111. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 110 wherein the base stock comprises between about 50% and about 90 % by weight of a trialkyl phosphate, between about 0 % and about 70 % by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate and between about 0 % and about 25 % by weight of an alkyl diaryl phosphate.
112. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 50 wherein the base stock comprises between about 20% and about 99 % by weight of a trialkyl phosphate, between about 0 % and about 70 % by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate and between about 0 % and about 25 % by weight of an alkyl diaryl phosphate.
113. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 112 wherein the base stock comprises between about 50% and about 99 % by weight of a trialkyl phosphate, between about 0 % and about 70 % by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate and between about 0 % and about 25 % by weight of an alkyl diaryl phosphate.
114. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 56 wherein the base stock comprises between about 20% and about 99 % by weight of a trialkyl phosphate, between about 0 % and about 70 % by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate and between about 0 % and about 25 % by weight of an alkyl diaryl phosphate.
115. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 114 wherein the base stock comprises between about 50% and about 99 % by weight of a trialkyl phosphate, between about 0 % and about 70 % by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate and between about 0 % and about 25 % by weight of an alkyl diaryl phosphate.
116. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 67 wherein the base stock comprises between about 35% and about 99 % by weight of a trialkyl phosphate, between about 0 % and about 35 % by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate and between about 0 % and about 20 % by weight of an triaryl phosphate.
117. A fluid composition as set forth in claim 116 wherein the base stock comprises between about 80% and about 99 % by weight of a trialkyl phosphate, and between about 1 % and about 20 % by weight of an triaryl phosphate.
118. A fluid composition as set forth in any of claims 1, 19, 31, 50, 56 or 67 wherein in the anti-erosion additive comprising an alkali metal salt of a perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid the alkyl substituent comprises from 5 to 12 carbon atoms.
Description

This is a continuation in part of Ser. No. 07/897,189 filed Jun. 11, 1992, now abandoned.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to phosphate ester functional fluids and more particularly to phosphate ester fluids of improved thermal, hydrolytic and oxidative stability useful as aircraft hydraulic fluids.

Functional fluids have been utilized as electronic coolants, diffusion pump fluids, lubricants, damping fluids, bases for greases, power transmission and hydraulic fluids, heat transfer fluids, heat pump fluids, refrigeration equipment fluids, and as a filter media for air-conditioning systems. Hydraulic fluids intended for use in the hydraulic system of aircraft for operating various mechanisms and aircraft control systems must meet stringent functional and use requirements. Among the most important requirements of an aircraft hydraulic fluid is that it be stable against oxidative and hydrolytic degradation at elevated temperatures.

In use, aircraft hydraulic fluids commonly become contaminated with moisture. Water enters the hydraulic system with air bled from an engine compressor stage. During operations, the moisture level in Type IV aircraft hydraulic fluids normally ranges from about 0.2 to about 0.35% by weight. Water causes hydrolytic decomposition of phosphate esters to produce partial esters of phosphoric acid. Hydrolytic breakdown of the ester is accelerated if water content exceeds about 0.5% by weight. Conventionally, phosphate ester aircraft hydraulic fluids are formulated to contain an acid scavenger which neutralizes partial esters of phosphoric acid released by hydrolytic breakdown of the triester. Over time, however, the acid scavenger becomes depleted and organometallic compounds are formed by complex reactions involving the phosphate triester, phosphoric acid partial esters, and surfaces of the metal environment within which the hydraulic fluid is ordinarily contained. These organometallic compounds, of which iron phosphate is usually the most prominent by-product, are not soluble in the hydraulic fluid.

Higher performance aircraft are operated under conditions which expose hydraulic fluids to increasing temperatures. Current Grade A fluids operate at maximum temperatures in the range of 225 to 240° F. However, projected aircraft applications will expose aircraft hydraulic fluids to bulk fluid temperatures in the range of 275° F. or higher. At such temperatures, the potential for oxidative and hydrolytic breakdown of phosphate esters is substantially increased.

Degradation of phosphate ester hydraulic fluids is also accelerated where the fluids are exposed to compressed air. The rate of air oxidation of such fluids also increases with temperature. Thus, for application at 275° F. or higher, a need exists for fluids of both enhanced thermal oxidative stability and enhanced thermal hydrolytic stability.

Erosion problems may also be expected to increase with bulk fluid temperature. Erosion is a form of electrochemical corrosion, more precisely referred to as zeta corrosion, the rates of which are increased with temperature. The incidence of cavitation, which is one of the mechanical sources of erosion problems, is also likely to increase with temperature. As erosion progresses, the presence of metallic or other insoluble components may result in filter clogging and replacement, and can cause a change in the physical and chemical properties of the fluid, thereby requiring premature draining of fluids from the system. Metal contaminants also reduce oxidative stability of the fluid, accelerating corrosion. In addition to any effects resulting from contamination by metal (or other) contaminants, the fluid may suffer deterioration in numerous other ways, including: a) viscosity change; b) increase in acid number; c) increased chemical reactivity; and d) discoloration.

A hydraulic fluid useful in aircraft is available from applicants' assignee under the trademark Skydrol® LD4. This composition contains 30 to 35% by weight dibutyl phenyl phosphate, 50 to 60% by weight tributyl phosphate, 5 to 10% of viscosity index improvers, 0.13 to 1% of a diphenyldithioethane copper corrosion inhibitor, 0.005% to about 1% by weight, but preferably 0.0075% to 0.075% of a perfluoroalkylsulfonic acid salt antierosion agent, 4 to 8% by weight of an acid scavenger of the type described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,723,320 and about 1% by weight of 2,6-di-tertiary-butyl-p-cresol as an antioxidant. This composition has proved highly satisfactory in high performance aircraft application. However, it was not designed for extended operations at temperatures in the range of 275° F.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Among the several objects of the present invention, therefore, may be noted the provision of an improved functional fluid useful as a hydraulic fluid in aircraft applications; the provision of such a fluid which exhibits improved hydrolytic stability, especially at elevated temperatures; the provision of such a fluid which exhibits improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures; the provision of such a fluid which exhibits advantageous viscosity characteristics and especially viscosity stability under shear conditions; the provision of such a fluid of relatively low density; the provision of such a fluid which has not only high resistance to oxidation but also low toxicity; the provision of such a composition which has improved anti-erosion properties; and the provision of such a fluid composition which exhibits improved resistance to corrosion of metal components of an aircraft or other hydraulic fluid system.

Briefly, therefore, the present invention is directed to a fluid composition suitable for use as an aircraft hydraulic fluid. The composition comprises a fire resistant phosphate ester base stock, the base stock comprising between about 10% and about 100%, preferably between about 20% and about 99%, by weight of a trialkyl phosphate, between about 0% and about 70% by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate, and from about 0% to about 25% by weight of an alkyl diaryl phosphate, with the proviso that the sum of the proportionate amount of each base stock component must equal 100%. The alkyl substituents of the trialkyl phosphate, the dialkyl aryl phosphate, and the alkyl diaryl phosphate contain between 3 and 8 carbon atoms, preferably between 4 and 8 carbon atoms, more preferably between 4 and 5 carbon atoms, and are bonded to the phosphate moiety via a primary carbon. It is still further preferred that the alkyl substituents of the trialkyl phosphate, the dialkyl aryl phosphate, and the alkyl diaryl phosphate are isoalkyl groups. In a preferred embodiment, the base stock of the composition comprises between about 50% and about 85% by weight of a trialkyl phosphate, between about 18% and about 35% by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate, and from 0 to about 5% by weight of an alkyl diaryl phosphate. In addition to the fire resistant base stock, the composition further comprises an acid scavenger in an amount effective to neutralize phosphoric acid partial esters formed in situ by hydrolysis of any of the phosphate esters of the base stock; an anti-erosion additive in an amount effective to inhibit flow-induced electrochemical or zeta corrosion of the flow metering edges of hydraulic servo valves in hydraulic systems; a viscosity index improver in an amount effective to cause the fluid composition to exhibit a viscosity of at least about 3.0 centistokes (cst) at about 210° F., at least about 9.0 centistokes at about 100° F., and less than about 4200 centistokes at −65° F.; and an anti-oxidant in an amount effective to inhibit oxidation of fluid composition components in the presence of oxygen.

Preferably, as previously indicated, the alkyl substituents of the trialkyl phosphate, dialkyl aryl phosphate, and the alkyl diaryl phosphate contain between 4 and 8 carbon atoms, more preferably between 4 and 5 carbon atoms. It is still further preferred that the alkyl substituents of the trialkyl phosphate, the dialkyl aryl phosphate, and the alkyl diaryl phosphate are isoalkyl groups. Most preferably, therefore, the alkyl substituents are isoalkyl C4 and C5 groups, namely, isobutyl and isopentyl (also known as isoamyl), respectively.

The invention is further directed to a fluid composition suitable for use as an aircraft hydraulic fluid and containing a novel combination of additives. The composition comprises a fire resistant phosphate ester base stock comprising between about 10% and about 90% by weight of a trialkyl phosphate, between about 0 and about 70% by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate and from 0% to about 25% by weight of an alkyl diaryl phosphate. The alkyl substituents of the trialkyl phosphate, the dialkyl aryl phosphate, and the alkyl diaryl phosphate contain between 3 and 8 carbon atoms, preferably between 4 and 8 carbon atoms, more preferably between 4 and 5 carbon atoms and are bonded to the phosphate moiety via a primary carbon atom. It is still further preferred that the alkyl substituents of the trialkyl phosphate, the dialkyl aryl phosphate, and the alkyl diaryl phosphate are isoalkyl groups. The composition further comprises a viscosity index improver in a proportion, on a solids (methacrylate polymer, as hereinafter described) basis, of between about 3% and about 10% by weight of the composition. The viscosity index improver comprises a methacrylate ester polymer, the repeating units of which substantially comprise butyl and hexyl methacrylate, at least 95% by weight of the polymer having a molecular weight of between about 50,000 and about 1,500,000. The viscosity index improver is conveniently employed or provided in the form of a solution in a phosphate ester solvent, preferably a trialkyl phosphate ester, such as, for example, tributyl or triisobutyl phosphate, or a combination of alkyl and aryl phosphate esters. In a preferred embodiment, the phosphate ester solvent is comprised of one or more of the phosphate ester components which constitute the phosphate ester base stock of choice. In such manner, the phosphate ester solvent becomes in effect part of the base stock, and the stated ranges of suitable proportions of phosphate esters hereinafter described reflect the phosphate ester(s) added as a carrier or vehicle for the viscosity index improver. The composition further comprises an anti-erosion agent in a proportion of between about 0.02% and about 0.08% by weight of the composition, the anti-erosion agent comprising an alkali metal salt of a perfluoroalkylsulfonic acid, the alkyl substituent of which is hexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl or decyl. The composition comprises an acid scavenger in a proportion of between about 1.5 and about 10% by weight of the composition, the acid scavenger comprising a derivative of 3,4-epoxycyclohexane carboxylate or a diepoxide compound of the type disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,206,067. The composition further contains a 2,4,6-trialkylphenol in a proportion of between about 0.1% and about 1% by weight, a dialkylphenyl)amine in a proportion of between about 0.3% and about 1% by weight, and a hindered polyphenol compound selected from the group consisting of bis(3,5-dialkyl-4-hydroxyaryl)methane, 1,3,5-trimethyl-2,4,6-tris (3,5-di-tert-butyl-hydroxyaryl)benzene and mixtures thereof in a proportion of between about 0.3% and about 1% by weight of the composition. The alkyl substituents of trialkyl phosphate and dialkyl aryl phosphate are preferably butyl or pentyl.

