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Publication numberUSRE38083 E1
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 09/434,506
Publication dateApr 22, 2003
Filing dateNov 4, 1999
Priority dateMar 18, 1994
Publication number09434506, 434506, US RE38083 E1, US RE38083E1, US-E1-RE38083, USRE38083 E1, USRE38083E1
InventorsJames J. Ashe
Original AssigneeAnalog Devices, Inc.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Rail-to-rail DAC drive circuit
US RE38083 E1
Abstract
A voltage mode digital-to-analog converter (DAC) with an output buffer operational amplifier is provided with a rail-to-rail output voltage capability by reducing the DAC's output voltage swing to a range that is within the amplifier's permissible input signal range, and connecting the amplifier in a multiplier configuration to produce a corresponding multiplication of its input signal. The DAC output reduction is preferably achieved by delivering an n-bit input digital signal to an n+m bit DAC, and holding the DAC's m most significant bits OFF. The m most significant bits are dummy bits that are impedance matched with the DAC, while the amplifier is an operational amplifier with a feedback circuit that is also impedance matched to the DAC.
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Claims(42)
I claim:
1. A digital-to-analog converter (DAC) drive circuit, comprising:
a pair of voltage reference nodes for supplying different reference voltage levels,
a DAC that is connected to receive an input digital signal, and to be supplied directly by both of said voltage reference nodes at the full reference voltage levels, said DAC having multiple bit positions and including m dummy bits in the most significant of said bit positions, said DAC being connected to receive an n-bit input digital signal and, including said dummy bits, having n+m bits, said dummy bits being continually held OFF, and
an amplifier that is connected to receive an analog input from said DAC and to provide a drive output, said amplifier having a permissible input signal range that is less than the full range between said reference voltage levels, said dummy bits reducing the DAC's analog output swing to a range that is within the amplifier's permissible input signal range,
said amplifier providing its output with a greater than unity amplification.
2. The DAC drive circuit of claim 1, wherein said amplifier amplifies its input so that its output has a range that extends over substantially the full range between said reference voltage levels.
3. The DAC drive circuit of claim 2, wherein said amplifier amplifies its input signal by a factor that is the inverse of the DAC output swing reduction provided by said dummy bits.
4. The DAC drive circuit of claim 1, wherein m=1.
5. The DAC drive circuit of claim 1, said DAC comprising an R-2R ladder and an associated switching network for connecting each of its n least significant bits (LSBs) respectively to one or the other of said voltage reference nodes, said switching network including respective pairs of switches connected in circuit with an 2R resistor of each of said n LSBs, with one switch of each pair connecting its respective 2R resistor to one of said voltage reference nodes and the other switch of each pair connecting its respective 2R resistor to the other of said voltage reference nodes, and a control network that turns one switch of each pair ON and the other switch of each pair OFF in accordance with said input digital signal, said dummy bits each including a single switch connecting an associated 2R dummy bit resistor to one of said voltage reference nodes that corresponds to an OFF bit output, with said single switch held ON for all digital inputs.
6. The DAC drive circuit of claim 5, said amplifier comprising an operational amplifier having its non-inverting input connected to receive the DAC output and its inverting input connected in a feedback circuit with its output, said feedback circuit having an input impedance that matches the output impedance of said DAC.
7. The DAC drive circuit of claim 6, said op amp feedback circuit comprising first and second resistors connected in series between the amplifier output and the voltage reference node that corresponds to an OFF bit output, and a third resistor and a switch connected in series between the amplifier's inverting input and a juncture of said first and second resistors, said first and second resistors each having a resistance value of R, said third resistor having a resistance value of R/2, and said switch being permanently ON and matching the switches in the DAC's switching network.
8. The DAC drive circuit of claim 1, said amplifier comprising an operational amplifier having its non-inverting input connected to receive the DAC output and its inverting input connected in a feedback circuit with its output, said feedback circuit having an input impedance that matches the output impedance of said DAC.
9. A digital-to-analog converter (DAC) drive circuit, comprising:
high and low reference nodes for supplying high and low reference voltage levels,
a DAC that is connected to receive an input digital signal and to produce a corresponding analog output signal with a voltage swing that is limited to the voltage range between said high and low reference voltage levels, divided by a factor D, and
an operational amplifier supplied with power from said high and low voltage reference nodes, said amplifier having a permissible input signal range that is less than the difference between said high and low reference voltages, said amplifier being connected to amplify its input by said factor D, and thereby produce an amplified output that can swing substantially through the full range between said high and low reference voltage, said amplifier having its non-inverting input connected to receive the DAC output and its inverting input connected in a feedback circuit with its output, said feedback circuit having an input impedance that matches the output impedance of said DAC.
10. The DAC drive circuit of claim 9, said divider comprising an attenuation network that is impedance matched to the DAC.
