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Publication numberUSRE37938 E1
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 09/320,440
Publication dateDec 17, 2002
Filing dateMay 26, 1999
Priority dateMay 5, 1997
Fee statusLapsed
Also published asUS5788886
Publication number09320440, 320440, US RE37938 E1, US RE37938E1, US-E1-RE37938, USRE37938 E1, USRE37938E1
InventorsBarbara Haviland Minor, Tuneen E. C. Chisolm
Original AssigneeE. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Pentafluoropropane compositions
US RE37938 E1
Abstract
The present invention relates to compositions of pentafluoropropane and a fluorinated propane having from 1 to 5 fluorine atoms; a hydrocarbon having from 1 to 5 carbon atoms; 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluorobutane, (CF3)2CHCH3, dimethyl ether; or 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,5-decafluoropentane. The compositions, which may be azeotropic or azeotrope-like, may be used as refrigerants, cleaning agents, expansion agents for polyolefins and polyurethanes, aerosol propellants, refrigerants, heat transfer media, gaseous dielectrics, fire extinguishing agents, power cycle working fluids, polymerization media, particular removal fluids, carrier fluids, buffing abrasive agents or displacement drying agents.
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Claims(12)
What is claimed is:
1. An azeotropic or azeotrope-like composition consisting essentially of: 1-99 weight percent 1,1,2,2,3-pentafluoropropane and 1-99 weight percent 1,1,1,2,3-pentafluoropropane; 1-36 weight percent 1,1,2,2,3-pentafluoropropane and 64-99 weight percent 1,1,1-trifluoropropane; 1-55 weight percent 1,1,2,2,3-pentafluoropropane and 45-99 weight percent 2,2-difluoropropane; 1-99 weight percent 1,1,2,2,3-pentafluoropropane and 1-99 weight percent 1,2-difluoropropane; 1-73 weight percent 1,1,2,2,3-pentafluoropropane and 27-99 weight percent butane; 1-55 weight percent 1,1,2,2,3-pentafluoropropane and 45-99 weight percent and cyclopropane; 1-65 weight percent 1,1,2,2,3-pentafluoropropane and 35-99 weight percent isobutane; 1-57 weight percent 1,1,2,2,3-pentafluoropropane and 43-99 weight percent propane; 79-99.5 weight percent 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoropropane and 0.5-30 weight percent 1,1,1,3,4-pentafluoropropane; 74-99 weight percent 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoropropane and 1-26 weight percent 1,2,2,3-tetrafluoropropane; 75-99 weight percent 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoropropane and 1-25 weight percent 1,2-difluoropropane; 1-99 weight percent 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoropropane and 1-99 weight percent 2-fluoropropane; 59-99 weight percent 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoropropane and 1-41 weight percent 1-fluoropropane; 59-99 weight percent 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoropropane and 1-41 weight percent butane; 1-90 weight percent 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoropropane and 10-99 weight percent cyclopropane; 1-89 weight percent 1,1,1,2, 2-pentafluoropropane and 11-99 weight percent dimethyl ether; 40-99 weight percent 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoropropane and 1-60 weight percent isobutane; 1-76 weight percent 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoropropane and 24-99 weight percent propane; 1-69 weight percent 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoropropane and 31-99 weight percent propylene; 1-45 weight percent 1,1, 2,3,3-pentafluoropropane and 55-99 weight percent 2,2-difluoropropane; 1-55 weight percent 1,1,2,3,3-pentafluoropropane and 45-99 weight percent 1,2-difluoropropane; 1-54 weight percent 1,1,2,3,3-pentafluoropropane and 46-99 weight percent 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluorobutane; 1-56 weight percent 1,1,2,3,3-pentafluoropropane and 44-99 weight percent 1,1,1,2,3,4,4, 5,5,5-decafluoropentane; 1-65 weight percent 1,1,2,3,3-pentafluoropropane and 35-99 weight percent butane; 1-54 weight percent 1,1,2,3,3-pentafluoropropane and 46-99 weight percent cyclopropane; 1-62 weight percent 1,1,2,3, 3-pentafluoropropane and 38-99 weight percent isobutane; 1-57 weight percent 1,1,2,3,3-pentafluoropropane and 43-99 weight percent propane; 1-99 weight percent 1,1,1, 2,3-pentafluoropropane and 1-99 weight percent 1,2,2-trifluoropropane; 1-43 weight percent 1,1,1,2,3-pentafluoropropane and 57-99 percent 1,1,1-trifluoropropane; 11-99 weight percent 1,1,1,2,3-pentafluoropropane and 1-89 weight percent 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluorobutane; 21-71 weight p and 29-79 weight percent butane; 1-56 weight percent 1,1,1,2,3-pentafluoropropane and 44-99 weight percent cyclopropane; 1-66 weight percent 1,1,1,2,3-pentafluoropropane and 34-99 weight percent isobutane; 1-57 weight percent 1,1,1,2,3-pentafluoropropane and 43-99 weight percent propane; 1-78 weight percent 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane and 22-99 weight percent butane; 1-60 weight percent 1,1,1,3, 3-pentafluoropropane and 40-99 weight percent isobutane; or 58-99 weight percent 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane and 1-42 weight percent pentane.
2. A binary composition of claim 1 which has a maximum or minimum vapor pressure at 25 C. when compared to the vapor pressures at 25 C. of the individual components of the binary composition.
3. A process for producing refrigeration, comprising condensing a composition of claim 1 and thereafter evaporating said composition in the vicinity of a body to be cooled.
4. A process for producing heat comprising condensing a composition of claim 1 in the vicinity of a body to be heated, and thereafter evaporating said composition.
5. A process for preparing a polymer foam, comprising using a composition of claim 1 as a blowing agent.
6. A process for cleaning a solid surface comprising treating said surface with a composition of claim 1.
7. An azeotropic or azeotrope-like composition consisting essentially of: 1-99 weight percent 1,1,2,2,3 -pentafluoropropane and 1-99 weight percent 1,1,1,2,3 -pentafluoropropane; 1-36 weight percent 1,1,2,2,3 -pentafluoropropane and 64-99 weight percent 1,1,1 -trifluoropropane; 1-55 weight percent 1,1,2,2,3 -pentafluoropropane and 45-99 weight percent 2,2 -difluoropropane; 1-99 weight percent 1,1,2,2,3 -pentafluoropropane and 1-99 weight percent 1,2 -difluoropropane; 1-73 weight percent 1,1,2,2,3 -pentafluoropropane and 27-99 weight percent butane; 1-55 weight percent 1,1,2,2,3 -pentafluoropropane and 45-99 weight percent and cyclopropane; 1-65 weight percent 1,1,2,2,3 -pentafluoropropane and 35-99 weight percent isobutane; 1-57 weight percent 1,1,2,2,3 -pentafluoropropane and 43-99 weight percent propane; 70-99.5 weight percent 1,1,1,2,2 -pentafluoropropane and 0.5-30 weight percent 1,1,1,2,3 -pentafluoropropane; 74-99 weight percent 1,1,1,2,2 -pentafluoropropane and 1-26 weight percent 1,2,2,3 -tetrafluoropropane; 75-99 weight percent 1,1,1,2,2 -pentafluoropropane and 1-25 weight percent 1,2 -difluoropropane; 1-99 weight percent 1,1,1,2,2 -pentafluoropropane and 1-99 weight percent 2 -fluoropropane; 59-99 weight percent 1,1,1,2,2 -pentafluoropropane and 1-41 weight percent 1 -fluoropropane; 59-99 weight percent 1,1,1,2,2 -pentafluoropropane and 1-41 weight percent butane; 1-90 weight percent 1,1,1,2,2 -pentafluoropropane and 10-99 weight percent cyclopropane; 1-89 weight percent 1,1,1,2,2 -pentafluoropropane and 11-99 weight percent dimethyl ether; 40-99 weight percent 1,1,1,2,2 -pentafluoropropane and 1-60 weight percent isobutane; 1-76 weight percent 1,1,1,2,2 -pentafluoropropane and 24-99 weight percent propane; 1-69 weight percent 1,1,1,2,2 -pentafluoropropane and 31-99 weight percent propylene; 1-45 weight percent 1,1,2,3,3 -pentafluoropropane and 55-99 weight percent 2,2 -difluoropropane; 1-55 weight percent 1,1,2,3,3 -pentafluoropropane and 45-99 weight percent 1,2 -difluoropropane; 1-56 weight percent 1,1,2,3,3 -pentafluoropropane and 44-99 weight percent 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,5 -decafluoropentane; 1-65 weight percent 1,1,2,3,3 -pentafluoropropane and 35-99 weight percent butane; 1-54 weight percent 1,1,2,3,3 -pentafluoropropane and 46-99 weight percent cyclopropane; 1-62 weight percent 1,1,2,3,3 -pentafluoropropane and 38-99 weight percent isobutane; 1-57 weight percent 1,1,2,3,3 -pentafluoropropane and 43-99 weight percent propane; 1-99 weight percent 1,1,1,2,3 -pentafluoropropane and 1-99 weight percent 1,2,2 -trifluoropropane; 1-43 weight percent 1,1,1,2,3 -pentafluoropropane and 57-99 percent 1,1,1 -trifluoropropane; 21-71 weight percent 1,1,1,2,3 -pentafluoropropane and 29-79 weight percent butane; 1-56 weight percent 1,1,1,2,3 -pentafluoropropane and 44-99 weight percent cyclopropane; 1-66 weight percent 1,1,1,2,3 -pentafluoropropane and 34-99 weight percent isobutane; 1-57 weight percent 1,1,1,2,3 -pentafluoropropane and 43-99 weight percent propane; 1-78 weight percent 1,1,1,3,3 -pentafluoropropane and 22-99 weight percent butane; 1-60 weight percent 1,1,1,3,3 -pentafluoropropane and 40-99 weight percent isobutane.
8. A binary composition of claim 7 which has a maximum or minimum vapor pressure at 25 C. when compared to the vapor pressures at 25 C. of the individual components of the binary composition.
9. A process for producing refrigeration, comprising condensing a composition of claim 7 and thereafter evaporating said composition in the vicinity of a body to be cooled.
10. A process for producing heat comprising condensing a composition of claim 7 in the vicinity of a body to be heated, and thereafter evaporating said composition.
11. A process for preparing a polymer foam, comprising using a composition of claim 7 as a blowing agent.
12. A process for cleaning a solid surface comprising treating said surface with a composition of claim 7.
Description
FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to compositions that include pentafluoropropane. These compositions are useful as cleaning agents, expansion agents for polyolefins and polyurethanes, aerosol propellants, refrigerants, heat transfer media, gaseous dielectrics, fire extinguishing agents, power cycle working fluids, polymerization media, particulate removal fluids, carrier fluids, buffing abrasive agents, and displacement drying agents.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Fluorinated hydrocarbons have many uses, one of which is as a refrigerant. Such refrigerants include dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) and chiorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22).