The invention is further directed to a fluid composition suitable for use as an aircraft hydraulic fluid comprising a fire resistant organophosphate ester base stock. The base stock comprises between about 10% and about 100%, preferably between about 20% and about 99%, by weight of a trialkyl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituents are substantially isoalkyl C4 or C5, between about 0% and about 70% by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituents are substantially isoalkyl C4 or C5, and between about 0% and about 25% by weight of an alkyl diaryl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituent is substantially isoalkyl C4 or C5. The composition further comprises an acid scavenger in an amount effective to neutralize phosphoric acid and phosphoric acid partial esters formed in situ by hydrolysis of any of the phosphate esters of the base stock; an anti-erosion additive in an amount effective to inhibit flow-induced electrochemical corrosion of the flow metering edges of hydraulic servo valves in hydraulic systems; a viscosity index improver in an amount effective to cause the fluid composition to exhibit a viscosity index of at least about 3.0 centistokes at about 210° F., at least about 9.0 centistokes at about 100° F., and less than about 4200 centistokes at about −65° F.; and an antioxidant in an amount effective to inhibit oxidation of fluid composition components in the presence of oxygen.

The invention is further directed to a fluid composition suitable for use as an aircraft hydraulic fluid comprising a phosphate ester base stock. The base stock comprises between about 10% and about 100%, preferably between about 20% and about 99%, by weight of a trialkyl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituents are substantially C4 or C5, preferably isoalkyl C4 or C5 (namely, isobutyl or isopentyl), between about 0% and about 70% by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituents are substantially C4 or C5, preferably isoalkyl C4 or C5 (namely isobutyl or isopentyl), and between about 0% and about 25% by weight of an alkyl diaryl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituent is substantially C4 or C5, preferably isoalkyl C4 or C5 (namely isobutyl or isopentyl). The composition further comprises an acid scavenger in an amount effective to neutralize phosphoric acid partial esters formed in situ by hydrolysis of any of the phosphate esters of the base stock; an anti-erosion additive in an amount effective to inhibit flow-induced electrochemical or zeta corrosion of the flow metering edges of hydraulic servo valves in hydraulic systems; a viscosity index improver in an amount effective to cause the fluid composition to exhibit a viscosity index of at least about 3.0 centistokes at about 210° F., at least about 9.0 centistokes at about 100° F., and less than about 4200 centistokes at −65° F.; an antioxidant in an amount effective to inhibit oxidation of fluid composition components in the presence of oxygen; and a 4,5-dihydroimidazole compound in an amount effective to decrease by at least about 25% the rate of breakdown at 300° F. of phosphate triesters in the composition to phosphoric acid partial esters, as measured by epoxide depletion. The 4,5-dihydroimidazole compound corresponds to the formula

where R1 is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, hydroxyalkyl, hydroxyalkenyl, alkoxyalkyl or alkoxyalkenyl, and R2 is alkyl, alkenyl or an aliphatic carboxylate. The invention is further directed to a fluid composition suitable for use as an aircraft hydraulic fluid comprising a fire resistant phosphate ester base stock. The base stock comprises between about 10% and about 100%, preferably between about 35% and about 99%, by weight of a trialkyl phosphate, between about 0% and about 35% by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate, and between about 0% and about 20% by weight of a triaryl phosphate. The alkyl substituents of the trialkyl phosphate and the dialkyl aryl phosphate contain between 3 and 8 carbon atoms, preferably between 4 and 8 carbon atoms, more preferably between 4 and 5 carbon atoms and are bonded to the phosphate moiety via a primary carbon. It is still further preferred that the alkyl substituents of the trialkyl phosphate and the dialkyl aryl phosphate are isoalkyl groups. The aryl substituents of the dialkyl aryl phosphate esters and the triaryl phosphate esters are typically phenyl, but may also be an alkyl-substituted phenyl (alkylphenyl) wherein the alkyl substituent is C1 to C9, preferably C3 to C4. Nonlimiting examples of the alkyl-substituted phenyl substituents include tolyl (also known as methylphenyl), ethylphenyl, isopropylphenyl, isobutylphenyl, tert-butylphenyl, and the like. The fluid composition further comprises an acid scavenger in an amount effective to neutralize phosphoric acid and phosphoric acid partial esters formed in situ by hydrolysis of any of the phosphate esters of the base stock, an anti-erosion additive in an amount effective to inhibit flow-induced electrochemical or zeta corrosion of the flow metering edges of hydraulic servo valves in hydraulic systems; a viscosity index improver in an amount effective to cause the fluid composition to exhibit a viscosity of at least about 3.0 centistokes at about 210° F., at least about 9.0 centistokes at about 100° F., and less than about 4200 centistokes at −65° F.; and an antioxidant in an amount effective to inhibit oxidation of fluid composition components in the presence of oxygen.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIGS. 1 to 12 are plots of epoxide depletion versus time for hydraulic fluid formulations tested under varying conditions of temperatures, moisture content, and other parameters; and

FIG. 13 is a bar graph illustrating the superior anti-corrosion properties of the functional fluid of the invention.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

In accordance with the present invention, it has been discovered that a hydraulic fluid of improved thermal, hydrolytic, and oxidative stability is provided by utilizing a phosphate ester base stock which contains a high concentration of alkyl ester moieties and contains relatively small proportions of phenyl or other aryl esters.

The base stock comprises a mixture of trialkyl phosphate and dialkyl aryl phosphate, in each of which the alkyl substituents are C5 to C8, preferably C4 to C8, more preferably C4 or C5, and are bonded to the phosphate moiety via a primary carbon. It is still further preferred that the alkyl substituents of the trialkyl phosphate and the dialkyl aryl phosphate are isoalkyl groups. Optionally, the base stock further comprises a small proportion of alkyl diaryl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituent is as previously defined. Further advantages are realized if the alkyl substituents of the trialkyl phosphate, the dialkyl aryl phosphate, and the alkyl diaryl phosphate esters are primarily comprised of isoalkyl C4 or C5 (namely, isobutyl or isopentyl), in preference to the normal isomers thereof. In this preferred instance also, attachment of the alkyl substituent to the phosphate should be via a primary carbon atom.

In addition to the improved base stock, the composition of the invention preferably contains a combination of additives which further enhances the properties of the fluid as compared to fluids previously available in the art for use in the aircraft hydraulic systems. Moreover, it has been found that the additive combinations of this invention are effective in enhancing the properties of base stock compositions previously known in the art or otherwise differing from the preferred base stock of the functional fluids of this invention. But the most advantageous properties are realized using both the additive package and the base stock of the invention. This is particularly true where the alkyl substituents of the trialkyl phosphate, the dialkyl aryl phosphate, and the alkyl diaryl phosphate, especially the trialkyl phosphate and the dialkyl aryl phosphate, are isoalkyl C4 or C5 (namely, isobutyl or isopentyl).

In a preferred embodiment, the base stock is characterized by a very low alkyl diaryl phosphate ester content, preferably not more than about 5% by weight, more preferably not more than about 2% by weight. It is further preferred that the sum of the proportions of esters containing an aryl substituent, i.e., dialkyl aryl, alkyl diaryl, and triaryl phosphates, does not constitute more than about 25% by weight of the base stock.

More particularly, in a preferred embodiment, the base stock composition advantageously comprises between about 50% and about 85% by weight of a trialkyl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituents are substantially C4 or C5, preferably isoalkyl C4 or C5 (namely, isobutyl or isopentyl), between about 18% and about 35% by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituent is substantially C4 or C5, preferably isoalkyl C4 or C5 (namely, isobutyl or isopentyl), and from 0 to about 5% by weight of an alkyl diaryl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituent is substantially C4 or C5, preferably isoalkyl C4 or C5, (namely, isobutyl or isopentyl). Preferably the aryl substituents are phenyl and alkyl-substituted phenyl (alkylphenyl) wherein the alkyl substituent is C1 to C9, more preferably C3 to C4. Non-limiting examples of the alkyl-substituted phenyl include tolyl, ethylphenyl, isopropylphenyl, isobutylphenyl, tert-butylphenyl, and the like, with tert-butylphenyl generally being more preferred. As contrasted, for example, with Skydrol® LD-4 hydraulic fluid, which has a significantly higher diaryl (as diphenyl) ester content, the base stock of the functional fluid of the present invention exhibits significantly improved hydrolytic stability at temperatures substantially above 225° F. using the same acid scavenger system as that incorporated into LD-4. Using the same anti-oxidant additive as LD-4, a composition comprising the base stock of the present invention exhibits significantly enhanced thermal, oxidative, and hydrolytic stability. As a result of the relatively low diaryl ester content of the base stock, the functional fluid of the present invention has relatively low density, which is advantageous in aircraft hydraulic fluid applications.

In the preferred base stock of the present invention, it is particularly preferred that the alkyl substituents be isoalkyl C4 or C5 (namely, isobutyl or isopentyl), most preferably isoalkyl C4 (isobutyl). It has been found that a base stock composition comprising triisobutyl phosphate or triisopentyl phosphate and diisobutyl phenyl phosphate or diisopentyl phenyl phosphate affords multiple advantages as compared to the same compositions in which the alkyl substituents are n-butyl or n-pentyl.

TABLE A
TBP TIBP
Oral LD50 1200 mg/kg >5000 mg/kg
Dermal LD50 >10,000 mg/kg >5000 mg/kg
Eye Irritation Mildly irritating Practically non-
irritating
Skin Irritation Severely irritating Moderately irritat-
ing
Subchronic
Bladder Hyperplasia In rats >1000 ppm None observed
In rats >5000 ppm
NOEL 200 ppm NOEL 5000 ppm
Hen Neurotox Not neurotoxic Not neurotoxic
Tested at LD50 = Tested at LD50 =
1500 mg/kg >5000 mg/kg
Genotoxicity Ames - negative Ames - negative
CHO/HGPRT - Mouse micronucleus -
negative negative
in vitro cyto-
genetics -
negative
in vivo cyto-
genetics -
negative

In addition, in the context of the present invention, the phosphate esters wherein the alkyl substituents attached to the phosphate moiety are isoalkyl C4 or C5 (namely, isobutyl or isopentyl) have further been found to exhibit hydrolytic stability superior to that exhibited by the corresponding normal alkyl phosphate esters at the high temperatures to which the hydraulic systems of high performance aircraft are exposed. The realization of this advantage occurs in the absence of any adverse effects upon seal integrity. That is, isobutyl and isopentyl esters maintain the same high level of seal integrity exhibited by normal alkyl phosphate esters. Or stated differently, the materials of which hydraulic system seals are commonly fabricated have been found to maintain a level of swelling when in contact with the isoalkyl esters that is equivalent to that experienced when in contact with the corresponding normal alkyl esters. Moreover, it has been found that the isobutyl and isopentyl esters are even lower density than the normal alkyl esters, which means that the weight of fluid in a given aircraft hydraulic system is lower, resulting in improved aircraft fuel efficiency.

In addition to the improved base stock, the composition of the invention preferably contains a combination of additives which further enhances the properties of the fluid as compared with fluids previously available in the art for use in aircraft hydraulic systems.