11. The DAC drive circuit of claim 10, wherein said attenuation network is implemented as m dummy bits in the most significant bit positions of said DAC, said DAC being connected to receive an n-bit input digital signal and, including said dummy bits, having n+m bits, said dummy bits being held OFF.
12. A digital-to-analog converter (DAC) drive circuit, comprising:
a DAC that is connected to receive an input digital signal and to produce a corresponding analog output signal with a predetermined swing range,
an operational amplifier that is connected to receive an analog input from said DAC and to provide a drive output, said amplifier having a permissible input signal range that is less than the DAC's analog output signal swing range, and
a divider that is connected to reduce the DAC's analog output swing to a range that is within the amplifier's permissible input signal range,
said amplifier receiving its input from said DAC through said divider and providing its output with a greater than unity amplification, said amplifier having its non-inverting input connected to receive the DAC output and its inverting input connected in a feedback circuit with its output, said feedback circuit having an input impedance that matches the output impedance of said DAC.
13. The DAC drive circuit of claim 12, wherein said amplifier amplifies its input so that its output has a range that extends over substantially the full swing range of the DAC's analog output signal.
14. The DAC drive circuit of claim 13, wherein said amplifier amplifies its input signal by a factor that is the inverse of the DAC output swing reduction provided by said divider.
15. The DAC drive circuit of claim 12, wherein said divider reduces the DAC's analog output swing by half, and said amplifier amplifies its input signal by two.
16. The DAC drive circuit of claim 15, said divider comprising an attenuation circuit network that is impedance matched to the DAC.
17. The DAC drive circuit of claim 15 , 16, wherein said attenuation network is implemented as a dummy bit in the most significant bit position of said DAC, said DAC being connected to receive an n-bit input digital signal and, including said bit, having n+l bits, said dummy bit being held OFF.
18. The DAC drive circuit of claim 12, said divider comprising an attenuation network that is impedance matched to the DAC.
19. The DAC drive circuit of claim 18, wherein said attenuation network is implemented as m dummy bits in the most significant bit positions of said DAC, said DAC being connected to receive an n-bit input digital signal and, including said dummy bits, having n+m bits, said dummy bits being held OFF.
20. A digital-to-analog converter (DAC) drive circuit, comprising:
a pair of voltage reference nodes for supplying different reference voltage levels,
a DAC that is connected to receive an input digital signal, and to be supplied by said voltage reference nodes,
an amplifier that is connected to receive an analog input from said DAC and to provide a drive output, said amplifier having a permissible input signal range that is less than the full range between said reference voltage levels, and
a divider that is connected to reduce the DAC's analog output swing to a range that is within the amplifier's permissible input signal range,
said amplifier receiving its input from said DAC through said divider, and providing its output with a greater than unity amplification,
said divider comprising an attenuation network that is impedance matched to the DAC, said attenuation network implemented as m dummy bits in the most significant bit positions of said DAC, said DAC being connected to receive an n-bit input digital signal and, including said dummy bits, having n+m bits, said dummy bits being continually held OFF,
said DAC comprising an R-2R ladder and an associated switching network for connecting each of its n least significant bits (LSBs) respectively to one or the other of said voltage reference nodes, said switching network including respective pairs of switches connected in circuit with an 2R resistor of each of said n LSBs, with one switch of each pair connecting its respective 2R resistor to one of said voltage reference nodes and the other switch of each pair connecting its respective 2R resistor to the other of said voltage reference nodes, and a control network that turns one switch of each pair ON and the other switch of each pair OFF in accordance with said input digital signal, said dummy bits each including a single switch connecting an associated 2R dummy bit resistor to one of said voltage reference nodes that corresponds to an OFF bit output, with said single switch held ON for all digital inputs,
said amplifier comprising an operational amplifier having its non-inverting input connected to receive the DAC output and its inverting input connected in a feedback circuit with its output, said feedback circuit having an input impedance that matches the output impedance of said DAC.
21. The DAC drive circuit of claim 20, said op amp feedback circuit comprising first and second resistors connected in series between the amplifier output and the voltage reference node that corresponds to an OFF bit output, and a third resistor and a switch connected in series between the amplifier's inverting input and a juncture of said first and second resistors, said first and second resistors each having a resistance value of R, said third resistor having a resistance value of R/2, and said switch being permanently ON and matching the switches in the DAC's switching network.
22. A digital-to-analog converter (DAC) drive circuit, comprising:
a pair of voltage reference nodes for supplying different reference voltage levels,
a DAC that is connected to receive an input digital signal, and to be supplied by said voltage reference nodes,
an amplifier that is connected to receive a analog input from said DAC and to provide a drive output, said amplifier having a permissible input signal range that is less than the full range between said reference voltage levels, and