In recent years it has been pointed out that certain kinds of fluorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants released into the atmosphere may adversely affect the stratospheric ozone layer. Although this proposition has not yet been completely established, there is a movement toward the control of the use and the production of certain chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) under an international agreement.

Accordingly, there is a demand for the development of refrigerants that have a lower ozone depletion potential than existing refrigerants while still achieving an acceptable performance in refrigeration application. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) have been suggested as replacements for CFCs and HCFCs since HFCs have no chlorine and therefore have zero ozone depletion potential.

In refrigeration applications, a refrigerant is often lost during operation through leaks in shaft seals, hose connections, soldered joints and broken lines. In addition, the refrigerant may be released to the atmosphere during maintenance procedures on refrigeration equipment. If the refrigerant is not a pure component or an azeotropic or azeotrope-like composition, the refrigerant composition may change when leaked or discharged to the atmosphere from the refrigeration equipment, which may cause the refrigerant to become flammable or to have poor refrigeration performance.

Accordingly, it is desirable to use as a refrigerant a single fluorinated hydrocarbon or an azeotropic or azeotrope-like composition that includes one or more fluorinated hydrocarbons.

Fluorinated hydrocarbons may also be used as a cleaning agent or solvent to clean, for example, electronic circuit boards. It is desirable that the cleaning agents be azeotropic or azeotrope-like because in vapor degreasing operations the cleaning agent is generally redistilled and reused for final rinse cleaning.

Azeotropic or azeotrope-like compositions that include a fluorinated hydrocarbon are also useful as blowing agents in the manufacture of closed-cell polyurethane, phenolic and thermoplastic foams, as propellants in aerosols, as heat transfer media, gaseous dielectrics, fire extinguishing agents, power cycle working fluids such as for heat pumps, inert media for polymerization reactions, fluids for removing particulates from metal surfaces, as carrier fluids that may be used, for example, to place a fine film of lubricant on metal parts, as buffing abrasive agents to remove buffing abrasive compounds from polished surfaces such as metal, as displacement drying agents for removing water, such as from jewelry or metal parts, as resist developers in conventional circuit manufacturing techniques including chlorine-type developing agents, or a strippers for photoresists when used with, for example, a chlorohydrocarbon such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane or trichloroethylene.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to the discovery of compositions of pentafluoropropane and a fluoropropane such as tetrafluoropropane, trifluoropropane, difluoropropane or fluoropropane; 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluorobutane; (CF3)2 CHCH3; 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,5-decafluoropentane; a hydrocarbon such as butane, cyclopropane, isobutane, propane, pentane; or propylene; or dimethyl ether. These compositions are useful as refrigerants, cleaning agents, expansion agents for polyolefins and polyurethanes, aerosol propellants, heat transfer media, gaseous dielectrics, fire extinguishing agents, power cycle working fluids, polymerization media, particulate removal fluids, carrier fluids, buffing abrasive agents, and displacement drying agents. Further, the invention relates to the discovery of binary azeotropic or azeotrope-like compositions comprising effective amounts of pentafluoropropane and a fluoropropane such as tetrafluoropropane, trifluoropropane, difluoropropane or fluoropropane; 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluorobutane; (CF3)2CHCH2; 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,5-decafluoropentane; a hydrocarbon such as butane, cyclopropane, isobutane, propane, pentane, or propylene; or dimethyl ether to form an azeotropic or azeotrope-like composition.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245ca and HFC-245eb at 25 C.;

FIG. 2 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245ca and HFC-263fb at 25 C.;

FIG. 3 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245ca and HFC-272ca at 25 C.;

FIG. 4 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245ca and HFC-272ea at 25 C.;

FIG. 5 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245ca and HFC-356mff at 25 C.;

FIG. 6 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245ca and HFC-356mmz at 25 C.;

FIG. 7 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245ca and butane at 20 C.;

FIG. 8 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245ca and cyclopropane at 25 C.;

FIG. 9 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245ca and isobutane at 25 C.;

FIG. 10 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245ca and propane at 25 C.;

FIG. 11 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245cb and HFC-245eb at 25 C.;

FIG. 12 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245cb and HFC-254ca at 25 C.;

FIG. 13 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245cb and HFC-272ea at 25 C.;

FIG. 14 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245cb and HFC-281 ea at 25 C.;

FIG. 15 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245cb and HFC-281fa at 25 C.;

FIG. 16 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245cb and butane at 25 C.;

FIG. 17 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245cb and cyclopropane at 25 C.;

FIG. 18 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245cb and DME at 25 C.;

FIG. 19 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245cb and isobutane at 25 C.;

FIG. 20 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245cb and propane at 25 C.;

FIG. 21 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245cb and propylene at 25 C.;

FIG. 22 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245ea and HFC-272ca at 25 C.;

FIG. 23 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245ea and HFC-272ea at 25 C.;

FIG. 24 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245ea and HFC-356mff at 25 C.;

FIG. 25 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245ea and HFC-356mmz at 25 C.;

FIG. 26 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245ea and HFC-4310mee at 25 C.;

FIG. 27 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245ea and butane at 25 C.;

FIG. 28 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245ea and cyclopropane at 25 C.;

FIG. 29 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245ea and isobutane at 25 C.;

FIG. 30 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245ea and propane at 25 C.;

FIG. 31 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245eb and HFC-263ca at 25 C.;

FIG. 32 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245eb and HFC-263fb at 25 C.;

FIG. 33 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245eb and HFC-356mff at 25 C.;

FIG. 34 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245eb and HFC-356mmz at 25 C.;

FIG. 35 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245eb and butane at 25 C.;

FIG. 36 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245eb and cyclopropane at 25 C.;

FIG. 37 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245eb and isobutane at 25 C.;

FIG. 38 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245eb and propane at 25 C.;

FIG. 39 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245fa and HFC-263ca at 25 C.;

FIG. 40 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245fa and HFC-272ca at 25 C.;

FIG. 41 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245fa and HFC-272fb at 25 C.;

FIG. 42 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245fa and butane at 25 C.;

FIG. 43 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245fa and cyclopropane at 25 C.;

FIG. 44 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245fa and isobutane at 25 C.;

FIG. 45 is a graph of the vapor/liquid equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245fa and pentane at 25 C.;

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The present invention relates to compositions of pentafluoropropane and a fluorinated propane having from 1 to 5 fluorine atoms; a hydrocarbon having from 1 to 5 carbon atoms; 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluorobutane; (CF3)2CHCH3; dimethyl ether (DME); or 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,5-decafluoropentane.