More particularly, the composition incorporates an acid scavenger in a proportion sufficient to neutralize phosphoric acid and phosphoric acid partial esters formed in situ by hydrolysis of components of the phosphate ester base stock under conditions of the service in which the hydraulic fluid composition is used. Preferably, the acid scavenger is a 3,4-epoxycyclohexane carboxylate composition of the type described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,723,320. Also useful are diepoxides such as those disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,206,067 which contain two linked cyclohexane groups to each of which is fused an epoxide group. Such diepoxide compounds correspond to the formula:

wherein R3 is an organic group containing 1 to 10 carbon atoms, from 0 to 6 oxygen atoms and from 0 to 6 nitrogen atoms, and R4 through R9 are independently selected from among hydrogen and aliphatic groups containing 1 to 5 carbon atoms. Exemplary diepoxides include 3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexane, bis (3,4-epoxy-6-methylcyclohexylmethyl adipate), 2-(3,4epoxycyclohexyl)-5,5-spiro(3,4-epoxy)cyclohexane-m-dioxane. The concentration of the acid scavenger in the fluid composition is preferably between about 1.5% and about 10%, more preferably between about 2% and about 8% by weight, which is generally sufficient to maintain the hydraulic fluid in a serviceable condition for up to approximately 3000 hours of aircraft operation.

To limit the effect of temperature on viscosity, the composition further includes a polymeric viscosity index improver. Preferably, the viscosity index improver comprises a poly(alkyl methacrylate) ester of the type described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,718,596. Generally, the viscosity index improver is of high molecular weight, having a number average molecular weight of between about 50,000 and about 100,000 and a weight average molecular weight of between about 200,000 and about 300,000. Preferably, the viscosity index improver of the invention has a relatively narrow range of molecular weight, approximately 95% by weight of the viscosity index improver component having a molecular weight of between about 50,000 and about 1,500,000. This result is achieved in part by utilization of predominantly butyl and hexyl methacrylate esters. The viscosity index improver is present in a proportion sufficient to impart a kinematic viscosity of: at least about 3.0, preferably between about 3 and about 5 centistokes at 210° F.; at least about 9, preferably between about 9 and about 15 centistokes at 100° F.; and not more than about 4200 centistokes at −65° F. Superior shear stability characteristics are also imparted by the viscosity index improver used in the composition. Preferably the fluid composition contains between about 3% and about 10% by weight of the viscosity index improver. Nonlimiting particularly preferred viscosity index improvers are those sold under the trade designations PA6703, PA6477, and PA6961-PMN by Rohm and Haas Company. The viscosity index improver, as previously noted in the Summary of the Invention, is conveniently provided in the form of a solution in a phosphate ester solvent, preferably a trialkyl phosphate ester such as tributyl or triisobutyl phosphate, or a combination of alkyl and phenyl derivatives. The proportions referred to above for the viscosity index improver are on a solids (methacrylatc polymer) basis. The phosphate ester solvent becomes in effect part of the base stock, and the ranges of proportions of phosphate esters, as discussed above, reflect the phosphate ester added as a vehicle for the viscosity index improver.

An anti-erosion agent is incorporated in an amount effective to inhibit flow-induced electrochemical corrosion, more precisely referred to as zeta corrosion. The anti-erosion additive is preferably an alkali metal salt, more preferably a potassium salt of a perfluoroalkylsulfonic acid. Such anti-erosion additives are more fully described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,679,587. Typically, the alkyl component comprises hexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl, decyl, or mixtures thereof, with perfluorooctyl generally affording the best properties. It is particularly preferred that the anti-erosion agent predominantly comprises the potassium salt of perfluorooctylsulfonic acid in a proportion of between about 250 and about 1000 most preferably at least about 500 ppm. In the operation of an aircraft hydraulic fluid system, the sulfonic acid moiety of the anti-erosion agent tends to lower the surface tension of the hydraulic fluid and thereby better cover the metal surfaces with which the hydraulic fluid normally comes in contact. The metering edges of servo valves are generally the most important metal parts which need protection from electrochemical corrosion. Positive ions in the fluid, including the alkali metal ion of the anti-erosion agent, are adsorbed onto the metal surface and neutralize the negative charges on the metal that are otherwise created by the rapid flow of the hydraulic fluid over the servo valve metering edges. Enhanced erosion resistance is provided in the composition of the invention, which preferably contains a perfluoroalkylsulfonic salt content about twice that of the prior art composition sold as LD4.

Limiting the diaryl ester content of the base stock contributes to thermal, oxidative, and hydrolytic stability of the fluid. The composition of the invention also contains a combination of antioxidant additives, preferably including both a hindered phenol and a hindered polyphenol. Hydrolytic stability has been found to be improved by partially substituting the hindered polyphenol for the phenol, and it is thus preferred that the composition contain not more than about 1.0%, preferably not more than about 0.7% by weight of a phenol such as a 2,4,6-trialkylphenol. It is generally preferred that the composition contain between about 0.1% and about 0.7% of a 2,4,6-trialkylphenol, preferably 2,6-di-tertiary-butyl-p-cresol [also written as 2,6di-tert-butyl-p-cresol or 2,6-di-t-butyl-p-cresol (“Ionol”)]. The composition should further include between about 0.3% and about 1% of a hindered polyphenol compound, such as a bis(3,5-dialkyl-4-hydroxyaryl) methane, for example, the bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)methane sold under the trade designation Ethanox® 702 by the Ethyl Corp., a 1,3,5-trialkyl-2,4,6-tris(3,5 -dialkyl-4-hydroxyaryl) aromatic compound, for example, the 1,3,5-trimethyl-2,4,6 -tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)benzene sold under the trade designation Ethanox® 330 by the Ethyl Corp., or mixtures thereof. The composition may also include an amine antioxidant, preferably a diarylamine such as, for example, phenyl-α-napthylamine or alkylphenyl-α-naphthylamine, or the reaction product of N-phenylbenzylamine with 2,4,4-trimethylpentene sold under the trade designation Irganox® L-57 by Ciba-Geigy; diphenylamine, ditolylamine, phenyl tolylamine, 4,4′-diaminodiphenylamine, di-p-methoxydiphenylamine, or 4-cyclohexylaminodiphenylamine; a carbazole compound such as N-methylcarbazole, N-ethylcarbazole, or 3-hydroxycarbazole; an aminophenol such a N-butylaminophenol, N-methyl-N-amylaminophenol, or N-isooctyl-p-amino-phenol; an aminodiphenylalkane such as amino-diphenylmethanes, 4,4′-diaminodiphenylmethane, etc., aminodiphenylethers; aminodiphenyl thioethers; aryl substituted alkylenediamines such as 1,2-di-o-toluidoethane, 1,2-dianilinoethane, or 1,2-dianilinopropane; aminobiphenyls, such as 5-hydroxy-2-aminobiphenyl, etc.; the reaction product of an aldehyde or ketone with an amine such as the reaction product of acetone and diphenylamine; the reaction product of a complex diarylamine and a ketone or aldehyde; a morpholine such as N-(p-hydroxyphenyl)morpholine, etc., an amidine such as N,N′-bis-(hydroxyphenyl)acetamidine or the like; an acridan such as 9,9′-dimethylacridan, a phenathiazine such as phenathiazine, 3,7-dibutylphenathiazine or 6,6-dioctylphenathiazine, a cyclohexylamine, or mixtures thereof. An alkyl substituted diphenylamine such as di(p-octylphenyl) amine is preferred. Certain amine components can also act as a lubricating additive. The amine antioxidant is also preferably present in a proportion of between about 0.3 and about 1% by weight. By maintaining the Ionol content of the fluid composition below 1.0%, preferably below 0.7%, and more preferably below 0.5% by weight,-toxicity of the composition is even lower than that of Skydrol® LD-4 hydraulic fluid.

As a copper corrosion inhibitor, the composition of the invention preferably includes a benzotriazole derivative, such as that sold under the trade designation Petrolite 57068. This corrosion inhibitor is present in an amount sufficient to deactivate metal surfaces in contact with the fluid composition against the formation of metal oxides on the metal surfaces in contact with the fluid, thereby reducing rates of copper dissolution into the hydraulic fluid, and also reducing dissolution of perhaps parts fabricated from copper alloys. Advantageously, the composition contains between about 0.005% and about 0.09% by weight of the benzotriazole derivative, preferably between about 0.02 and about 0.07% by weight.

Phosphate ester functional fluids are known to corrode iron alloys as well as copper alloys. Numerous iron corrosion inhibitors are available for use in functional fluids, but these are known in many instances to increase rates of erosion and thus have a net deleterious effect on the performance properties of the hydraulic fluid. However, in accordance with the invention, it has been discovered that certain 4,5-dihydroimidazole compounds are effective iron corrosion inhibitors, yet do not adversely affect the erosion properties of the fluid. Useful 4,5-dihydroimidazole compounds include those which correspond to the structural formula

where R1 is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, hydroxyalkyl, hydroxyalkenyl, alkoxyalkyl or alkoxyalkenyl, and R2 is alkyl, alkenyl or an aliphatic carboxylate. Exemplary groups which may constitute R1 include hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl, octyl, vinyl, propenyl, octenyl, hexenyl, hydroxyethyl, hydroxyhexyl, methoxypropyl, propoxyethyl, butoxypropenyl, etc. Exemplary group, which may constitute R2 include, octyl, dodecyl, hexadecyl, heptadecenyl, or a fatty acid substituent such as 8-carboxyoctyl, 12-carboxydodecyl, 16-carboxyhexadecenyl, or 18-carboxyoctadecyl. In a particularly effective embodiment, R1 is hydrogen or lower alkyl and R2 is a fatty acid residue containing at least about 9 carbon atoms, i.e., —C8—COOH to —C18 COOH, preferably C16—C18—COOH. In another preferred embodiment, R1 is a lower hydroxyalkyl and R2 is a C8—C18 alkenyl. In the latter instance, however, the most satisfactory inhibition of Fe corrosion is realized only if the 4,5-dihydro-imidazole is used in combination with an amino acid derivative, more particularly an N-substituted amino acid in which the N-substituent contains both polar and oleophilic moieties, for example, an N-alkyl-N-oxo-alkenyl amino acid.

It has further and unexpectedly been discovered that the presence of such a 4,5-dihydroimidazole compound, typically in a proportion of between about 0.01% and about 0.1% by weight, not only inhibits iron corrosion but contributes markedly to the stability of the functional fluid as indicated by epoxide depletion.

It has been found that the salutary effect of the 4,5-dihydroimidazole compound is enhanced if it is used in combination with a phenolic antioxidant, especially a complex hindered polyphenol such as a bis(3,5-dialkyl-4-hydroxyaryl)methane or a 1,3,5-trialkyl-2,4,6-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyaryl)benzene. Exemplary of such complex hindered polyphenol compounds, respectively, are bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)methane and 1,3,5-trimethyl-2,4,6-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)benzene. Optimal effect on stability has been observed using a combination of the condensation product of 4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole and C16-C18 fatty acid (sold under the trade designation Vanlube RI-G by the Vanderbilt Co.) with a hindered polyphenol and an alkyl substituted diarylamine such as di(p-octylphenyl)amine. Also effective as a 4,5-dihydroimidazole compound in such combination is 2-(8-heptadecenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole-1-ethanol (sold under the trade designation Amine-O by Ciba-Geigy) To function as an iron corrosion inhibitor, the latter compound should be used in combination with an amino acid derivative such as. e.g., the N-methyl-N-(1-oxo-9-octadecenyl)glycine sold under the trade designation Sarkosyl®-O by Ciba-Geigy Corporation.

It has been found that a still further enhancement in high temperature stability is realized where the 4,5-dihydroimidazole compound is used in combination with a phosphate ester base stock in which the alkyl substituents attached to the phosphate moiety are substantially isoalkyl C4 or C5 (namely, isobutyl or isopentyl).

Although they have not been found to produce the substantial advantageous effect on high temperature stability that is afforded by the use of an a 4,5-dihydroimidazole compound, other iron corrosion inhibitors have been found effective in the functional fluid of the invention without adverse effect on erosion characteristics. Acceptable iron corrosion inhibitors include, for example, the product sold by Petrolite under the trade designation Petrolite P-31001.