a divider that is connected to reduce the DAC's analog output swing to a range that is within the amplifier's permissible input signal range,
said amplifier receiving its input from said DAC through said divider and providing its output with a greater than unity amplification, said amplifier comprising an operational amplifier having its non-inverting input connected to receive the DAC output and its inverting input connected in a feedback circuit with its output, said feedback circuit having an input impedance that matches the output impedance of said DAC.
23. The DAC drive circuit of claim 22, wherein said amplifier amplifies its input so that its output has a range that extends over substantially the full range between said reference voltage levels.
24. The DAC drive circuit of claim 23, wherein said amplifier amplifies its input signal by a factor that is the inverse of the DAC output swing reduction provided by said divider.
25. The DAC drive circuit of claim 22, wherein said divider reduces the DAC's analog output swing by half, and said amplifier amplifies its input signal by two.
26. The DAC drive circuit of claim 25, said divider comprising an attenuation network that is impedance matched to the DAC.
27. A digital-to-analog converter (DAC) drive circuit, comprising:
a pair of voltage reference nodes for supplying different reference voltage levels,
a DAC that includes a conversion section connected to receive a digital input signal and convert the digital signal to an analog output signal, and an attenuation section, said DAC connected to be supplied directly by both of said voltage reference nodes at the full reference voltage levels, and
an amplifier having an input that is connected to receive the analog output from said DAC and to provide a drive output, said amplifier having a permissible input signal range that is less than the full range between said reference voltage levels, and a greater than unity amplification;
said attenuation section connected to said DAC conversion section to reduce the DAC's analog output swing to a range that is within the amplifier's permissible input signal range.
28. The DAC drive circuit of claim 27, wherein said attenuation section includes an attenuation network.
29. The DAC drive circuit of claim 27, wherein said DAC is connected to be supplied directly by both of said voltage reference nodes at the full reference voltage levels.
30. The DAC drive circuit of claim 27, wherein said digital input is connected only to said conversion section.
31. The DAC drive circuit of claim 27, said conversion section comprising multiple DAC bits and said attenuation section comprising at least one DAC bit, with only the multiple DAC bits of the conversion section having associated therewith switches controlled by said input digital signal.
32. The DAC drive circuit of claim 27, wherein said amplifier amplifies its input so that its output has a range that extends over substantially the full range between said reference voltage levels.
33. The DAC drive circuit of claim 32, wherein said amplifier amplifies its input signal by a factor that is the inverse of a DAC output swing reduction factor.
34. A digital-to-analog converter (DAC) drive circuit, comprising:
a pair of voltage reference nodes for supplying different reference voltage levels,
a DAC that is connected to receive an input digital signal, and to be supplied directly by both of said voltage reference nodes at the full reference voltage levels, and
an amplifier that is connected to receive an analog input from said DAC and to provide a drive output, said amplifier having a permissible input signal range that is less than the full range between said reference voltage levels,
said DAC including an attenuation portion that reduces the DAC's analog output swing to a range that is within the amplifier's permissible input signal range, said amplifier providing its output with a greater than unity amplification.
35. The DAC drive circuit of claim 34, wherein said attenuation portion includes an attenuation network.
36. The DAC drive circuit of claim 34, wherein said attenuation portion is not connected to receive said input digital signal.
37. The DAC drive circuit of claim 34, wherein said amplifier amplifies its input so that its output has a range that extends over substantially the full range between said reference voltage levels.
38. A digital-to-analog converter (DAC) drive circuit, comprising:
high and low reference nodes for supplying high and low reference voltage levels,
a DAC that is connected to receive the full voltage differential between said reference nodes and an input digital signal, and to produce a corresponding analog output signal with a voltage swing that is limited to the voltage range between said high and low reference voltage levels divided by a factor D, and
an operational amplifier supplied with power from said high and low voltage reference nodes, said amplifier having a permissible input signal range that is less than the difference between said high and low reference voltages, said amplifier connected to amplify its input by said factor D, and thereby produce an amplified output that can swing substantially through th e full range between said high and low reference voltage levels.
39. The DAC drive circuit of claim 38, said DAC comprising a conversion section connected to receive said input digital signal and convert it to said analog output signal, and an attenuation section that is connected to said DAC conversion section to reduce the DAC's analog output swing by said factor D.
40. The DAC drive circuit of claim 39, wherein said attenuation section includes an attenuation network.
41. The DAC drive circuit of claim 39, wherein said digital input is connected only to said conversion section.
42. The DAC drive circuit of claim 39, said conversion section comprising multiple DAC bits and said attenuation section comprising at least one DAC bit with only the multiple DAC bits of the conversion section having associated therewith switches controlled by said input digital signal.
Description
RELATED APPLICATION