As used herein, pentafluoropropane includes 1,1,2,2,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245ca), 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245cb), 1,1,2,3,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245ea), 1,1,1,2,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245eb) and 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245fa). As used herein, a fluorinated propane having from 1 to 5 fluorine atoms includes 1,1,1,2,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245eb), 1,2,2, 3-tetrafluoropropane (HFC-254ca), 1,2,2-trifluoropropane (HFC-263ca), 1,1,1-trifluoropropane (HFC-263fb), 2,2-difluoropropane (HFC-272ca), 1,2-difluoropropane (HFC-272ea), 1,1-difluoropropane (HFC-272fb), 2-fluoropropane (HFC-281ea) and 1-fluoropropane (HFC-281fa). As used herein, a hydrocarbon having from 1 to 5 carbon atoms includes butane, cyclopropane, isobutane, propane, pentane, and propylene.

Examples of these compositions include:

(a) HFC-245ca and HFC-245eb, HFC-263fb, HFC-272ca, HFC-272ea, 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluorobutane (HFC-356mff), (CF3)2CHCH3 (HFC-356mmz), butane, cyclopropane, isobutane or propane;

(b) HFC-245cb and HFC-245eb, HFC-254ca, HFC-272ea, HFC-281ea, HFC-281fa, butane, cyclopropane, DME, isobutane, propane or propylene;

(c) HFC-245ea and HFC-272ca, HFC-272ea, HFC-356mff, HFC-356mmz, 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,5-decafluoropentane (HFC-4310mee), butane, cyclopropane, isobutane or propane;

(d) HFC-245eb and HFC-263ca, HFC-263fb, HFC-356mff, HFC-356mmz, butane, cyclopropane, isobutane or propane; or

(e) HFC-245fa and HFC-263ca, HFC-272ca, HFC-272fb, butane, cyclopropane, isobutane, or pentane.

1-99 wt. % of each of the components of the compositions can be used as refrigerants. Further, the present invention also relates to the discovery of azeotropic or azeotrope-like compositions of effective amounts of each of the above mixtures to form an azeotropic or azeotrope-like composition.

By “azeotropic” composition is meant a constant boiling liquid admixture of two or more substances that behaves as a single substance. One way to characterize an azeotropic composition is that the vapor produced by partial evaporation or distillation of the liquid has the same composition as the liquid from which it was evaporated or distilled, that is, the admixture distills/refluxes without compositional change. Constant boiling compositions are characterized as azeotropic because they exhibit either a maximum or minimum boiling point, as compared with that of the non-azeotropic mixtures of the same components.

By “azeotrope-like” composition is meant a constant boiling, or substantially constant boiling, liquid admixture of two or more substances that behaves as a single substance. One way to characterize an azeotrope-like composition is that the vapor produced by partial evaporation or distillation of the liquid has substantially the same composition as the liquid from which it was evaporated or distilled, that is, the admixture distills/refluxes without substantial composition change. Another way to characterize an azeotrope-like composition is that the bubble point vapor pressure and the dew point vapor pressure of the composition at a particular temperature are substantially the same.

It is recognized in the art that a composition is azeotrope-like if, after 50 weight percent of the composition is removed such as by evaporation or boiling off, the difference in vapor pressure between the original composition and the composition remaining after 50 weight percent of the original composition has been removed is less than 10 percent, when measured in absolute units. By absolute units, it is meant measurements of pressure and, for example, psia, atmospheres, bars, torr, dynes per square centimeter, millimeters of mercury, inches of water and other equivalent terms well known in the art. If an azeotrope is present, there is no difference in vapor pressure between the original composition and the composition remaining after 50 weight percent of the original composition has been removed.

Therefore, included in this invention are compositions of effective amounts of

(a) HFC-245ca and HFC-245eb, HFC-263fb, HFC-272ca, HFC-272ea, HFC-356mff, HFC-356mmz, butane, cyclopropane, isobutane or propane;

(b) HFC-245cb and HFC-245eb, HFC-254ca, HFC-272ea, HFC-281 ea, HFC-281fa, butane, cyclopropane, DME, isobutane, propane or propylene;

(c) HFC-245ea and HFC-272ca, HFC-272ea, HFC-356mff, HFC-356mmz, HFC-4310mee, butane, cyclopropane, isobutane or propane;

(d) HFC-245eb and HFC-263ca, HFC-263fb, HFC-356mff, HFC-356mmz, butane, cyclopropane, isobutane or propane; or

(e) HFC-245fa and HFC-263ca, HFC-272ca, HFC-272fb, butane, cyclopropane, isobutane;

such that after 50 weight percent of an original composition is evaporated or boiled off to produce a remaining composition, the difference in the vapor pressure between the original composition and the remaining composition is 10 percent or less.

For compositions that are azeotropic, there is usually some range of compositions around the azeotrope point that, for a maximum boiling azeotrope, having boiling points at a particular pressure higher than the pure components of the composition at that pressure and have vapor pressures at a particular temperature lower than the pure components of the composition at that temperature, and that, for a minimum boiling azeotrope, have boiling points at a particular pressure lower than the pure components of the composition at that pressure and have vapor pressures at a particular temperature higher than the pure components of the composition at that temperature. Boiling temperatures and vapor pressures above or below that of the pure components are caused by unexpected intermolecular forces between and among the molecules of the compositions, which can be a combination of repulsive and attractive forces such as van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding.

The range of compositions that have a maximum or minimum boiling point at a particular pressure, or a maximum or minimum vapor pressure at a particular temperature, may or may not be coextensive with the range of compositions that have a change in vapor pressure of less than about 10% when 50 weight percent of the composition is evaporated. In those cases where the range of compositions that have maximum or minimum boiling temperatures at a particular pressure, or maximum or minimum vapor pressures at a particular temperatures, are broader than the range of compositions that have a change in vapor pressure of less than about 10% when 50 weight percent of the composition is evaporated, the unexpected intermolecular forces are nonetheless believed important in that the refrigerant compositions having those forces that are not substantially constant boiling may exhibit unexpected increases in the capacity or efficiency versus the components of the refrigerant composition.

The vapor pressure of the components at 25 C are:

Components Psia kPa
HPC-245ca 14.2 98
HPC-245cb 67.4 465
HPC-245ea 8.62 59
HPC-245eb 16.9 117
HPC-245fa 21.4 148
HPC-263fb 54.0 372
HPC-272ca 34.5 238
HPC-272ca 20.8 143
HPC-356mff 14.7 101
HPC-356mmz 16.6 114
butane 35.2 243
cyclopropane 105.0 724
isobutane 50.5 348
propane 137.8 950
HPC-254ca 13.7 94
HPC-281ca 47.1 325
HPC-281fa 37.7 260
DMB 85.7 591
propylene 165.9 1144
HPC-4310mee 4.36 30
HPC-263ca 18.2 125
HPC-272fb 26.5 183
pentane 10.5 71

Substantially constant boiling, azeotropic or azeotrope-like compositions of this invention comprise the following (all compositions are measured at 25 C):