As necessary, the fluid composition may also contain an anti-foaming agent. Preferably, this is a silicone fluid, more preferably a polyalkylsiloxane, for example, the polymethylsiloxane sold under the trade designation DC 200 by Dow Corning. Preferably the anti-foam agent is included in a proportion sufficient to inhibit foam formation under the test conditions of ASTM method 892. Typically, the anti-foam content of the composition is at least about 0.0005% by weight, typically about 0.0001% to about 0.001% by weight.

Preferably, the pH of the composition of the invention is at least about 7.5, more preferably between about 7.5 and about 9.0. To impart a pH in this range and to enhance the acid scavenging capacity of the formulation, the composition may further include between about 0.0035 and about 0.10%, preferably between about 0.01% and about 0.1% by weight, most preferably between about 0.02% and about 0.07% of an alkali metal phenate or other arenate. Potassium phenate is preferred. In addition to neutralizing acidic components of the composition, the alkali metal arenate serves to pacify the metal surfaces when the composition has been added to a hydraulic system, thereby reducing corrosion.

Although optimal properties are realized in a composition of low alkyl diaryl phosphate content and particularly in compositions using the base stock of the invention as described above, the additive combination of the invention also affords beneficial results when used in combination with any of a variety of base stock compositions known to the art. The benefit of using esters whose alkyl substituents are predominantly comprised of isoalkyl C4 or C5 (namely isobutyl or isopentyl) also extends beyond the preferred concentration ranges outlined above. Broadly, the additive combination can be used with an organophosphate ester base stock comprising between about 10% and about 100%, preferably between about 10% and about 99%, by weight of a trialkyl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituents are substantially C4 or C5 (namely, butyl or pentyl), preferably isoalkyl C4 or C5 (namely, isobutyl or isopentyl), between about 0% and about 70% by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituents are substantially C4 or C5 (namely, butyl or pentyl), preferably isoalkyl C4 or C5 (namely, isobutyl or isopentyl), and between about 0% and about 25% by weight of an alkyl diaryl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituents are substantially C4 or C5 (namely, butyl or pentyl), preferably isoalkyl C4 or C5 (namely, isobutyl or isopentyl). In a preferred embodiment, the additive combination is used with a base stock comprising between about 10% and about 100%, preferably between about 35% and about 99%, by weight of a tributyl or tripentyl phosphate, more preferably triisobutyl or triisopentyl phosphate, between about 0% and about 35% by weight of a dibutyl aryl or dipentyl aryl phosphate, more preferably diisobutyl aryl or diisopentyl aryl phosphate, and between about 0% and about 20% by weight of a triaryl phosphate, and between about 0% and about 20% by weight of a triaryl phosphate. The additive combination is also effective in combination with other ranges of base stock compositions as set forth below:

TABLE 1
Base Stock, Weight %
Phosphate Ester I II III IV V
Tri (C4/C5 alkyl)1 10-72 10-25 50-72 80-99 50-72
Di (C4/C5 alkyl)1 18-70 45-70 18-75 18-75
Aryl
C4/C5 Alkyl1 Diaryl  0-25  5-25  0-10  0-10
Triaryl  1-20  0-10
1In a preferred embodiment, the alkyl substituents are isoalkyl C4 or C5

As discussed hereinabove, optimal properties are achieved by combining the preferred isoalkyl C4 or C5 (namely, isobutyl or isopentyl) phosphate ester base stock with the additive combination of the invention. However, significant benefits in lower toxicity, lower density, hydrolytic stability, oxidative stability, and thermal stability are afforded by the use of the isoalkyl esters with other additive combinations as well, while, at the same time, maintaining a level of seal integrity equivalent to that experienced by the corresponding normal alkyl phosphate esters. In a preferred embodiment, the isoalkyl C4 or C5 phosphate ester base stock contains between about 10% and 100%, preferably between about 50% and about 85%, by weight of a trialkyl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituents are substantially isoalkyl C4 or C5 (namely, isobutyl or isopentyl), between about 18% and about 35% by weight of a dialkyl aryl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituents are substantially isoalkyl C4 or C5 (namely, isobutyl or isopentyl), and between about 0% and about 10% by weight, preferably between about 0% and about 5% by weight, of an alkyl diaryl phosphate wherein the alkyl substituents are substantially isoalkyl C4 or C5 (namely, isobutyl or isopentyl). However, the benefits of using the isoalkyl substituents are so substantial that they are realized to a significant extent over a considerably broader range of composition. Generally, therefore, a base stock which utilizes isoalkyl esters may comprise 100%, preferably between about 10% and about 90%, by weight of a triisobutyl or triisopentyl phosphate, between about 0% and about 70% by weight of a diisobutyl or diisopentyl aryl phosphate and between about 0% and about 25% by weight of an alkyl diaryl phosphate. Preferably, the alkyl substituent of the alkyl diaryl phosphate is also isobutyl or isopentyl, especially when the alkyl diaryl phosphate content exceeds about 5%. The aryl substituents of these esters are typically phenyl, but may also be an alkyl-substituted phenyl (alkylphenyl) wherein the alkyl substituent is C1 to C9, preferably C3 to C4. Nonlimiting examples of the alkyl-substituted phenyl substituents include tolyl (also known as methylphenyl), ethylphenyl, isopropylphenyl, isobutylphenyl, tert-butylphenyl, and the like.

The isoalkyl base stock should be combined with an acid scavenger in an amount effective to neutralize phosphoric acid or phosphoric acid partial esters formed in situ by hydrolysis of any of the phosphate esters of the base stock. The acid scavengers described above are preferred but other acid scavengers known to the art may be used. The isoalkyl based functional fluids should also contain an antierosion additive in an amount effective to inhibit flow induced electrochemical corrosion of flow metering edges of hydraulic servo valves in hydraulic systems. These fluids should also contain a viscosity index improver in an amount effective to cause the fluid composition to exhibit the viscosity index stated above. The composition should further include an antioxidant in an amount effective to inhibit oxidation of the fluid composition components in the presence of oxidizing agents. Preferably, the ant-erosion agent, viscosity index improver, and antioxidant composition are as described above, but the benefits of the use of an isoalkyl base stock are also realized with other additive combinations known to the art.

Methods known to those skilled in the art may be used for the preparation of the compositions of the invention. For example, a base stock comprising the phosphate esters may be prepared by mixing in an agitated stainless steel vessel. Additives may then be blended into the base stock in the same vessel. As noted above, the viscosity index improver is preferably added in the form of a solution in a phosphate ester solvent.

At temperatures above 200° F., the more preferred functional fluid compositions of the invention exhibit thermal, oxidative, and hydrolytic stability two to three times greater than that of Skydrol® LD-4 hydraulic fluid as measured by the depletion of epoxide acid scavenger as a function of time. Superior stability is exhibited even in the presence of halogen-containing compounds such as trichloroethane. When a 4,5-dihydroimidazole compound is included, the extent of improvement is even greater. As a result of the relatively low phenyl ester content, the composition of the invention has a density of less than one gram per cc, typically between about 0.97 and about 0.99 grams per cc. This is a desirable feature from the standpoint of fuel burn (consumption) in aircraft.

Shear stability of the fluid composition also compares favorably with commercially available aircraft hydraulic fluids. Thus, for example, after 500 hour exposure to an accelerated degradation test in a typical aircraft hydraulic pump system, the viscosity of the composition at −65° drops only from 4000 to 2400. In part, this advantage is believed to result from the narrower range of molecular weight of the viscosity index improver. Exposure to shear conditions tends to degrade higher molecular weight viscosity index improvers, so that compositions in which the molecular weight of the viscosity index improver is distributed over a broad range tend to suffer a greater loss of effectiveness over time due to breakdown of the higher molecular weight species.

In part due to the relatively low concentration of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol, the toxicity of the fluid composition in the invention is very low. Where an isoalkyl ester base stock is used, toxicity is even lower.

The following examples illustrate the invention.

EXAMPLE 1

A hydraulic fluid having the composition set forth in Table 1 was prepared by mixing at ambient temperature in a 50 gallon stainless steel tank agitated with a 25 horsepower agitator having an anchor type impeller. The phosphate ester components were introduced into the tank first and, after a 30 minute period of initial mixing, the other additives were added in the sequence indicated in Table 2.

TABLE 2
Basis:
100 Gram Basis:
Batch 80 Gallon Batch
Component Grams Grams/Pounds
Tributyl Phosphate, 49.0135 148,216.8/326.8
Neat
Dibutyl Phenyl 26.43 79,652.2/175.6DRUM
Phosphate of      2(−220#)
Low Diphenyl
Content (Less Than
2% By Weight)
Methacrylate Ester 16.56 50,077/110.4
Viscosity Index    22684.9
Improver (PA6477,    gSLDS
45.3% solids in
54.7% tributyl
phosphate)
3,4 Epoxycyclohexane 6.3 19,051/42
Carboxylate
FC98 [Potassium .05 151.2/
Perfluorooctylsulfonate
(FC98)]
Benzotriazole type .05 151.2/
Copper Corrosion
Inhibitor
(P57068, Petrolite
(50% Active), EX1663
Iron Corrosion Inhibitor .05 151.2/
(90-31001, Petrolite
(50% Active)
Dye .001 3.204/
Potassium Phenate .035 105.84/
Bis-(3,5-di-tert-butyl 0.90 2,722/6
4-hydroxyphenyl) methane
(Ethanox  ® 702)
Di(p-octylphenyl)amine 0.45 1,361/3
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol 0.25 756/1.667
Antifoam 0.0005 1.512/
(Dow-Corning)

This composition had a density of 0.996 g/cc at a temperature of 25° C. Of the source of dibutyl phenyl phosphate, 77.135% by weight was dibutyl phenyl phosphate or butyl diphenyl phosphate, so that 20.3% by weight of the overall composition was constituted of phosphate esters containing a phenyl moiety. However, the butyl diphenyl phosphate content was less than 1% by weight. Triphenyl phosphate content was essentially nil.

EXAMPLE 2

A second aircraft hydraulic fluid composition was prepared in the manner generally described in Example 1. The composition of this fluid is set forth in Table 3.

TABLE 3
Basis:
100 Gram Basis: 80 Gallon
Batch Batch
Component Grams Grams/Pounds
Tributyl Phosphate 50.5988 152,999.3/337.3
Dibutyl Phenyl 24.0947 72,862.3/106.63
Phosphate of
Low Diphenyl
Content (Less Than
2% By Weight)
Methacrylate Ester      22,684.9
Viscosity Index      gSLDS
Improver (PA6477,      Total
43.8% solids/56.2%
tributyl phosphate)
3,4 Epoxycyclohexane 6.3 19,051/42
Carboxylate
FC98Potassium .05 151.2/
Perfluorooctylsulfonate
(FC98)
Benzotriazole Type .05 151.2/
Copper Corrosion
Inhibitor
(P57068, Petrolite;
(50% Active)
Iron Corrosion Inhibitor .05 151.2/
(90-31001, Petrolite
(50% Active), EX1663
Dye .001 3.024/
Potassium Phenate .035 105.84/
Bis-(3,5-di-tert-butyl 0.90 2,722/6
4-hydroxyphenyl) methane
(Ethanox  ® 702)
Di(p-octylphenyl)amine .45 1,361/3
Dow-Corning .0005 1,512/
Antifoam
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol .25 756/1.667

This composition also exhibited a density of 0.996 g/cc at a temperature of 25° C. Of the source of dibutyl phenyl phosphate, 84.751% by weight was constituted of esters which contained no phenyl moiety. The overall composition contained 20.3% by weight of phosphate esters having a phenyl moiety, but less than 1% by weight butyl diphenyl phosphate and essentially no triphenyl phosphate.