This application is a continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 08/210,618, filed Mar. 18, 1994 abandoned.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

This invention relates to digital-to-analog converter (DAC) drive circuits, and particularly to DAC circuits that are connected to output operational amplifiers having a permissible input voltage range less than the circuit's rail-to-rail differential.

2. Description of the Related Art

DACs that are configured to operate in the voltage mode, in which an output analog voltage that corresponds to an input digital signal is produced, typically have their outputs buffered by an operational drive amplifier. This type of design is used, for example, in the PM-7224 8-bit CMOS DAC described in the Analog Devices, Inc. Data Converter Reference Manual, volume 1, 1992, pages 2-267 through 2-278.

The basic circuit is illustrated in FIG. 1. A voltage mode converter DAC1 is shown with its output 2 connected to the non-inverting input of a buffer operational amplifier A1. The output 4 of A1 is tied back to the amplifier's inverting input, thus providing a unity gain drive for a load 6.

A typical circuit used to implement amplifier A1 is shown in FIG. 2. The circuit is supplied by positive and negative voltage supply lines Vdd and Vss, respectively. The voltage supply levels are referred to as the circuit “rails”. With Vss tied to analog ground potential, the circuit can be operated with a single power supply Vdd, typically 12-15 volts. The circuit could alternately be operated from dual power supplies, such as +5 and −5 volts for Vdd and Vss, respectively.

The amplifier's output stage is shown as an NPN bipolar transistor Q1 that provides a low-impedance, high-output current capability. The emitter of Q1 is loaded with a current source I1, such as a 400 microamp NMOS current source referenced to Vss, while its collector is connected to Vdd. Sinking the I1 current into Vss allows the amplifier's output to go directly to ground.

An input stage consisting of art an NMOS transistor Q2 has its drain connected to Vdd, with another current source I2 sinking current from the source of Q2 to Vss; the Q2 source is also connected through a resistor R1 to the base of Q1. Transistor Q2 operates as a source follower, driving the resistor R1 and output transistor Q1.

The converter DAC1 by itself is a high impedance device; the operational amplifier A1 provides a buffer function to drive the load. However, proper operation of A1 generally requires that its input 8 from the DAC be 1 volt or more below the positive voltage supply level Vdd. This means that the voltage swing at the output of the DAC must be limited to the permissible input voltage range for the amplifier, and consequently also limits the output range for the overall circuit to a similar level. The circuit is thus limited to an output range less than a desired “rail-to-rail” voltage swing.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention seeks to provide an improved DAC drive circuit that is capable of operating in a voltage mode with a full rail-to-rail output range. This goal is accomplished by dividing the DAC output by a factor that places it within the permissible input range for the op amp, and providing the amplifier's output stage with a gain that allows the overall drive circuit to produce a rail-to-rail output if desired.

In a preferred embodiment the divider is implemented with an attenuation network, in the form of m dummy DAC bits, that is impedance matched to the DAC. The DAC, which is connected to receive an n-bit digital signal, thus has n+m bits. The dummy bits are connected as the DAC's m most significant bits, and are always OFF. This produces a downscaling of the input signal range by a factor ½m. The op amp is configured to produce a compensating 2m amplification, and includes a feedback circuit that is also impedance matched to the DAC. By setting m equal to 1, the DAC's output range is divided by 2, with the op amp doubling the DAC's output to restore a rail-to-rail output swing.