WEIGHT RANGES PREFERRED
COMPONENTS (wt. %/wt. %) (wt. %/wt. %)
HPC-245ca/HPC-245cb 1-99/1-99 30-99/1-70
HPC-245ca/HPC-263fb 1-36/64-99 1-36/64-99
HPC-245ca/HPC-272ca 1-55/45-99 1-55/45-99
HPC-245ca/HPC-272ca 1-99/1-99 1-99/1-99
HPC-245ca/HPC-356mff 1-99/1-99 1-80/20-99
HPC-245ca/HPC-356mmz 1-99/1-99 1-80/20-99
HPC-245ca/butane 1-73/27-99 20-73/27-80
HPC-245ca/cyclopropane 1-55/45-99 1-55/45-99
HPC-245ca/isobutane 1-65/35-99 1-65/35-99
HPC-245ca/propane 1-57/43-99 1-57/43-99
HPC-245cb/HPC-245cb 70-99.5/0.5-30 70-99.5/0.5-30
HPC-245cb/HPC-254ca 74-99/1-26 74-99/1-26
HPC-245cb/HPC-272ca 75-99/1-25 75-99/1-25
HPC-245cb/HPC-281ca 1-99/1-99 40-99/1-60
HPC-245cb/HPC-281fa 59-99/1-41 59-99/1-41
HPC-245cb/butane 59-99/1-41 59-99/1-41
HPC-245cb/cyclopropane 1-90/10-99 30-90/10-70
HPC-245cb/DME 1-89/11-99 40-89/11-60
HPC-245cb/isobutane 40-99/1-60 40-99/1-60
HPC-245cb/propane 1-76/24-99 10-76/24-90
HPC-245cb/prypylene 1-69/31-99 10-69/31-90
HPC-245ca/HPC-272ca 1-45/55-99 1-45/55-90
HPC-245ca/HPC-272ca 1-55/45-99 1-55/45-99
HPC-245ca/HPC-356mff 1-54/46-99 1-54/46-99
HPC-245ca/HPC-356mmz 1-45/55-99 1-45/55-99
HPC-245ca/HPC-4310mme 1-56/44-99 1-56/44-99
HPC-245ca/butane 1-65/35-99 1-65/35-99
HPC-245ca/cyclopropane 1-54/46-99 1-54/46-99
HPC-245ca/isobutane 1-62/38-99 1-62/38-99
HPC-245ca/propane 1-57/43-99 1-57/43-99
HPC-245cb/HPC-263ca 1-99/1-99 10-99/1-90
HPC-245cb/HPC-263fb -43/57-99 1-43/57-99
HPC-245cb/HPC-356mff 11-99/1-89 11-99/1-89
HPC-245cb/HPC-356mmz 1-99/1-99 1-70/30-99
HPC-245cb/butane 21-71/29-79 21-71/29-79
HPC-245cb/cyclopropane 1-56/44-99 1-56/44-99
HPC-245cb/isobutane 1-66/34-99 1-66/34-99
HPC-245cb/propane 1-57/43-99 1-57/43-99
HPC-245fa/HPC-263ca 1-99/1-99 1-80/20-99
HPC-245fa/HPC-272ca 1-99/1-99 1-99/1-99
HPC-245ca/HPC-272fb 1-99/1-99 1-99/1-99
HPC-245ca/butane 1-78/22-99 1-78/22-99
HPC-245fa/cyclopropane 1-56/44-99 1-56/44-99
HPC-245fa/isobutane 1-70/30-99 1-70/30-99
HPC-245fa/pentane 58-99/1-42 70-99/1-30

For purposes of this invention, “effective amount” is defined as the amount of each component of the inventive compositions which, when combined, results in the formation of an azeotropic or azeotrope-like composition. This definition includes the amounts of each component, which amounts may vary depending on the pressure applied to the composition so long as the azeotropic or azeotrope-like compositions continue to exist at the different pressures, but with possible different boiling points.

Therefore, effective amount includes the amounts, such as may be expressed in weight percentages, of each component of the compositions of the instant invention which form azeotropic or azeotrope-like compositions at temperatures or pressures other than as described herein.

For the purposes of this discussion, azeotropic or constant-boiling is intended to mean also essentially azeotropic or essentially-constant boiling. In other words, included within the meaning of these terms are not only the true azeotropes described above, but also other compositions containing the same components in different proportions, which are true azeotropes at other temperatures and pressures, as well as those equivalent compositions which are part of the same azeotropic system and are azeotrope-like in their properties. As is well recognized in this art, there is a range of compositions which contain the same components as the azeotrope, which will not only exhibit essentially equivalent properties for refrigeration and other applications, but which will also exhibit essentially equivalent properties to the true azeotropic composition in terms of constant boiling characteristics or tendency not to segregate or fractionate on boiling.

It is possible to characterize, in effect, a constant boiling admixture which may appear under many guises, depending upon the conditions chosen, by any of several criteria:

The composition can be defined as an azeotrope of A, B, C (and D . . . ) since the very term “azeotrope” is at once both definitive and limitative, and requires that effective amounts of A, B, C (and D . . . ) for this unique composition of matter which is a constant boiling composition.

It is well known by those skilled in the art, that, at different pressures, the composition of a given azeotrope will vary at least to some degree, and changes in pressure will also change, at least to some degree, the boiling point temperature. Thus, an azeotrope of A, B, C (and D . . . ) represents a unique type of relationship but with a variable composition which depends on temperature and/or pressure. Therefore, compositional ranges, rather than fixed compositions, are often used to define azeotropes.

The composition can be defined as a particular weight percent relationship or mole percent relationship of A, B, C (and D . . . ), while recognizing that such specific values point out only one particular relationship and that in actuality, a series of such relationships, represented by A, B, C (and D . . . ) actually exist for a given azeotrope, varied by the influence of pressure.

An azeotrope of A, B, C (and D . . . ) can be characterized by defining the compositions as an azeotrope characterized by a boiling point at a given pressure, thus giving identifying characteristics without unduly limiting the scope of the invention by a specific numerical composition, which is limited by and is only as accurate as the analytical equipment available.

The azeotrope or azeotrope-like compositions of the present invention can be prepared by any convenient method including mixing or combining the desired amounts. A preferred method is to weigh the desired component amounts and thereafter combine them in an appropriate container.

Specific examples illustrating the invention are given below. Unless otherwise stated therein, all percentages are by weight. It is to be understood that these examples are merely illustrative and in no way are to be interpreted as limiting the scope of the invention.

EXAMPLE 1 Phase Study

A phase study shows the following compositions are azeotropic, all at 25 C.

Vapor Press.
Composition No. psia (kPa)
HPC-245ca/HPC-245cb 75.0/25.0 14.1 97
HPC-245ca/HPC-263fb  1.0/99.0 54.0 372
HPC-245ca/HPC-272ca 17.2/82.8 35.8 247
HPC-245ca/HPC-272ca 17.6/82.4 21.1 145
HPC-245ca/HPC-356mff 28.0/72.0 16.9 117
HPC-245ca/HPC-356mmz 21.6/78.4 18.5 128
HPC-245ca/butane 41.9/58.1 40.8 281
HPC-245ca/cyclopropane 12.1/87.9 106.9 737
HPC-245ca/isobutane 30.1/69.9 56.3 388
HPC-245ca/propane  8.8/91.2 139.0 958
HPC-245cb/HPC-245cb 99.5/0.5  67.4 465
HPC-245cb/HPC-254ca 98.6/1.4  67.5 465
HPC-245cb/HPC-272ca 96.5/3.5  68.2 470
HPC-245cb/HPC-281ca 87.7/12.3 70.5 486
HPC-245cb/HPC-281ca 93.4/6.6  68.8 474
HPC-245cb/butane 93.3/6.7  68.5 472
HPC-245cb/cyclopropane 40.8/59.2 110.7 763
HPC-245cb/DMB 68.9/31.1 107.0 738
HPC-245cb/isobutane 80.2/19.8 75.1 518
HPC-245cb/propane 24.3/75.7 139.7 963
HPC-245cb/propylene 28.2/71.8 172.9 1192
HPC-245ca/HPC-272ca  8.8/91.2 35.0 241
HPC-245ca/HPC-272ca  5.6/94.4 20.8 143
HPC-245ca/HPC-356mff 12.0/88.0 15.5 107
HPC-245ca/HPC-356mmz  9.4/50.6 17.2 119
HPC-245ca/HPC-4310mee 34.4/65.6 3.50 24
HPC-245ca/butane 28.9/71.1 39.6 273
HPC-245ca/cyclopropane  8.6/91.4 106.4 734
HPC-245ca/isobutane 21.3/78.7 54.3 374
HPC-245ca/propane  5.9/94.1 138.6 956
HPC-245cb/HPC-263ca 26.3/73.7 18.4 127
HPC-245cb/HPC-263fb  6.3/93.7 54.4 375
HPC-245cb/HPC-356mff 45.1/54.9 20.0 138
HPC-245cb/HPC-356mmz 38.5/61.5 21.4 148
HPC-245cb/butane 43.5/56.5 43.5 300
HPC-245cb/cyclopropane 13.6/86.4 107.1 738
HPC-245cb/isobutane 33.5/66.5 57.4 396
HPC-245cb/propane  9.9/90.1 139.1 959
HPC-245fa/HPC-263ca 23.2/76.8 18.0 124
HPC-245fa/HPC-272ca 10.1/89.9 34.6 239
HPC-245ca/HPC-272fb  3.5/96.5 26.5 183
HPC-245fa/butane 48.6/51.4 40.9 282
HPC-245ca/cyclopropane  2.3/97.7 105.1 725
HPC-245fa/isobutane 33.7/66.3 53.9 372
HPC-245fa/pentane 85.0/15.0 23.6 163

EXAMPLE 2 Impact of Vapor Leakage on Vapor Pressure at 25 C.