Set forth in Table 4 are a partial elemental analysis and measured physical properties of the compositions of Examples 1 and 2. These data establish that the fluid composition of Examples 1 and 2 meet or exceed the airframe manufacturers' specification, for properties needed to qualify a product for use as an aircraft hydraulic fluid.

TABLE 4
BATCH 1 BATCH 2
COLOR PASS PASS
CHLORINE, PPM 20 21
K+ 106 99
S 57 83
Ca <1 <1
Na 1.4 1.5
SP.G. .9972 .9975
VISC. 210 F. CST 4.75 4.81
100 13.65 13.91
−65 1635 1628
MOISTURE .10 .12
NEUT NO .01 .02
POUR PT. ° F. <−80 <−80
AIT. F 850 920
FLASH PT. 350 360
FIRE PT. 360 390
CONDUCTIVITY .65 .55
OXIRANE NO. .39 .40
FOAM SEQ 1 170/65 180/20
2  30/10  40/44
3  80/35 140/56
PARTICLE COUNT 5-15 7247 3116
15-25 1444 513
25-50 460 180
50-100 75 53
>100 14 10
SILTING INDEX 1.18 1.05

EXAMPLE 3

Tests were conducted comparing the thermal, oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the hydraulic fluid compositions of Examples 1 and 2 with commercially available hydraulic fluids. In each of these tests, a 301 stainless steel tube was filled to 80% capacity with the fluid to be tested. The temperature was maintained constant in each test. Compartative tests were run at 50° F. and 275° F., and further tests of the composition of the invention were run at 300° F. In all tests, five corrosion coupons were immersed in the fluid.

In some of the tests, the head space in the tube was filled with air, in others it was filled with nitrogen. After each tube was filled with the appropriate test composition, it was capped and heated to a predetermined test temperature and maintained at that temperature so that hydrolytic stability at such temperature could be determined. Each tube was monitored over time and samples were taken to follow trends in the fluid's chemical composition, in particular the concentration of the acid scavenger (epoxide) present in the sample. When the epoxide is 100% depleted, the fluid is typically degraded to the point that its usefulness as an aircraft hydraulic fluid has essentially been exhausted. As epoxide depletion approached 100%, test specimens were titrated for acidity. When the neutralization number of the fluid reached 1.5 or greater, the test was halted.

Illustrated in FIGS. 1 to 3 are epoxide depletion curves for the compositions of the invention as compared to previously available aircraft hydraulic fluids. In these curves, and in those relating to the further examples set forth below, the legends “W17” and “W17R” designate a composition of Table 1 or 2 above. “2495B1” refers specifically to the composition of Table 1, and “2495B2” to the composition of Table 2. “H4A” refers to commercial hydraulic fluid sold by Chevron under the trade designation “Hyjet IVA®.” “Epox A” means that the test was run with air in the head space of the stainless steel tube, so that the test specimen was exposed to thermal, hydrolytic, and oxidative effects. “Epox T” means that the head space contained nitrogen, so that the test primarily measured thermal hydrolytic effects only.

EXAMPLE 4

Further thermal, hydrolytic, and oxidative stability tests were conducted on the compositions of Example 1 and 2. These tests were carried out generally in the manner described in Example 3, except that 0.5% moisture was incorporated in the test samples to determine the effect of moisture on thermal stability. Test temperatures were 250° F. and 275° F. The results of these tests are plotted in FIGS. 4 and 5.

EXAMPLE 5

Additional thermal, oxidative, and hydrolytic stability tests comparing the compositions of the invention with those previously available in the art were conducted in sealed pyrex tubes. In certain of the tests, corrosion coupons were immersed in the liquid contained in the pyrex tube. Except for the use of pyrex rather than stainless steel tubes, the tests were conducted in essentially the manner described in Example 3. Both the compositions of the invention and comparative fluids were tested at 300° F. in the presence of 0.1 to 0.5% moisture with five corrosion coupons immersed in the test samples. The results of these tests are set forth in FIGS. 6 to 8. Additional tests on the compositions of the invention were conducted at 375° F. without moisture addition. The results of these tests are set forth in FIG. 9.

EXAMPLE 6

Further thermal, oxidative, and hydrolytic stability tests were conducted generally in the manner described in Example 3, except that trichloroethane was added, in varying amounts, to the test specimens in order to determine the effect on stability. Test temperatures were 275° F. and 300° F. The results of the tests of this example are set forth in FIGS. 10 and 11.

EXAMPLE 7

The oxidation and corrosion resistance of the fluid compositions of Examples 1 and 2 was compared with that of previously available aircraft hydraulic fluids by testing in accordance with federal test method FTM5308.7 This test severely stresses the fluid with regard to oxidation stability.

In each test the fluid was charged to a glass tube and tested in accordance with FTM 5308.7. The fluid was heated to a fixed temperature of 350° F. after which dried air was purged through the test fluid at a rate of 5 liters per hour. Samples were taken every 24 hours, or more frequently, and the test was halted when the neutralization number of the fluid reached 1.5 or greater. The results of the tests in this Example are illustrated in FIG. 12.

EXAMPLE 8

Because erosion is a form of electrochemical corrosion, erosion characteristics of a hydraulic fluid composition can be measured by wall currents obtained during flow of the fluid through small simulated orifices similar to those in a test servo valve. Using a standard erosion test apparatus, tests were conducted comparing the erosion properties of the compositions of Examples 1 and 2 with aircraft hydraulic fluid compositions previously available to the art. In this test system, favorable erosion properties were indicated by low wall currents and the most favorable characteristics are indicated by a negative wall current. Set forth in Table 5 is a summary of the data obtained in testing the compositions of the invention and those previously available commercially.

Further erosion tests were conducted on various functional fluid compositions after storage in glass containers at contact with air at 225° F. Set forth in Table 6 are the results of these tests for samples stored for the indicated number of hours.

In these tables, two measurements are reported for conductivity of the specimen, one taken by applicant's assignee and the other by an outside testing laboratory. Iw designates wall current, it designates threshold current, and Rv is the rate of erosion. Rv is related to Iw and it by the function:

Rv=150Iw−18it

In Tables 5 and 6, the term “LD4” refers to the product sold under the trademark “Skydrol® LD-4” by Monsanto; “SKY500B” and “B4” refer to another functional fluid product available from Monsanto under the trade designation of “Skydrol® 500B4”; “LD5” refers to the composition of the invention; “FC96”“FC96 refers to an antierosion agent comprising a potassium salt of perfluorohexylsulfonic acid; “Ca+2” refers to the presence of Ca+2 di(perfluoromethylsulfonate) in a tested fluid; “AO” means that an antioxidant was present, typically a combination of Ionol and a hindered polyphenol such as bis(3,5-di-t-butylhydroxyphenyl)methane; “X1” with reference to the antierosion in LD4 means that the antierosion agent FC98 is present in the standard commercial concentration; “X2” and “X3” meant that the FC98 concentration has been doubled or tripled; “TBP” refers to tributyl phosphate; “DBPP” refers to dibutyl phenyl phosphate; “TEHP” refers to triethylhexyl phosphate; “Si—HC” refers to a tetraalkyl silane composition; “HT” is used to designate Skydrol® HT, a functional fluid formulation that has been sold by applicant's assignee; “TiBP” refers to triisobutyl phosphate; “FC98” refers to an antierosion agent comprising a potassium salt of perfluorooctylsulfonic acid a mixture of a potassium salt of perfluoroethyl cyclohexyl sulfonate, a potassium salt of perfluoromethyl cyclohexyl sulfonate, a potassium salt of perfluorodimethyl cyclohexyl sulfonate, and a potassium salt of perfluorocyclohexyl sulfonate; “EXI 663” refers to a benzotriazole Cu corrosion inhibitor; 31001 refers to a Petrolite Fe corrosion inhibitor; HALS refers to a hindered amine light stabilizer; “H4A” refers to various samples of the functional fluid sold commercially by Chevron under the trade designation Hyjet IVA; “W6”, “W7”, “W8,” etc. refer to the compositions of the invention; “ERT” means the specimen had been used in Erosion Resistance Tests; and “ECT” means the specimen had been used in Erosion Control Tests.

TABLE 5
EROSION TEST DATA SUMMARY
Independent
Lab Cond. MCC Cond Iw Il Rv
Sample ID μMHO/cm μMHO/cm μA μA/cm2 cm3/min/h
LD4, Duplicate 8/88 0.370 0.410 0.036 2.650 −12.000
LD4 0.360 0.350 0.046 1.200 −15.000
LD4, W/FC98X2 0.640 0.620 0.012 6.000 −106.000
LD4[FC96.250 PPM] 0.240 0.320 0.110 0.310 11.000
LD4[FC96.1250 PPM] 0.780 0.810 0.089 2.350 −28.000
LD4[FC96.2500 PPM] 1.200 1.220 0.061 4.100 −65.000
LD4[FC98.73 PPM] 0.190 0.240 0.086 0.700 0.000
LD4[500 PPM, Ca + 2.] 0.670 0.750 −0.005 13.000 −235.000
LD4[1000 PPM Ca + 2.] 0.980 0.940 −0.003 <18.000 NEG
LD4[1500 PPM, Ca + 2.] 1.200 1.150 −0.003 <19.000 NEG
HY JET IV 1.000 −0.034 1.850 −40.000
B4[500B4] 0.300 0.019 1.150 −18.000
TBP 0.008 0.450 0.038 67.000
DBPP 0.008 0.460 0.094 67.000
TEHP 0.001 0.021 <3
Si-HC 0.000 <0.0001 <.0015
HT, FC98 0.037 0.690 0.410 0.210 58.000
HT, FC98X1 0.630 1.020 0.000 2.850 −54.000
TiBP 0.001 NV 0.127 0.007 20.000
LD5[FC98.250 PPM] 0.150 0.071 1.250 −12.000
LD5[FC98.750 PPM] 0.250 0.015 1.400 −23.000
LD5[FC98.250 PPM] 0.140 −0.017 −0.061 NEG
.02% H2O
LD5[SAME] .1% H2O 0.150 −0.007 −0.375 NEG
LD5[SAME] .2% H2O 0.150 −0.055 −0.375 NEG
LD5[SAME] .3% H2O 0.160 −0.085 −0.400 NEG
LD4, .1% H2O [.51%] 0.370 0.001 2.000
LD4, .2% H2O [.45%] 0.380 0.007 1.700
LD4, .3% H2O [.56%] 0.400 0.014 1.800
H4A 0.930 0.096 16.450 −262.000
H4, Used 0.300 0.011 2.300 −40.000
LD4, Used 0.390 −0.053 0.990 −26.000
SKY500A 0.039 0.185 0.600 16.950
H4A#2, Used 0.450 0.010 3.400 −59.700
H4A#1, Used 0.510 0.010 2.800 −48.900
H4A#3, Used 0.670 0.020 2.400 −40.200
LD4, Ca[S03C4F9]2 0.570 −0.020 >11 −201.000
H4A#5, Used + Cl 0.670 0.020 2.400 −40.000
H4A#5, Used @ 195 H, 0.770 0.050 7.400 −126.000
NO Cl
H4A#5, Used + Cl .500 H 0.440 0.026 0.260 −1.000
W6, Fresh 0.620 0.630 0.150 1.600 −6.000
Used-600 h. 0.630 0.740 −0.021 1.600 −55.000
W7, Fresh 0.490 0.590 0.140 1.300 −2.000
Used-600 h. 0.610 0.760 −0.013 2.200 −42.000
W8, Fresh 0.580 0.560 0.167 0.580 0.140
Used-600 h. 0.880 0.760 0.004 2.250 −40.000
W9, Fresh 0.540 0.640 0.230 1.400 11.000
W10, Fresh 0.310 0.380 0.230 1.400 9.000
Used-600 h. 0.730 0.750 0.036 2.000 −31.000
W11, Fresh 0.500 0.580 0.240 1.080 17.000
W12, Fresh 0.560 0.590 0.160 3.200 −34.000
Used-600 h. 0.670 0.690 0.160 2.500 −18.000
W13, Fresh 0.670 0.690 0.160 2.500 −21.000
Used-600 h. 0.970 1.000 0.001 2.750 −48.000
W14, Fresh 0.52 0.55 0.17 9.10 −138.00
Used-600 h. 0.67 0.73 −0.01 1.75 −33.00
W15, Fresh 0.51 0.54 0.16 0.63 13.00
Used-600 h. 0.62 0.75 −0.02 1.60 −31.00
W15, Fresh, Erosion 0.07 0.54 −0.01 1.75 −33.00
Control
Used-600 h. 0.75
W16, Fresh 0.670
W17, Fresh, Abex + 200 0.580 0.180 1.200 8.500
PPM Cl
Used-600 h. 0.560 −0.028 0.720 −17.000
Used, ERT 0.610 −0.016 LT. .29 GT. −8
Used, ECT 0.66 −0.04 LT. .35 GT. −13
LD4 + FC910 0.230 0.026 1.500 −23.000
LD4 + H4A-AO'S 0.350 0.032 0.920 −12.000
LD4 + HALS, NO-FC98 0.015 0.120 0.140 16.000
LD4 + HALS + FC98 0.410 0.071 0.490 0.200
LD5, W17.2X − FC98 0.420 0.110 2.250 −24.000
ONLY
NBP4419198
+50 PPM EX1663 0.430 0.100 1.060 −4.000
+250 PPM EX1663 0.430 0.110 1.070 −3.000
+1000 PPM EX1663 0.450 0.120 1.120 −3.000
+50 PPM 31001 0.420 0.120 1.060 −1.000
+250 PPM 31001 0.430 0.100 1.080 −4.000
+5 PPM KP 0.450 0.170 0.510 16.000
+350 KP 0.700 0.210 0.800 17.000
+500 PPM DODPA 0.430 0.120 1.080 −1.000
+5000 PPM DODPA 0.420 0.120 1.080 −1.000
LD5, W17, NO AEA 0.023 0.230 LT. .01 GT. 34
NBP4419199 + 160 PPM 0.31 −0.01 GT. 12 LT. −220
Ca(SO3C4F9)2