These and other features and advantages of the invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art from the following detailed description, taken together with the accompanying drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a known voltage mode DAC drive circuit, described above;

FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of a known operational amplifier, described above, used in the circuit of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a block diagram illustrating the basic theory of the invention;

FIG. 4 is a block diagram showing an implementation of the invention with an n+m bit DAC that receives an n-bit digital input, and has its m most significant bits held OFF to serve a dummy function; and

FIG. 5 is a simplified schematic diagram that provides additional circuit details of the FIG. 4 embodiment.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

FIG. 3 presents a block diagram illustrating the inventive concept that enables a rail-to-rail output from a voltage mode DAC that drives an output buffer amplifier. The output of the DAC 2 is divided by a factor D in a divide block 10 before being applied to a buffer op amp A2, which is connected in a multiply configuration to amplify its input by a factor greater than unity. This allows the reference input for DAC 2 to be rail-to-rail, while the swing of the input to the op amp A2 is restricted to the rail-to-rail swing divided by D. With D set at a convenient value such as 2, the input to the op amp A2 will only swing from one rail half way to the other rail. The op amp's input stage can easily handle this voltage swing; providing it with an amplification factor of D results in the output from A2 as well as the input to DAC 2 being rail- to- rail. This amplification is achieved in the conventional manner by connecting a feedback resistor RF between the output and inverting input of A2, connecting a gain setting resistor RF/(D−1) between the A2 inverting input and ground, and connecting the non-inverting input of A2 to the DAC output.

The division function is preferably implementing implemented by adding one or more dummy bits to the DAC as its most significant bits, and holding the dummy bits off continuously. While a single extra bit will divide the DAC's output by 2, which will normally be compatible with the op amp's input stage, the concept can be generalized as illustrated in FIG. 4 by applying an n-bit digital input 12 to DAC 2, which is implemented as an (n+m)-bit device. The division function 10 is accomplished by holding the m most significant bits OFF. This results in an input to the op amp A2 that has a voltage range equal to the rail-to-rail differential divided by 2m. A rail-to-rail output from A2 is achieved by setting the amplifier's gain setting resistor equal to RF/(2m−1).

FIG. 5 is a simplified schematic diagram of a voltage mode DAC and the op amp A2 connected together as indicated in FIG. 4, with m=1. The illustrated DAC employs a conventional R-2R resistance ladder, but the invention is also applicable to other DAC voltage mode configurations.

The output from the resistor ladder is taken at node 14, which also provides the input to the output amplifier A2. Voltage references REF A and REF B are provided for the DAC at terminals 16 and 18, respectively. REF A is preferably set equal to the VDD upper rail value, while REF B is preferably set equal to ground or to the lower rail value if it is different from ground.

The DAC's three most significant bits (MSBs) are shown within dashed outlines 20, 22 and 24, while the least significant bit (LSB) is enclosed within dashed outline 26. The MSB 20 is actually an attenuation network that is impedance matched to the DAC and is used to divide the output from the DAC by two. This is accomplished by using the same R-2R configuration for bit 20 as for the other bits, but holding bit 20 constantly OFF regardless of the DAC's digital input signal.

A conventional decoder 28 receives the digital input signal either serially over a single input line 12 or as a parallel input over a number of input lines. The decoder provides switch control signals over decoder output lines 30 1, 30 2 . . . 30 n to the various ladder stages except for the MSB 20. In this bit, the 2R resistor 32 0, is connected permanently to REF B. This holds the MSB in a continual OFF state to implement the divide-by-two function discussed above in connection with FIG. 4. With a permanent connection to analog ground, the MSB 20 divides the DAC output by 2.

The subsequent DAC bit stages 22, 24 . . . 26 are each implemented in a conventional manner, with R-value resistors 34 1, 34 2 . . . 34 n connected in series with the DAC output 14 (34 n actually has a value of 2R to terminate the ladder), and 2R value resistors 32 1, 32 2 . . . 32 n connected between respective pairs of R-value resistors and respective switching networks. The 2R resistors are connected to either REF A or REF B, depending upon the switch control signals from the decoder 28.