A vessel is charged with an initial composition at 25 C., and the initial vapor pressure of the composition is measured. The composition is allowed to leak from the vessel, while the temperature is held constant at 25 C., until 50 weight percent of the initial composition is removed, at which time the vapor pressure of the composition remaining in the vessel is measured. The results are summarized below.

INITIAL 50% LEAK DELTA
WT % A/WT % B PSIA KPA PSIA KPA % P
HPC-245ca/HPC-245cb
75.0/25.0 14.1 97 14.1 97 0.0
90/10 14.2 98 14.2 98 0.0
99/1 14.2 98 14.2 98 0.0
50/50 14.5 100 14.4 99 0.7
30/70 15.3 105 15.1 104 1.3
10/90 16.3 112 16.2 112 0.6
1/99 16.9 117 16.8 116 0.6
HPC-245ca/HPC-263fb
1.0/99.0 54.0 372 54.0 372 0.0
30/70 50.7 350 47.4 327 6.5
35/65 49.7 343 45.1 311 9.3
36/64 49.5 341 44.6 308 9.9
HPC-245ca/HPC-272ca
17.2/82.8 35.8 247 35.8 247 0.0
1/99 34.7 239 34.6 239 0.3
50/50 34.0 234 31.6 218 7.1
55/45 33.4 230 30.1 208 9.9
HPC-245ca/HPC-272ca
17.6/82.4 21.1 145 21.1 145 0.0
1/99 20.8 143 20.8 143 0.0
40/60 20.7 143 20.5 141 1.0
60/40 19.6 135 19.0 131 3.1
80/20 17.6 121 16.7 115 5.1
99/1 14.4 99 14.3 99 0.7
HPC-245ca/HPC-356mff
28.0/72.0 16.9 117 16.9 117 0.0
15/85 16.7 115 16.6 114 0.6
1/99 15.1 104 14.8 102 2.0
60/40 16.2 112 16.0 110 1.2
80/20 15.3 105 15.1 104 1.3
99/1 14.2 98 14.2 98 0.0
HPC-245ca/HPC-356mmz
21.6/78.4 18.5 128 18.5 128 0.0
10/90 18.2 125 18.0 124 1.1
1/99 17.0 117 16.7 115 1.8
60/40 17.1 118 16.6 114 2.9
80/20 15.7 108 15.3 105 2.5
99/1 14.3 99 14.2 98 0.7
HPC-245ca/butane
41.9/58.1 40.8 281 40.8 281 0.0
20/80 39.9 275 38.3 264 4.0
10/90 38.5 265 36.2 250 6.0
1/99 35.7 246 35.3 243 1.1
60/40 40.4 279 39.8 274 1.5
73/27 39.7 274 35.8 247 9.8
74/26 39.6 273 35.0 241 11.6
HPC-245ca/cyclopropane
12.1/87.9 106.9 737 106.9 737 0.0
1/99 105.5 727 105.2 725 0.3
40/60 105.3 726 102.7 708 2.5
55/45 103.2 712 93.4 644 9.5
56/44 102.7 708 92.3 636 10.1
HPC-245ca/isobutane
30.1/69.9 56.3 388 56.3 388 0.0
15/85 55.9 385 54.1 373 3.2
1/99 51.4 354 50.5 348 1.8
50/50 56.0 386 55.2 381 1.4
65/35 55.0 379 49.7 343 9.6
66/34 54.9 379 48.8 336 11.1
HPC-245ca/propane
8.8/91.2 139.0 958 139.0 958 0.0
1/99 138.2 953 138.0 951 0.1
40/60 136.3 940 133.3 919 2.2
50/50 134.8 929 128.0 883 5.0
57/43 133.3 919 120.9 834 9.3
58/42 133.0 917 119.4 823 10.2
HPC-245cb/HPC-245cb
99.5/0.5 67.4 465 67.4 465 0.0
70/30 61.8 426 56.1 387 9.2
69/31 61.6 425 55.4 382 10.1
HPC-245cb/HPC-254ca
98.6/1.4 67.5 465 67.5 465 0.0
99/1 67.5 465 67.5 465 0.0
75/25 63.0 434 57.5 396 8.7
74/26 62.8 433 56.8 392 9.6
HPC-245cb/HPC-272ca
96.5/3.5 68.2 470 68.2 470 0.0
99/1 67.8 467 67.8 467 0.0
80/20 64.9 447 61.1 421 5.9
75/25 63.4 437 57.1 394 9.9
HPC-245cb/HPC-281ca
87.7/12.3 70.5 486 70.5 486 0.0
99/1 68.1 470 67.9 468 0.3
50/50 63.7 439 59.7 412 6.3
40/60 60.8 419 56.1 387 7.7
30/70 57.6 397 52.9 365 8.2
20/80 54.3 374 50.4 347 7.2
1/99 47.5 328 47.3 326 0.4
HPC-245cb/HPC-281fa
93.4/6.6 68.8 474 68.8 474 0.0
99/1 67.9 468 67.8 467 0.1
60/40 61.2 422 55.5 383 9.3
59/41 60.8 419 54.9 379 9.7
58/42 60.5 417 54.4 375 10.1
HPC-245cb/butane
93.3/6.7 68.5 472 68.5 472 0.0
99/1 67.7 467 67.7 467 0.0
70/30 64.5 445 61.6 425 4.5
60/40 62.0 427 56.2 387 9.4
59/41 61.7 425 55.6 383 9.9
HPC-245cb/cyclopropane
40.8/59.2 110.7 763 110.7 763 0.0
20/80 109.4 754 108.7 749 0.6
1/99 105.3 726 105.2 725 0.1
70/30 106.6 735 103.4 713 3.0
85/15 97.0 669 88.8 612 8.5
90/10 90.6 625 81.6 563 9.9
91/9 89.1 614 80.1 552 10.1
HPC-245cb/DME
68.9/31.1 107.0 738 107.0 738 0.0
85/15 104.4 720 100.0 689 4.2
89/11 102.1 704 92.2 636 9.7
90/10 101.3 698 89.4 616 11.7
40/60 102.4 706 98.1 676 4.2
20/80 95.2 656 90.2 622 5.3
10/90 90.7 625 87.6 604 3.4
1/99 86.2 594 85.9 592 0.5
HPC-245cb/isobutane
80.2/19.8 75.1 518 75.1 518 0.0
90/10 73.9 510 73.3 505 0.8
99/1 68.6 473 68.1 470 0.7
50/50 70.9 489 66.9 461 5.6
40/60 68.3 471 61.9 427 9.4
HPC-245cb/propane
24.3/75.7 139.7 963 139.7 963 0.0
10/90 139.0 958 138.9 958 0.1
1/99 128.0 951 137.9 951 0.1
50/50 137.3 947 135.7 936 1.2
70/30 129.9 896 122.0 841 6.1
76/24 126.8 860 113.8 785 8.8
77/23 125.6 866 112.1 773 10.7
HPC-245cb/propylene
28.2/71.8 172.9 1192 172.9 1192 0.0
10/90 170.6 1176 169.3 1167 0.8
1/99 166.6 1149 166.2 1146 0.2
60/40 167.0 1151 159.2 1098 4.7
69/31 161.5 1114 145.7 1005 9.8
70/30 160.6 1107 143.7 991 10.5
HPC-245ca/HPC-272ca
8.8/91.2 35.0 241 35.0 241 0.0
1/99 34.6 239 34.6 239 0.0
40/60 33.4 230 31.3 216 6.3
45/55 32.9 227 29.8 205 9.4
46/54 32.8 226 29.5 203 10.1
HPC-245ca/HPC-272ca
5.6/94.4 20.8 143 20.8 143 0.0
1/99 20.8 143 20.8 143 0.0
40/60 19.7 136 18.9 130 4.1
55/45 18.6 128 16.8 116 9.7
56/44 18.5 128 16.6 114 10.3
HPC-245ca/HPC-356mff
12.0/88.0 15.5 107 15.5 107 0.0
1/99 14.9 103 14.8 102 0.7
40/60 14.5 100 13.6 94 6.2
54/46 13.4 92 12.1 83 9.7
55/45 13.3 92 11.9 82 10.5
HPC-245ca/HPC-356mmz
9.4/90.6 17.2 119 17.2 119 0.0
1/99 16.8 116 16.7 115 0.6
40/60 15.8 109 14.5 100 0.2
45/55 15.3 105 13.8 95 9.8
46/54 15.2 105 13.6 94 10.5
HPC-245/HPC-4310mee
34.4/65.6 3.50 24 3.50 24 0.0
15/85 3.81 26 3.70 26 2.9
1/99 4.32 30 4.30 30 0.5
50/50 3.77 26 3.58 25 5.0
56/44 4.05 28 3.66 25 9.6
57/43 4.10 28 3.68 25 10.2
HPC-245ca/butane
28.9/71.1 39.6 273 39.6 273 0.0
10/90 39.1 270 36.0 248 7.9
1/99 36.2 250 35.2 243 2.8
60/40 39.2 270 37.3 257 4.8
65/35 38.9 268 35.2 243 9.5
66/34 38.9 268 34.6 239 11.1
HPC-245ca/cyclopropane
8.6/91.4 106.4 734 106.4 734 0.0
1/99 105.5 727 105.2 725 0.3
40/60 105.0 724 102.2 705 2.7
54/46 103.2 712 93.5 645 9.4
55/45 103.0 710 92.5 638 10.2
HPC-245ca/isobutane
21.3/78.7 54.3 374 54.3 374 0.0
10/90 54.0 372 52.7 363 2.4
1/99 51.4 354 50.5 348 1.8
40/60 54.1 373 53.7 370 0.7
62/38 53.2 367 47.9 330 10.0
HPC-245ca/propane
5.9/94.1 138.6 956 138.6 956 0.0
1/99 138.1 952 138.0 951 0.1
40/60 136.2 939 133.4 920 2.1
57/43 133.9 923 122.5 845 8.5
58/42 133.6 921 119.7 825 10.4
HPC-245ca/HPC-263ca
26.3/73.7 18.4 127 18.4 127 0.0
10/90 18.3 126 18.3 126 0.0
1/99 18.2 125 18.2 125 0.0
60/40 18.1 125 18.1 125 0.0
80/20 17.7 122 17.6 121 0.6
99/1 17.0 117 17.0 117 0.0
HPC-245cb/HPC-263fb
6.3/93.7 54.4 375 54.4 375 0.0
1/99 54.1 373 54.1 373 0.0
40/60 50.9 351 46.8 323 8.1
43.57 50.3 347 45.3 312 9.9
HPC-245nb/HPC-356mff
45.1/54.9 20.0 138 20.0 138 0.0
20/80 19.3 133 18.5 128 4.1
11/89 18.3 126 16.5 114 9.8
10/90 18.2 125 16.2 120 11.0
60/40 19.8 137 19.7 136 0.5
80/20 18.8 130 18.4 127 2.1
99/1 17.0 117 17.0 117 0.0
HPC-2455cb/HPC-356mme
38.5/61.5 212.4 148 21.4 148 0.0
20/80 20.9 144 20.4 141 2.4
1/99 17.2 119 16.7 115 2.9
70/30 20.2 139 19.6 135 3.0
85/15 18.9 130 18.2 125 3.7
99/1 17.1 118 17.0 117 0.6
HPC-245cb/butane
43.5/56.5 43.5 300 43.5 300 0.0
21/79 43.0 296 38.9 268 9.5
20/80 42.9 296 38.3 264 10.7
71/29 42.5 293 38.7 267 8.9
72/28 42.4 292 38.1 263 10.1
HPC-245cb/cyclopropane
13.6/86.4 107.1 738 107.1 738 0.0
1/99 105.5 727 105.2 725 0.3
40/60 105.6 728 103.1 711 2.4
56/44 102.8 709 92.9 641 9.6
57/43 102.5 707 91.8 633 10.4
HPC-245cb/isobutane
33.5/66.5 57.4 396 57.4 396 0.0
20/80 57.1 394 55.9 385 2.1
10/90 55.8 385 51.8 357 7.2
1/99 51.5 355 50.5 348 1.9
60/40 56.5 390 54.0 372 4.4
66/34 56.0 386 50.7 350 9.5
67/33 55.8 385 49.9 344 10.6
HPC-254cb/propane
9.9/90.1 139.1 959 139.1 959 0.0
1/99 138.1 952 138.0 951 0.1
40/80 136.5 941 133.4 920 2.3
57/43 133.1 918 120.5 831 9.5
58/42 132.8 916 119.1 821 10.3
HPC-245ca/HPC-263ca
23.2/76.8 18.0 124 18.0 124 0.0
10/90 18.1 125 18.1 125 0.0
1/99 18.2 125 18.2 125 0.0
40/60 18.2 125 18.2 125 0.0
60/40 18.8 130 18.6 128 1.1
80/20 19.9 137 19.7 136 1.0
99/1 21.3 147 21.3 147 0.0
HPC-245fa/HPC-272ca
10.1/89.9 34.6 239 34.6 239 0.0
1/99 34.5 238 34.5 238 0.0
40/60 33.8 233 33.5 231 0.9
70/30 30.7 212 29.0 200 5.5
85/15 27.4 189 25.1 173 8.4
90/10 25.8 178 23.8 164 7.8
99/1 22.0 152 21.6 149 1.8
HPC-245fa/HPC-272fb
3.5/96.5 26.5 183 26.5 183 0.0
1/99 26.5 183 26.5 183 0.0
40/60 26.0 179 26.0 179 0.0
70/30 24.7 170 24.5 169 0.8
85/15 23.5 162 23.1 159 1.7
99/1 21.6 149 21.6 149 0.0
HPC-245fa/butane
48.6/51.4 40.9 282 40.9 282 0.0
30/70 40.4 279 39.6 273 2.0
10/90 37.8 261 36.3 250 4.0
1/99 35.5 245 35.3 243 0.6
70/30 40.1 276 38.6 266 3.7
78/22 38.9 268 35.1 242 9.8
79/21 38.7 267 34.5 238 10.9
HPC-245fa/cyclopropane
2.3/97.7 105.1 725 105.1 725 0.0
1/99 105.1 725 105.1 725 0.0
40/60 101.2 698 98.0 676 3.2
56/44 97.2 670 88.0 607 9.5
57/43 96.8 667 87.0 600 10.1
HPC-245fa/isobutane
33.7/66.3 53.9 372 53.9 372 0.0
20/80 53.5 369 53.1 366 0.7
10/90 52.5 362 51.8 357 1.3
1/99 50.7 350 50.6 349 0.2
60/40 52.6 363 50.8 350 3.4
70/30 51.1 352 46.1 318 9.8
71/29 50.9 351 45.4 313 10.8
HPC-245fa/pentane
85.5/15.0 23.6 163 23.6 163 0.0
90/10 23.5 162 23.3 161 0.9
99/1 21.9 151 21.7 150 0.9
70/30 23.1 159 22.6 156 2.2
60/40 22.6 156 20.9 144 7.5
58/42 22.5 155 20.4 141 9.3