TABLE 6
Erosion Test Data After Oven Heating
225 F. In Glass; Air @ Start Only; Includes 1020 Steel and
Cu Corr. Coupons
Independent MCC
Lab Cond. Cond. Iw Il Rv
μmHo/cm. μmHO/cm μA μA m3/min/h.
LD-4
Hours
100.000 0.390 0.039 2.500 −39.000
200.00 0.410 −0.009 0.200 −5.000
300.00 0.410 −0.001 0.170 −4.000
600.00 0.360 0.012 0.410 −6.000
H4A
Hours
100.000 1.200 0.087 0.097 11.000
200.000 1.100 0.083 0.330 6.000
300.00 1.000 0.088 0.280 8.000
600.00 1.100 0.086 0.350 7.000

EXAMPLE 9

The compositions of Examples 1 and 2 were compared with an available commercial hydraulic fluid in a storage test at 375° F. in the presence of iron. After 21 hours storage at such conditions, analyses were made of the solids build-up in the fluid. More particularly, measurements were made of the build-up of metal solids, other solids, and total solids. The results of these tests are illustrated in FIG. 13.

EXAMPLE 10

Aircraft hydraulic fluids of the invention were formulated, substantially in the manner described in Example 1, and subjected to the Erosion Resistance Test of Boeing Material Specification for Fire Resistant Hydraulic Fluid. BMS 3-11G (Rev. Jul. 17, 1986). Set forth in Tables 7, 7A, and 7B are the compositions of the fluids tested. Set forth in Table 8 are the results of the erosion tests. Set forth in Tables 9 and 9A is a comparison of the properties of the fluids before and after subjection to the erosion tests. In these tables. “HF 400,” “HF411,” and “HF-460” refer to poly(butyl/hexyl methacrylate) viscosity index improvers. In each entry, the table states the butyl methacrylate polymer solids content, the balance being trialkyl phosphate solvent. “AEA” refers to an antierosion agent, “PANA” designates phenyl-α-napthylamine; “APANA” designates an alkylphenyl-α-naphthylamine. “DODPA” refers to di(p-octylphenyl)amine; “P58526 Petrolite” is an iron corrosion inhibitor, “DC 200, 100 CST” is a Dow-Corning antifoam; “SARK O” refers to the N-methyl-N-1-OXO-9-octadenyl) glycine sold under the trade designation “Sarkosyl-O” by Ciba-Geigy; “AMINE O” refers to the 2-(8-heptadecenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole-1-ethanol sold under the trade designation “Amino-O” by Ciba-Geigy; “90-31001” refers to Petrolite 31001; and “FH-132” refers to diphenyldithioethane.

TABLE 7
FORMULATIONS
VARIABLE W-1 W-2 W-3 W-4 W-5
TiBp 54.29a 53.33a 54.58a 52.61a 39.8653a
DiBPP, 66.3% PH 29.90b 29.92b 29.90b 29.88b 26.45b
PA6385 8.52 8.47 8.21
PA6703 10.16 10.16
MCS 1562 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3
AEA, FC98 .05 .05 .05 .05 .05
P57068, PET (50% .05 .05 .05 .05 .05
ACTIVE)
DYE .00 .001 .001 .001 .001
KP .03 .035 .035 .035 .035
E702 .90 .45 .45 .9
DODPA .45 .45 .15 .45 .45
IONOL .25 .25 .25 .25
DC 200, 100 .005 .0005 .0005 .0005 .0005
CST
VANLUBE .025 .025 0.025
RI-G
L130 1.
E330 .3 1.05
L57 .4
E703 .3 .35
FORMULATIONS
W15A W17 W18
TBP 39.8653 49.3685 39.8653
DBPP, LOW DI-PHENYL, ROD/C2 35.76 26.45 26.45
(D56.8P)
DBPP, LOW DI-PHENYL, ROD/C4
HF400, 43.6% S/7.5% FINAL 17.36 17.36
HF411, 35.5% s/3.75% FINAL 6.41
HF460, 58.5% s/3.75% FINAL 10.42
MCS 1562 5.8 6.3 6.3
AEA, FC98 .05 .05 .05
P57068, PETROLITE (50% ACTIVE) .04 .05 .05
EX1-663
DYE .001 .001 .001
KP .035 .035 .035
E702 .76 .9 .9
DODPA . .45 .45
IONOL . .25 .25
A-PANA .85 . .
P58528, PETROLITE (50% ACTIVE) . .05 .05
90-31001
DC 200, 100 CST .0005 .0005 .0005
SARK O .004 . .
AMINE O .004 . .
FH132 .25
aTriisobutyl phosphate
bDiisobutyl phenyl phosphate

TABLE 7A
FORMULATIONS
VARIABLES W6 W7 W8
TBP, REDIST. 45.835 . .
TBP . 50.844 50.8935
DBPP, LOW DI-PHENYL, ROD/C2 30. 25. 25.
DBPP, LOW DI-PHENYL, ROD/C4 . . .
HF400, 43.6% S/7.5% FINAL . . .
HF411, 35.5% S/3.75% FINAL 10.42 10.275 10.275
HF460, 58.5% S/3.75% FINAL 6.41 6.41 6.41
MCS 1562 5.8 5.8 5.8
AEA, FC98 .05 .05 .05
P57068, PETROLITE .055 .1 .1
(50% ACTIVE)
DYE .001 .001 .001
KP .035 .035 .01
E702 .761 . .
PANA .625 . .
APANA . .76 .9
DODPA . .625 .45
P58528, PETROLITE . .1 .1
(50% ACTIVE)
DC 200, 100 CST . . .0005
SARK O .004 . .
AMINE O .004 . .
(1)KP, SELFMADE KP
2% BDPP IN DBPP

TABLE 7B
FORMULATION
VARIABLES W15
TBP 39.8653
DBPP, LOW DI-PHENYL, ROD/C2 35.76(D/56.8P)
DBPP, LOW DI-PHENYL, ROD/C4
HF400, 43.6% s/7.5% FINAL
HF411, 35.5% s/3.75% FINAL 6.41
HF460, 58.5% s/3.75% FINAL 10.42
MCS 1562 5.8
AEA, FC98 .05
P57068, PETROLITE (50% ACTIVE) .04
EX1-663
DYE .001
KP .035
E702 E702.76
PANA .85
P58528, PETROLITE (50% ACTIVE)
90-31001
DC 200, 100 CST .0005
SARK O .004
AMINE O .004

TABLE 8
RUN NUMBER 3 4 5 6 7 8
RIG USED A A A C A C
CASE DRAIN TEMPERATURE (° F.) 290 290 290 315 315 315
RESERVOIR TEMPERATURE 275 275 275 300 300 300
Cl ADDED, PPM 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL RUN TIME, HR 468 368 570 560 475 420
OPERATING PROBLEMS O rings O rings shut none pump pump
downs water water
BOEING VALVE DATA
SLIDE AND SLEEVE NO. W004 W004 W002 W011 W008 W011
PORT NUMBERS 5.7 6.8 6.8 1.3 1.3 2.4
FLOW INCREASE, cc/min. erratic erratic erratic 40 200 200
ACCEPTABLE? no no no yes marginal marginal
EDGE APPEARANCE slight slight slight shaded slight slight
wear wear wear wear wear
PUMP DATA
MANUFACTURER Vickers Vickers Vickers Abex Vickers Abex
SERIAL NO. 491761 491761 491761 166495 482891 166495
HRS AT START 0 468 856 1000 0 1562
@225 F.
HRS TO FALURE 468 856 1426 no 476 1980
failure
CAUSE OF FAILURE O ring O ring bearings bearings bearings
shaft seal
SECOND PUMP (IF USED)
MFR
S/N
HRS AT START
HRS TO FAILURE
15 15 15
RUN NUMBER ERT ECT ERT
RIG USED C A C
CASE DRAIN TEMPERATURE (° F.) 315 275 300
RESERVOIR TEMPERATURE 300 280 284
Cl ADDED, PPM 1000 1000 200
TOTAL RUN TIME, HR 274 245 500
OPERATING PROBLEMS none none shaft
seal
BOEING VALVE DATA
SLIDE AND SLEEVE NO. W007 W022 W007
PORT NUMBERS 6.8 5.7 1.3
FLOW INCREASE, cc/min. extreme extreme 300
ACCEPTABLE? no no marginal
EDGE APPEARANCE severe severe slight
wear wear shading
PUMP DATA
MANUFACTURER Abex Vickers Abex
SERIAL NO. 183629 491761 115815
HRS AT START 0 0 0
HRS TO FALURE 274 230 320
CAUSE OF FAILURE Ou Ou shaft
transfer transfer seal
SECOND PUMP (IF USED)
MFR Vickers Abex
S/N 491763 228188
HRS AT START 0
492891
both
destroyed
HRS TO FAILURE 130
17 17 18
17 17 BASE 17 17 BMS 18 BASE
RUN NUMBER ERT ECT CASE AIRBUS @225 F. PUMPING ERT CASE
RIG USED A A C C B HP B A
CASE DRAIN TEMPERATURE (° F.) 300 275 300 290 240 284 300 300
RESERVOIR TEMPERATURE 284 260 284 273 225 235 284 284
Cl ADDED, PPM 200 400 0 0 1000 0 200 0
TOTAL RUN TIME, HR 500 330 800 1000 1000 500 500 760
OPERATING PROBLEMS none none pump none none none none none
water
BOEING VALVE DATA
SLIDE AND SLEEVE NO. W006 W022 W020 W020 W017 not used W017 W016
PORT NUMBERS 2.4 1.3 1.3 5.7 6.8 2.4 2.4
FLOW INCREASE, cc/min. 100 500 0 40 170 40 136
ACCEPTABLE? yes yes yes yes yes yes yes
EDGE APPEARANCE slight worn slight slight slight slight slight
shading shading wear wear wear wear
PUMP DATA
MANUFACTURER Vickers Vickers Abex Abex Vickers Abex Vickers Vickers
SERIAL NO. 491761 491763 183629 226153 492891 L-1976 491762 491761
HRS AT START 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
HRS TO FALURE no no 676 1000 no no no no
failure failure failure failure failure failure
CAUSE OF FAILURE bearings bearings
SECOND PUMP (IF USED)
MFR Abex
S/N 116815
HRS AT START 0
HRS TO FAILURE 117