Referring first to the second MSB stage 22, the decoder output on line 30 1 is transmitted through a pair of series connected inverters INV1-1 and INV1-2. The 2R resistor 32 1 for the stage is connected to REF A through a first switch S1A and to REF B through a second switch S1B. Each switch is preferably implemented with an NMOS and PMOS transistor pair connected in parallel; the gates of the PMOS transistor for S1A and NMOS transistor for S1B are connected to the output of inverter INV1-i, while the gates of the other transistors in S1A and S1B are connected in common to the output of INV1-2. In this way one of the switches S1A and S1B is open and the other is closed, depending upon the signal on decoder output line 30 1. With switch S1A ON and S1B OFF, the 2R resistor 32 1 is connected to REF A, and the bit contributes a voltage value of REF A/4 to the DAC output at terminal 14. If, on the other hand, the decoder signal causes switch S18 to close and switch S1A to open, the 2R resistor 32 1 is connected to REF B. This results in a zero voltage contribution to the DAC output when REF B is at ground, and a negative contribution when REF B has a negative value.

The remaining bit stages are implemented in a manner similar to the second MSB stage 22. Stage 24 is shown with its decoder control line 30 2 connected through series inverters INV2-1 and INV2-2, with its 2R resistor 32 2 connected to REF A and REF B through switches S2A and S2B, respectively. Similarly, the LSB 26 has series inverters INVn-1 and INVn-2 connected to the decoder control line 30 n, with its 2R resistor 32 n connectable to REF A and REF B, respectively through switches SnA and SnB. Bit 24 contributes a voltage of REF A/8 to the DAC output when switch S2A is ON, while bit 26 contributes a voltage of REF A/2n+1 when switch SnA is ON.

The dummy MSB 20 includes a single switch S0, implemented in the same manner as the other bit switches, between its 2R resistor 320 32 0 and REF B. A pair of series connected inverters INV0-1 and INV0-2 are connected at their input end to REF B (as opposed to the inverter pair for the other bits, which receive respective inputs from decoder 28), and have their outputs connected to switch S0 so as to hold the switch permanently ON. This connects the bit's 2R resistor 32 0 to REF B, which is typically grounded, and thus holds the bit 20 continually OFF. Since only one of the switches in the switch pairs for each of the other bits will be on at any given time, the dummy bit 20 is impedance matched in terms of both its R-2R resistors and its switch resistance to the rest of the DAC.

If the 2R resistor of each bit stage (including the MSB 20) were connected to REF A, the DAC output at terminal 14 would be REF A 2 N - 1 2 N

(the ladder termination resistor reduces the output by the value of the LSB). When any of the branch 2R resistors are connected to ground, the net output voltage is decremented in accordance with the bit order of the grounded resistors. For example, connecting the MSB 2R resistor 320 32 0 to ground reduces the DAC output by ½, connecting the next MSB 2R resistor 32 1 to ground reduces the output by ¼, and so forth. With the MSB 2R resistor 32 0 permanently connected to REF B as shown in FIG. 5, the DAC output can never exceed REF A/2. This is compatible with the input voltage restrictions for the op amp A2, which as described above is connected in a multiplier configuration to provide a full output swing capability from REF B up to REF A.

It is desirable that the input impedance of the feedback network for op amp A2, as seen from the op amp's inverting terminal, equal the DAC output impedance; this will provide input bias current cancellation for the op amp. To achieve this impedance matching, the op amp's feedback and gain control resistors 36 and 38 each have a resistance value R, equal to the resistance values of the series resistors in the DAC. Another resistor 40 with a value of R/2 is connected between the op amp's inverting input and the junction of resistors 36 and 38. The input impedance for this resistor network is the resistance of resistor 40 in series with the parallel combination of resistors 36 and 38, for a net input impedance of R; this is the same as the DAC's R-2R output impedance seen from output node 14. To complete the impedance matching, a switch 42 is connected in series with resistor 40. Switch 42 is implemented in the same manner as each of the DAC switches and is held always ON in a manner similar to switch SO in the dummy bit 20. The resistance of switch 42 thus matches the net switch resistance that is included in the DAC's output impedance. Resistor 38 and switch 42 do not alter the op amp's gain.

While particular embodiments of the invention have been shown and described, numerous variations and alternate embodiments will occur to those skilled in the art. Accordingly, it is intended that the invention be limited only in terms of the appended claims.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification341/139, 341/154
International ClassificationH03M1/70, H03M1/78
Cooperative ClassificationH03M1/70, H03M1/785
European ClassificationH03M1/70