The results of this Example show that these compositions are azeotropic or azeotrope-like because when 50 wt. % of an original composition is removed, the vapor pressure of the remaining composition is within about 10% of the vapor pressure of the original composition, at a temperature of 25 C.

EXAMPLE 3 Impact of Vapor Leakage at 0 C.

A leak test is performed on compositions of HFC-245ca and HFC-272ca, at the temperature of 0 C. The results are summarized below.

WT % A/WT %B INITIAL 50% LEAK
HPC-245ca/HPC-272ca PSIA KPA PSIA KPA DELTA % P
15.2/84.8 15.4 106 15.4 106 0.0
1/99 15.0 103 15.0 103 0.0
40/60 15.0 103 14.4 99 4.0
52/48 14.4 99 13.0 90 9.7
53.47 14.4 99 12.8 88 11.1

These results show that compositions of HFC-245ca and HFC-272ca are azeotropic or azeotrope-like at different temperatures, but that the weight percents of the components vary as the temperature is changed.

EXAMPLE 4 Refrigerant Performance

The following table shows the performance of various refrigerants. The data are based on the following conditions.

Evaporator temperature 45.0 F. (7.2 C.)
Condenser temperature 130.0 F. (54.5 C.)
Subcooled 15.0 F. (8.3 C.)
Return gas 65.0 F. (18.3 C.)
Compressor efficiency is 75%;

The refrigeration capacity is based on a compressor with a fixed displacement of 3.5 cubic feet per minute and 75% volumetric efficiency. Capacity is intended to mean the change in enthalpy of the refrigerant in the evaporator per pound of refrigerant circulated, i.e. the heat removed by the refrigerant in the evaporator per time. Coefficient of performance (COP) is intended to mean the ratio of the capacity to compressor work. It is a measure of refrigerant energy efficiency.