TABLE 9
SOME DATA FROM THE ANAL. FLUIDS:
MCS2510- WLFR WLU W2.FR W2.U W3.FR W3.U W4.FR W4.U W5.FR W5.U (@500 HRS)
SP. GR. .9868 .9925 .9877 .9890 .9896 .9845 .9902 .9898 .9892 .9905
VISC 210 3.65 2.54 3.69 2.19 3.32 2.19 4.2 4.28 2.99 2.49
100 11.47 9.05 11.94 7.24 10.47 6.93 12.97 8.46 8.99 7.96
−65 3954 5754 4963 3302 3632 2685 3893 2158 2317 2421
NN .02 ND .01 1.05 .01 .04 .03 1.86 .01 .09
% H2O .12 .04 .13 .11 .08 .05 .11 .02 .15 .07
AlT 930 930 94 0930 940 920 960 950 930 940
FL. PT 330 265 310 290 315 300 350 350 335 319
Fl. PT. 350 335 340 330 355 350 370 390 365 381
OX OX. TD TD .41 TD .38 TD .39 .14 .61 .36
COND. .44 .28 .90 .45 .37 .36 1.63 .41 .43
−% EPOX 86.5 65.3 22.1 78.9 57.8
Cl 15 154 25 173 12 257 7 204 18 136
HRS 580 502 579 334 933
TEMP. F. 290/284 293/284 297/290 278/270 300/280
PUMP RIG A A B A C
AEA FC98 2XSTD 2XSTD 2XSTD 2XSTD 2XSTD
ICAP DATA: WLFR WLU W2.FR W2.U W3.FR W3.U W4.FR W4.U W5.FR W5.U
Na 5.23 28.3 2.5 8.1 4.7 8.8 3.2 14.9 3.9 8.7
K 74.6 87. 71.1 64.3 91.1 49.4 104.5 94.6 110.3 34.9
S 58.4 56.8 58.3 59.1 61.5 73. 79.3 79.5 63.9 73.8
Cu 1.32 720 <.125 142.1 1.1 .8 <.13 1112 <.13 6.7
Fe <.5 134.9 <.125 11.9 <.25 <.5 <.13 140.3 <.13 1.3
Mn <.5 1.53 <.125 <.5 <.25 <.5 <.13 .86 <.13 <.5
Zn <.5 93.9 <.125 14.28 <.25 <.5 <.13 131. <.13 .9
Al <.5 2.11 <.125 <.5 <.59 <.5 <.13 <.5 <.41 <.5
Cd <.5 7.25 <.125 1.54 <.25 <.5 <.13 6.62 <.13 <.5
FOAM 35/23 ND ND ND ND 40/19 ND 160/91 80/34 50/21
TEST
(250/100)F
(400/250U)
W6.FRESH .−USED W7.FRESH .−USED W8.FRESH .−USED
SP. GR. 1.0015 1.0048 .9991 1.0003 .9993 .9995
VISC. 210 4.62 3.02 4.73 2.38 4.80 2.70
100 13.48 9.28 13.59 7.09 13.80 7.98
−65 1523 1181 1456 776 1471 809
NN .02 1.09 .13 .14 .14 .212
% H2O .07 .04 .11 .02 .16 .015
AlT 910 950 870 925 900 9700
FL. PT 320 315 320 300 330 3100
Fl. PT 360 365 360 350 375 3500
OX. OX. .39 ND .41 .14 .40 .118
COND. .63 .74 .59 .76 .56 .768
−% EPOX 0 85.6 0 57.6 0 69.4
Cl 11 11 10 15 10
HRS 124/438 475 418
TEMP. F. 275/300 300 300
AEA. FC98 2XSTD 2X STD 2X STD
PUMP RIG C A− C
O&C LIFE 72 120 120
SPAN @ 350 F., HRS
ICAP DATA: W6/F /U: W7/F /U: W8/F /U:
Na <.5 2.58 <.5 2.07 <.5 3.1
K 112.7 54.95 98.06 83.54 72.58 49.15
S 96.53 103.2 94.97 144.5 81.94 75.17
Cu <.5 1.13 <.5 23.5 <.5 3.37
Fe <.5 <.5 <.5 <.5 <.5 1.63
Zn <.5 1.42 <.5 6.96 <.5 17.94
Al 1.17 1.11 <.54 <.5 <.5 <.5
Cd <.5 <.5 <.5 .54 <.5 <.5
FOAM TEST 500/1500, 35/15; 320/>600, 20/6 ;180/83, 60/19
(250/100)F
−INCR. IN 350 − 300 = 50 600 − 410 = 190 600 − 300 = 300
INT. LEAKAGE
CC'S/MIN
0 HR · RUN END 350 − 320 = 30 600 − 390 = 210 600 − 500 = 100
200< <500 HRS.
EROSION DE-ALLOYED DE-ALLOYED DE-ALLOYED
TYPE
VIA:SEM X ND ND
;VISUAL X X X
EROSIVE.PUMP NO YES(1) YES(1)
.BECK NO NO NO NO YES NO
(1)LESS EROSION THAN H4A AT 225 F. FOR 600 HRS.
SOME DATA FROM THE ANAL. FLUIDS:
W15 USED USED W17 USED USED W17 USED
FRESH ECT ERT FRESH B1 B2 ERT ECT ERT
SP. GR. .9996 .9992 .9992 .9990 .9978 .9976 .9990 1.0314 1.0005
VISC. 210 5.23 2.68 2.68 4.94 4.97 4.91 2.74 2.54 2.46
100 15.19 7.87 7.87 14.12 14.43 14.28 8.26 7.77 7.27
−65 1576 779 799 1426 1777 1719 1024 1289 769
mn .03 .66 .64 .02 .02 .02 .06 .3 .05
% H2O .14 .02 .02 .15 .14 .10 <.01 <.01 .02
AlT 890 910 NA 840 NA NA 870 970 NA
FL. PT 330 305 315 350 330 325 320 340 315
Fl. PT. 375 350 350 385 365 365 355 380 350
OX. OX. .38 .02 .09 .46 .41 .41 <.01 <.01 .11
COND. .54 .75 .71 .54 .66 .66 .73 .8 .68
−% EPOX 0 82.1 65.2 0 0 0 57.3 80 56.4
Cl 11 1290 1334 7 5 4.4 263 237 183
HRS 0 245 264 0 0 0 498 342 418
TEMP. F. 262 315 300/284 275/262 300/284
AO'S. RAT. 7 .9E702 APANA .9 .45 .25−
AEA FC98 2XSTD 2XSTD
NEW AEA NO NO NO NO NO NO NO
−INCR. IN <600
INT. LEAKAGE
CC'S/MIN
0 HR · RUN END
200< <500 HRS
EROSION
TYPE
VIA:SEM
;VISUAL
EROSIVE.PUMP YES YES
.BECK YES
PUMP RIG C C C B A C#1
O&c LIFE
SPAN @ 350 F., HRS 120 NA
ICAP DATA: W15/F W15/U W15/U W17/F B1 B2 W17/U W17/U W17/.U
Na .94317 3.063 .606 .56 <.5 <.5 2.05 2.39 <.5
K 84.14 601.9 46.99 76.15 82.4 85.1 35 45.5 46.62
S 79.39 64.14 87.5 59.11 63.9 61.9 60.6 561.7 69.2
Cu <.5 1213 9.811 <.5 <.5 <.5 9.32 95.76 11.34
Fe <.5 43.53 293.3 <.5 <.5 <.5 8.24 60.89 50.4
Mn <.5 .435 1.775 <.5 <.5 <.5 <.5 <.5 <.5
Zn <.5 <.5 58.02 <.5 1.76 2.16 1.09 13.22 14.17
Al .94 2.475 27.2 1.59 <.5 <.5 <.5 <.5 <.5
Cd <.5 <.5 <.5 <.5 <.5 <.5 <.5 <.5 <.5
W15/F W15/U W17/F W17/U W17/U W17/U
FOAM 280/170 440/268 NA 210/93 70/25 55/18 60/20
TEST 240/130
(250/100)F
(400/250)U

EXAMPLE 11

Formulations were prepared which substantially corresponded to the compositions of Example 1, except that the trialkyl phosphate and dialkyl aryl phosphate components were triisobutyl phosphate and diisobutyl phenyl phosphate, respectively, and the compositions varied with respect to the compound included as an iron corrosion inhibitor. Erosion valve leakage tests were run on these compositions in the manner described in Example 9, and epoxide depletion tests were conducted on these compositions generally in the manner described in Example 1. The results of these tests are set forth in Table 10.

The table indicates that composition M-1 used a “combination” of antioxidants. Initially, M-1 contained Ionol, Ethanox 702 and di(p-octylphenyl)amine (DODPA). After the erosion test had progressed for 25 hours, further amounts of Ethanox 702 and DODPA were added to the composition. At 153 hours, a phenolic antioxidant was added; at 267 hours, an amine antioxidant was added; and at 503 hours a mixture of Ethanox 703 and Ethanox 330 was added. Ethanox 703 is a trade designation for 2,6-di-tert-butyl-α-dimethylamino-p-cresol. The phenolic antioxidant added at 153 hours was a mixture of t-butyl phenol derivatives sold under the trade designation Iganox L-130 by Ciba-Geigy; and the amine antioxidant added at 267 hours was a reaction product of N-phenylbenzylamine and 2,4,4-trimethylpentene, sold under the trade designation L-57 by Ciba-Geigy.

TABLE 10
TESTS
Erosion Test
Additives Iron Corrosion Erosion Valve Epoxide Depletion
Run Basestock Phenolics Amines Inhibitor Leakage @ 300° F.
W-1 TIBP/DIBPP Continuation Combination None <100 cc >95%a  
W-2 TIBP/DIBPP E703/E330 DODPA None at the start. >200 cc 65%a
At 22 hrs.
Petrolite 31001 added.
W-3 TIBP/DIBPP Ionol/E702 DODPA Vanlube   100 cc 22%a
R1-G
W-4 TIBP/DIBPP Ionol/E702 DODPA Vanlube 78.9%b  
R1-G
W-5 TIBP/DIBPP Ionol/E702/E330 DODPA Vanlube 58%a
R1-G
aBoeing BMS-3-11G Erosion Resistance Test
bBoeing, BMS-3-11G, Erosion Control Test

These data and those of Example 9 demonstrate that the iron corrosion resistance agents Petrolite 31001 and vanlube RI-G are both satisfactory with respect to effect on erosion. Neither appears to significantly accelerate erosion, and the compositions containing these additives exhibit satisfactory antierosion properties.