Evap. Cond. Comp. Capacity
Refrig. Press. Press. Dis. Temp. BTU/min
Comp. Psia (kPa) Psia (kPa) F. ( C.) COP (kw)
HPC-245ca/HPC-245cb
1.0/99.0 8 55 43 296 157 69 3.72 46 0.3
99.0/1.0 7 48 37 255 158 70 3.74 39 0.7
HPC-245ca/HPC-263fb
1.0/99.0 30 207 119 820 155 68 3.53 1.28 2.3
99.0/1.0 7 48 37 255 158 70 3.76 40 0.7
HPC-245ca/HPC-272ca
1.0/99.0 19 131 78 538 161 72 3.70 89 1.6
99.0/1.0 7 48 37 255 158 70 3.75 40 0.7
HPC-245ca/HPC-272ca
1.0/99.0 11 76 51 352 171 77 3.80 58 1.0
99.0/1.0 7 48 37 255 158 70 3.75 39 0.7
HPC-245ca/HPC-356mff
1.0/99.0 7 48 38 262 138 59 3.54 38 0.7
99.0/1.0 7 48 37 255 158 70 3.74 39 0.7
HPC-245ca/HPC-356mmz
1.0/99.0 8 55 42 290 137 58 3.53 42 0.7
99.0/1.0 7 48 37 255 158 70 3.74 39 0.7
HPC-245ca/butane
1.0/99.0 20 138 81 558 155 68.3 3.66 91 1.6
99.0/1.0 8 55 40 276 155 68.3 3.99 46 0.8
HPC-245ca/cyclopropane
1.0/99.0 62 427 214 1475 200 93 3.67 258 4.5
99.0/1.0 8 55 40 276 157 69 3.93 46 0.8
HPC-245ca/isobutane
1.0/99.0 29 200 110 758 152 67 3.56 120 2.1
99.0/1.0 7 48 38 262 158 70 3.77 41 0.7
HPC-245ca-propane
1.0/99.0 83 572 270 1862 167 75 3.31 280 4.9
99.0/1.0 8 55 40 276 156 69 3.96 46 0.8
HPC-245cb/HPC-245cb
1.0/99.0 8 55 44 303 156 69 3.73 47 0.8
99.5/0.5 36 248 136 938 139 59 3.31 135 2.4
HPC-245cb/HPC-254ca
1.0/99.0 7 48 36 248 161 72 3.79 39 0.7
98.6/1.4 35 241 134 924 140 60 3.31 133 2.3
HPC-245cb/HPC-272ca
1.0/99.0 11 76 51 352 171 77 3.81 58 1.0
99.0/1.0 36 248 136 938 139 59 3.32 135 2.4
HPC-245cb/HPC-281ca
1.0/99.0 27 186 105 724 168 76 3.69 121 2.1
99.0/1.0 36 248 137 945 139 59 3.31 136 2.4
HPC-245cb/HPC-281fa
1.0/99.0 21 145 87 600 169 76 3.72 100 1.8
99.0/1.0 36 248 137 945 139 59 3.31 136 2.4
HPC-245cb/butane
1.0/99.0 20 138 81 558 155 58 3.65 90 1.6
99.0/1.0 36 248 136 938 139 59 3.31 135 2.4
HPC-245cb/cyclopropane
1.0/99.0 63 434 215 1483 200 93 3.67 259 4.6
99.0/1.0 37 255 141 972 140 60 3.33 141 2.5
HPC-245cb/DME
1.0/99.0 48 331 182 1255 193 89 3.67 21.4 3.8
99.0/1.0 37 255 141 972 140 60 3.32 141 2.5
HPC-245cb/isobutane
1.0/99.0 29 200 110 758 152 67 3.56 1.21 2.1
99.0/1.0 36 248 136 938 139 59 3.31 136 2.4
HPC-245cb/propane
1.0/99.0 84 579 271 1868 166 74 3.32 282 5.0
99.0/1.0 37 255 140 965 140 60 3.32 140 2.5
HPC-245cb/propylene
1.0/99.0 104 717 331 2282 184 84 3.30 351 6.2
99.0/1.0 38 262 142 979 140 60 3.35 143 2.5
HPC-245ca/HPC-272ca
1.0/99.0 19 131 78 538 161 72 3.70 88 1.5
99.0/1.0 4 28 24 165 168 76 3.86 26 0.5
HPC-245ea/HPC-272ca
1.0/99.0 11 76 51 352 171 77 3.80 57 1.0
99.0/1.0 4 28 24 165 168 76 3.83 25 0.4
HPC-245ca/HPC-356mff
1.0/99.0 7 48 38 262 138 59 3.54 38 0.7
99.0/1.0 4 28 24 165 168 76 3.83 25 0.4
HPC-245ca/HPC-356mmz
1.0/99.0 8 55 42 290 1.37 58 3.53 42 0.7
99.0/1.0 4 28 24 165 168 76 3.83 25 0.4
HPC-245ca/HPC-4310mee
1.0/ 2 14 16 110 133 56 3.46 13 0.2
99.0*
99.0/1.0 4 28 23 159 167 75 3.82 25 0.4
HPC-245ca/butane
1.0/99.0 19 131 80 552 155 68 3.66 89 1.6
99.0/1.0 4 28 24 165 167 75 3.86 26 0.5
HPC-245ca/cyclopropane
1.0/99.0 61 421 213 1469 201 94 3.65 256 4.5
99.0/1.0 5 34 27 186 165 74 4.14 31 0.5
HPC-245ca/isobutane
1.0/99.0 29 200 109 752 152 67 3.55 120 2.1
99.0/1.0 4 28 25 172 167 75 3.92 27 0.5
HPC-245ca/propane
1.0/99.0 82 565 269 1855 166 74 3.31 279 4.9
99.0/1.0 5 34 27 186 163 73 4.25 33 0.6
HPC-245cb/HPC-263ca
1.0/99.0 9 62 45 310 162 72 3.77 50 0.9
99.0/1.0 8 55 43 296 157 69 3.72 46 0.8
HPC-245cb/HPC-263fb
1.0/99.0 30 207 199 1372 155 68 3.53 128 2.3
99.0/1.0 9 62 44 303 157 69 3.72 47 0.8
HPC-245cb/HPC-356mff
1.0/99.0 7 48 38 262 138 59 3.54 38 0.7
99.0/1.0 8 55 43 296 156 69 3.72 46 0.8
HPC-245cb/HPC-356mmz
1.0/99.0 8 55 43 390 137 58 3.53 42 0.7
99.0/1.0 8 55 43 296 156 69 3.71 46 0.8
HPC-245eb/butane
1.0/99.0 19 131 80 552 155 68 3.65 90 1.6
99.0/1.0 9 62 44 303 157 69 3.72 47 0.8
HPC-245cb/cyclopropane
1.0/99.0 62 427 214 1475 200 93 3.66 258 4.5
99.0/1.0 9 62 47 324 156 69 3.87 53 0.9
HPC-245cb/isobutane
1.0/99.0 29 200 110 758 152 67 3.56 120 2.1
99.0/1.0 9 62 44 303 156 69 3.74 47 0.8
HPC-245cb/propane
1.0/99.0 83 572 270 1862 166 74 3.32 281 4.9
99.0/1.0 10 60 47 324 144 68 3.88 53 0.9
HPC-245fa/HPC-263ca
1.0/99.0 9 62 45 310 162 72 3.77 50 0.9
99.0/1.0 11 76 54 372 155 68 3.67 57 1.0
HPC-246fa/HFC-272ca
1.0/99.0 19 131 78 538 161 72 3.70 89 1.6
99.0/1.0 11 76 54 372 155 68 3.67 58 1.0
HPC-245fa/HCF-272fb
1.0/99.0 14 97 63 434 169 76 3.76 72 1.3
99.0/1.0 11 76 54 372 155 68 3.67 58 1.0
HPC-245fu/butane
1.0/99.0 19 131 80 552 155 68 3.66 90 1.6
99.0/1.0 11 76 54 372 155 68 3.67 58 1.0
HPC-245fa/cyclopropane
1.0/99.0 62 427 214 1475 200 93 3.67 258 4.5
99.0/1.0 12 83 58 400 155 68 3.79 64 1.1
HPC-245fa/isobutane
1.0/99.0 29 200 110 758 152 67 3.56 120 2.1
99.0/1.0 11 76 55 379 155 68 3.68 59 1.0
HPC-245fa/pentane
1.0/99.0 5 34 26 179 150 66 3.74 28 0.5
99.0/1.0 11 76 53 365 155 68 3.68 57 1.0
*70 F. Return Gas

EXAMPLE 5

This Example is directed to measurements of the liquid/vapor equilibrium curves for the mixtures in FIGS. 1-6 and 8-45.