The combination of a triisobutyl phosphate/diisobutyl phenyl phosphate base stock with the 4,5-dihydroimidazole derivative of Vanlube RI-G provides a remarkable and unexpectedly favorable effect on the stability of the composition at elevated temperature. This effect is not seen with iron corrosion inhibitors other than 4,5-dihydroimidazoles of the above described type.

EXAMPLE 12

Formulations of fluid compositions were prepared in accordance with the procedure described in Example 1 using the quantities of materials and components set forth in Table 11 to demonstrate the superior characterizing properties exhibited by the fluid compositions of the present invention. The characterizing properties—determined in accordance with the procedures set forth in the Boeing Material Specification for Fire Resistant Hydraulic Fluid. BMS 2-11G (Rev. Jul. 17, 1986) also are set forth in Table 11. In this table, “TBP” refers to tributyl phosphate; “TIBP” refers to triisobutyl phosphate; “DIBPP” refers to diisobutyl phenyl phosphate; “DBPP” refers to dibutyl phenyl phosphate; “DBPP (>99%)” refers to dibutyl phenyl phosphate of greater than 99% by weight purity; “S-154” refers to a fluid base stock component comprising about 42.8% triphenyl phosphate, about 41.7% tert-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate, about 12.8% di(tert-butylphenyl) phenyl phosphate, 1.3% tri(tert-butylphenyl) phosphate, and 1.4% light ends and other unidentified material, all such concentrations expressed by weight; “Kronitex 100” refers to tri(isopropylphenyl) phosphate commercially available from FMC Corporation; “6703”, “6770”, “6477”, and “6961-PMN” refer to poly(alkyl methacrylate) viscosity index improvers commercially available from Rohm and Haas Company; “HF411” and “HF460” refer to poly(butyl/hexyl methacrylate) viscosity index improvers, “C6-C10 polyacrylate” refers to a viscosity index improver, commercially available from Union Carbide Corporation; “FC-98” refers to an antierosion agent comprising a potassium salt of perfluorooctylsulfonic acid, also known as perfluorooctanesulfonic acid a mixture of a potassium salt of perfluoroethyl cyclohexyl sulfonate, a potassium salt of perfluoromethyl cyclohexyl sulfonate, a potassium salt of perfluorodimethyl cyclohexyl sulfonate, and a potassium salt of perfluorocyclohexyl sulfonate; “NH4PF6/Ca(SO3DF3)2” refers to an antierosion agent comprising a mixture of ammonium hexafluorophosphate (NH4PF6) and calcium di(perfluoromethanesulfonate) [Ca(SO3CF3)2]; “MCS 1562” refers to 2-ethylhexyl 3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate, an acid scavenger, described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,723,320; “ERL 4234” refers to 2-(3,4-epoxycyclohexyl)-5,5-spiro(3,4-epoxy)cyclohexane-m-dioxane, an acid scavenger, commercially available from Union Carbide Corporation; “DODPA” refers to di(p-octylphenyl)amine, an antioxidant; “Ionol” refers to 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol, an antioxidant, commercially available from Shell Chemical Company; “E-702” refers to bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)methane, an antioxidant, commercially available under the trade designation Ethanox® 702 from Ethyl Corporation; “E-330” refers to 1,3,5-trimethyl-2,4,6-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl hydroxyphenyl)benzene, an antioxidant, commercially available under the trade designation Ethanox® 330 from Ethyl Corporation; “KOPHEN” refers to potassium phenate; “P-57068” refers to a benzotriazole derivative, a copper corrosion inhibitor, commercially available under the trade designation Petrolite 57068 from Petrolite Corporation; “FH-132” refers to 1,2-di(phenylthio)ethane, a copper corrosion inhibitor, “P-31001” refers to an iron corrosion inhibitor, commercially available under the trade designation Petrolite 31001 from Petrolite Corporation; “Vanl RI-G” refers to the condensation product of 4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole and C16-C18 fatty acid commercially available under the trade designation Vanlube RI-G from Vanderbilt Company; “Sarkosyl-O” refers to N-methyl-N-(1-oxo-9-octadecenyl)glycine commercially available under the trade designation Sarkosyl®-O from Ciba-Geigy Corporation; and “Unamine C” refers to 1-hydroxyethyl-2-coca-imidazoline, an iron corrosion inhibitor.

TABLE 111
Skydrol ® I.D.42 Hyjet ® IVA3 14 24 35 46 57 68
Phosphate Ester Base Stock
TBP 50-60 72.60 67.00 67.00
TIBP 69.00 62.00 87.55 82.90
DIBPP 22.00 20.00 10.00 5.00
DBPP 30-35 22.30 22.30
DBPP (>99%)
S-154
Kronitex 100 11.80
Viscosity Index Improver
6703 4.65
6770 6.30 4.50 4.50
6477 7.50 7.50
6961-PMN
HF411  5-10
HF460
C6-C10 Polyacrylate 6.00
Anti-Erosion Agent
FC-98, ppm 0.005-1.00  500 500 500 500 250 250
NH4PF6/Ca(SO4CF3)2 0.078
Acid Scavenger (Epoxide)
MCS 1562 4-8 6.30 6.30 6.30 6.30 5.80 5.80
ERL 4234 1.9-2.3
Antioxidant
DODPA 1.00 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45
Ionol 1.00 0.50 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
E-702 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.45 0.45 0.45
E-330 0.45 0.45 0.45
KOPHEN, ppm 350 350 350 350
Copper Corrosion Inhibitor
P-57068 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
FH-132 0.13-1.00 0.50
Iron Corrosion Inhibitor
P-31001 0.05
Vant RI-G, ppm 250 250 250 250 250
Sarkosyl O
Unamine C 0.15
Water 0.23 0.14 0.15 0.15
Char. Properties
Acidity 0.09 0.02 0.1 0.1
Viscosity, cst
@−65° F. (−53.8° C.) 1185 1353 1777 3957 2720 1945 1778
100° F. (37.8° C.) 11.42 10.81 14.40 13.51 9.29 8.76 8.89
210° F. (98.9° C.) 3.93 3.62 5.00 4.28 3.09 2.95 3.03
Thermal Stability, hr @325° F. (162.8° C.) −300 677 420 1264 1251
Bulk Modulus, psi 221,000 246,000 212,000 201,000 201,000 211,000
Autoignition Temp., °F./°C. 880/471.1 800/426.7 870/465.6 950/510 950/510
79 810 911 1011 1111 1212 1313
Phosphate Ester Base Stock
TBP 65.51 69.10 84.35 84.35 84.40 84.61 86.60
TIBP
DIBPP 20.54 18.00
DBPP 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00
DBPP (>99%)
S-154
Kronitex 100
Viscosity Index Improver
6703 5.50 4.70 4.50 4.70 4.65 5.25
6770
6477 4.65
6961-PMN
HF411
HF460
C6-C10 Polyacrylate
Anti-Erosion Agent
FC-98, ppm 250 250 250 250 250 250 250
NH4PF6/Ca(SO4CF3)2
Acid Scavenger (Epoxide)
MCS 1562 6.30 6.00 6.00 5.80 5.80 5.80 6.00
ERL 4234
Antioxidant
DODPA 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45
Ionol 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
E-702 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45
E-330 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45
KOPHEN, ppm
Copper Corrosion Inhibitor
P-57068 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
FH-132
Iron Corrosion Inhibitor
P-31001 250 250 250 250 250 250 250
Vant RI-G, ppm
Sarkosyl O
Unamine C 0.09 0.15
Water
Char. Properties
Acidity 0.04 0.03
Viscosity, cst
@−65° F. (−53.8° C.) 2438 1822 1899 2045 1886 4226 1831
100° F. (37.8° C.) 11.15 9.46 8.86 9.09 9.05 12.11 9.47
210° F. (98.9° C.) 3.69 3.17 2.98 3.07 3.08 3.75 3.21
Thermal Stability, hr @325° F. (162.8° C.) 929 >900 1800
Bulk Modulus, psi 215,000 216,000 210,000 209,000 205,000
Autoignition Temp., °F./°C. 900/482.2 900/482.2 890/476.7 880/471.1 880/471.1
1Except as otherwise indicated, amounts of components are expressed as % by weight.
2Skydrol ® LD-4 aircraft hydraulic fluid; commercially available from Monsanto Company.
3Hyjet ® IVA aircraft hydraulic fluid; commercially available from Chevron International Oil Company.
4The phosphate ester base stock comprises 75.03% by weight TBP and 24.97% BY WEIGHT DBPP.
5The phosphate ester base stock comprises 75.82% TIBP and 24.18% by weight DIBPP.
6The phosphate ester base stock comprises 73.81% TIBP and 24.39% by weight DIBPP.
7The phosphate ester base stock comprises 89.75% TIBP and 10.25% by weight DIBPP.
8The phosphate ester base stock comprises 94.31% TIBP and 5.69% by weight DIBPP.
9The phosphate ester base stock comprises 76.13% TIBP and 23.87% by weight DBPP (>99%).
10The phosphate ester base stock comprises 79.33% TIBP and 20.67% by weight DBPP (>99%).
11The phosphate ester base stock comprises 96.57% TIBP, and 3.43% by weight triaryl phosphate [tri-phenyl phosphate (TPP) - 42.8%, tert-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (TBPDP) - 41.7%, di(tert-butylphenyl)phenyl phosphate (DTBPPP) - 12.8%, and tri(tert-butylphenyl)phosphate - 1.3% (TTBPP), and 1.4% light ends and other unindentified materials].
12The phosphate ester base stock comprises 96.58% TIBP and 3.42% by weight triaryl phosphate (42.8% TPP, 41.7% TBPDP, 12.8% DTBPPP, and 1.3% TTBPP).
13The phosphate ester base stock comprises 100.00% by weight of TIBP.

EXAMPLE 13

Tests were conducted to compare the hydrolytic stability of certain representative formulations set forth in Table 11 with commercially available hydraulic fluids to demonstrate the superior hydrolytic stability of the fluid compositions of the instant invention containing either or both the additive package suitable for use in fluid compositions of the instant invention and the isoalkyl phosphate ester-based base stocks and the isoalkyl phosphate ester/aryl phosphate ester-based base stocks. In each of the tests, a 301 stainless steel tube having dimensions of approximately 1.90 cm (0.75 in) I.D.×22.86 cm (9.0 in) length and a capacity of approximately 53 cc was filled to approximately 85% capacity (approximately 45 cc) with the fluid to be tested. The head space in the tube was filled with air. The tube was capped and heated to a predetermined test temperature—325° F. (162.7° C.)—and maintained at that temperature throughout the test. Each tube was monitored over time and samples were taken to follow trends in the fluid's chemical composition, in particular the concentration of the acid scavenger (epoxide) present in the sample. When the epoxide is 100% depleted, the fluid is typically degraded to the point that its usefulness as an aircraft hydraulic fluid has essentially been exhausted. An epoxide depletion approached 100%, test samples were titrated for acidity. When the neutralization number of the fluid reached 1.5 or greater, the test was halted and the number of hours recorded. The parameters and results are tabulated in Table 12.

TABLE 12
Fluid Hydrolytic Stability @ 325° F.
Stability, hr. @ % Water
Fluid (from Table 11) <0.2 (Neat) 0.5
Skydrol  ® LD-41 300 37
Hyjet  ® IVA2 200 28
 2 450 85
 5 1000  310 
11 >1000  350 
1Commercially available from Monsanto Company.
2Commercially available from Chevron International Oil Company.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US6703355 *Aug 3, 2001Mar 9, 2004Exxonmobil Research And Engineering CompanyFire resistant phosphate esters base stock, a viscosity index improver, an anticorrosion agent, and acid scavenger; aircraft use
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