Turning to FIG. 1, the upper curve represents the composition of the liquid, and the lower curve represents the composition of the vapor.

The data for the compositions of the liquid in FIG. 1 are obtained as follows. A stainless steel cylinder is evacuated, and a weighed amount of HFC-245ca is added to the cylinder. The cylinder is cooled to reduce the vapor pressure of HFC-245ca, and then a weighed amount of HFC-245eb is added to the cylinder. The cylinder is agitated to mix the HFC-245ca and HFC-245eb, and then the cylinder is placed in a constant temperature bath until the temperature comes to equilibrium at 25 C., at which time the vapor pressure of the HC-245ca and HFC-245eb in the cylinder is measured. Additional samples of liquid are measured the same way, and the results are plotted in FIG. 1.

The curve which shows the composition of the vapor is calculated using an ideal gas equation of state.

Vapor/liquid equilibrium data are obtained in the same way for the mixtures shown in FIGS. 2-6 and 8-45.

The data in FIGS. 2-6, 8-25, 27-38 and 40-45 show that at 25 C., there are ranges of compositions that have vapor pressures as high as or higher than the vapor pressures of the pure components of the composition at that same temperature. As stated earlier, the higher than expected pressures of these compositions may result in an unexpected increase in the refrigeration capacity and efficiency for these compositions versus the pure components of the compositions.

The data in FIGS. 1, 26 and 39 show that at 25 C., there are ranges of compositions that have vapor pressures below the vapor pressures of the pure components of the composition at that same temperature. These minimum boiling compositions are useful in refrigeration, and may show an improved efficiency when compared to the pure components of the composition.

EXAMPLE 6

This Example is directed to measurements of the liquid/vapor equilibrium curve for mixtures of HFC-245ca and butane. The liquid/vapor equilibrium data for these mixtures are shown in FIG. 7. The upper curve represents the liquid composition, and the lower curve represents the vapor composition.

The procedure for measuring the composition of the liquid for mixtures of HFC-245ca and butane in FIG. 7 was as follows. A stainless steel cylinder was evacuated, and a weighed amount of HFC-245ca was added to the cylinder. The cylinder was cooled to reduce the vapor pressure of HFC-245ca, and then a weighed amount of butane was added to the cylinder. The cylinder was agitated to mix the HFC-245ca and butane, and then the cylinder was placed in a constant temperature bath until the temperature came to equilibrium at 20.0 C., at which time the vapor pressure of the content of the cylinder was measured. Samples of the liquid in the cylinder were taken and analyzed, and the results are plotted in FIG. 7 as asterisks, with a best fit curve having been drawn through the asterisks.

This procedure was repeated for various mixtures of HFC-245ca and butane as indicated in FIG. 7.

The curve which shows the composition of the vapor is calculated using an ideal gas equation of state.

The data in FIG. 7 show that at 20.0 C., there are ranges of compositions that have vapor pressures higher than the vapor pressures of the pure components of the composition at that same temperature.

The novel compositions of this invention, including the azeotropic or azeotrope-like compositions, may be used to produce refrigeration by condensing the compositions and thereafter evaporating the condensate in the vicinity of a body to be cooled. The novel compositions may also be used to produce heat by condensing the refrigerant in the vicinity of the body to be heated and thereafter evaporating the refrigerant.

The compositions of the present inventions are useful as blowing agents in the production of thermoset foams, which include polyurethane and phenolic foams, and thermoplastic foams, which include polystyrene or polyolefin foams.

A polyurethane foam may be made by combining a composition of the present invention, which functions as a blowing agent, together with an isocyanate, a polyol, and appropriate catalysts or surfactants to form a polyurethane or polyisocyanurate reaction formulation. Water may be added to the formulation reaction to modify the foam polymer as well as to generate carbon dioxide as an in-situ blowing agent.

A phenolic foam may be produced by combining a phenolic resin or resole, acid catalysts, a blowing agent of the present invention and appropriate surfactants to form a phenolic reaction formulation. The formulation may be chosen such that either an open cell or closed cell phenolic foam is produced.

Polystyrene or polyolefin foams may be made by extruding a molten mixture of a polymer, such as polystyrene, polyethylene or polypropylene), a nucleating agent and a blowing agent of the present invention through an extrusion die that yields the desired foam product profile.

The novel compositions of this invention, including the azeotropic or azeotrope-like compositions, may be used as cleaning agents to clean, for example, electronic circuit boards. Electronic components are soldered to circuit boards by coating the entire circuit side of the board with flux and thereafter passing the flux-coated board over preheaters and through molten solder. The flux cleans the conductive metal parts and promotes solder fusion, but leave residues on the circuit boards that must be removed with a cleaning agent. This is conventionally done by suspending a circuit board to be cleaned in a boiling sump which contains the azeotropic or azeotrope-like composition, then suspending the circuit board in a rinse sump, which contains the same azeotropic or azeotrope-like composition, and finally, for one minute in the solvent vapor above the boiling sump.

As a further example, the azeotropic mixtures of this invention can be used in cleaning processes such as described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,881,949, or as a buffing abrasive detergent.

It is desirable that the cleaning agents by azeotropic or azeotrope-like so that they do not tend to fractionate upon boiling or evaporation. This behavior is desirable because if the cleaning agent were not azeotropic or azeotrope-like, the more volatile components of the cleaning agent would preferentially evaporate, and would result in a cleaning agent with a changed composition that may become flammable and that may have less-desirable solvency properties, such as lower rosin flux solvency and lower inertness toward the electrical components being cleaned. The azeotropic character is also desirable in vapor degreasing operations because the cleaning agent is generally redistilled and employed for final rinse cleaning.

The novel compositions of this invention are also useful as fire extinguishing agents, heat transfer media, gaseous dielectrics, and power cycle working fluids.

ADDITIONAL COMPOUNDS

Other components, such as aliphatic hydrocarbons having a boiling point of −60 to +100 C., hydrofluorocarbonalkanes having a boiling point of −60 to +100 C., hydrofluoropropanes having a boiling point of between −60 to +100 C., hydrocarbon esters having a boiling point between −60 to +100 C., hydrochlorofluorocarbons having a boiling point between −60 to +100 C., hydrofluorocarbons having a boiling point of −60 to +100 C., hydrochlorocarbons having a boiling point between −60 to +100 C., chlorocarbons and perfluorinated compounds, can be added to the azeotropic or azeotrope-like compositions described above without substantially changing the properties thereof, including the constant boiling behavior, of the compositions.

Additives such as lubricants, corrosion inhibitors, surfactants, stabilizers, dyes and other appropriate materials may be added to the novel compositions of the invention for a variety of purposes provides they do not have an adverse influence on the composition for its intended application. Preferred lubricants include esters having a molecular weight greater than 250.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7943564Jan 21, 2009May 17, 2011The Sherwin-Williams CompanyHydrofluorocarbon cleaning compositions
US8147709May 7, 2009Apr 3, 2012E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And CompanyCompositions comprising 3,3,3-trifluoropropyne
US8333902Feb 29, 2012Dec 18, 2012E I Du Pont De Nemours And CompanyCompositions comprising 1,1,1,2,3-pentafluoropropane or 2,3,3,3- tetrafluoropropene
US8692037Nov 14, 2012Apr 8, 2014E I Du Pont De Nemours And CompanyCompositions comprising 1,1,1,2,3-pentafluoropropane or 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene
US9267065Aug 11, 2010Feb 23, 2016Arkema Inc.Azeotrope and azeotrope-like compositions of 1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene and HFC-245eb
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Classifications
U.S. Classification252/364, 510/177, 510/415, 510/408, 252/67, 510/411, 510/108
International ClassificationC11D7/24, C11D7/28, C11D7/26, C08J9/14, C09K5/04, C11D7/50
Cooperative ClassificationC09K5/045, C11D7/5077, C09K2205/32, C09K2205/12, C08J2207/04, C09K2205/22, C09K2205/11, C11D7/24, C11D7/5072, C11D7/263, C11D7/28, C08J9/149, C11D7/505
European ClassificationC11D7/50D4B, C08J9/14P, C09K5/04B4B, C11D7/50D2D, C11D7/50D4D
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