Publication number | USRE38451 E1 |

Publication type | Grant |

Application number | US 09/792,342 |

Publication date | Mar 2, 2004 |

Filing date | Feb 20, 2001 |

Priority date | Nov 12, 1993 |

Fee status | Paid |

Publication number | 09792342, 792342, US RE38451 E1, US RE38451E1, US-E1-RE38451, USRE38451 E1, USRE38451E1 |

Inventors | Kerry S. Veenstra |

Original Assignee | Altera Corporation |

Export Citation | BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan |

Patent Citations (11), Non-Patent Citations (3), Referenced by (2), Classifications (11), Legal Events (1) | |

External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet | |

US RE38451 E1

Abstract

A universal logic module for use in a programmable logic device, capable of generating all logical functions of three variables or less. The universal logic module also implements a full adder with carry propagation.

Claims(39)

1. In a programmable logic device having a programmable interconnect array, a universal logic module having five input variables and an output, comprising:

a first multiplexer having a first and a second data input coupled to a first one of the five input variables, a third and fourth data input coupled to an inverse of said first one of the five input variables, a first select input coupled to a second one of the five input variables, a second select input coupled to a third one of the five input variables, and an output;

a second multiplexer having a first and a second data input coupled to said first one of the five input variables, a third data input coupled to a fourth one of the five input variables, a fourth data input coupled to an inverse of said fourth one of the five input variables, a first select input coupled to said second one of the five input variables, a second select input coupled to said third one of the five input variables, and an output; and

a third multiplexer having a first data input coupled to said output of said first multiplexer, a second data input coupled to said output of said second multiplexer, a select input coupled to a fifth one of the five input variables, and an output coupled to the output of the universal logic module.

2. The universal logic module of claim 1 further comprising a second output coupled to said output of said second multiplexer, said second output for carrying a carry output signal when the universal logic module implements an adder function.

3. The universal logic module of claim 1 , wherein said first and second multiplexers are 4:1 multiplexers each comprising eight pass gates arranged in four rows of two serially-coupled pass gates.

4. The universal logic module of claim 1 , wherein said third multiplexer is a 2:1 multiplexer comprising two pass gates.

5. The universal logic module of claim 2 further comprising a fourth multiplexer coupled between said third input variable and its corresponding data input, for selectively coupling one of said third input variable and a carry input signal from another universal logic module to said corresponding data input.

6. The universal logic module of claim 2 further comprising a fourth multiplexer coupled between said fourth input variable and its corresponding data input, for selectively coupling one of said fourth input variable and a carry input signal from another universal logic module to said corresponding data input.

7. The universal logic module of claim 5 , wherein said fourth multiplexer is a 2:1 multiplexer comprising two pass gates.

8. The universal logic module of claim 5 , wherein said carry output signal couples to a carry input of a succeeding module directly.

9. The universal logic module of claim 5 , wherein said carry output signal couples to the programmable interconnect array before coupling to a carry input of another universal logic module.

10. In a programmable logic device having a programmable interconnect array, a universal logic module having five input variables, a first output and a second output, comprising:

a first 4:1 multiplexer having binary 0 and binary 3 data inputs coupled to a first one of the five input variables, binary 1 and binary 2 data inputs coupled to an inverse of said first one of the five input variables, a first select input coupled to a second one of the five input variables, a second select input coupled to a third one of the five input variables, and an output;

a second 4:1 multiplexer having binary 1 and binary 2 data inputs coupled to said first one of the five input variable, binary 0 and binary 3 data inputs coupled to a true and complement of a fourth one of the five input variables, respectively, a first select input coupled to said second one of the five input variables, a second select input coupled to said third one of the five input variables, and an output; and

a 2:1 multiplexer having a first data input coupled to said output of said first multiplexer, a second data input coupled to said output of said second multiplexer, a select input coupled to a fifth one of the five input variables, and an output coupled to the first output of the universal logic module,

wherein said output of said second multiplexer provides a carry output at the second output of the universal logic module when the universal logic module implements an adder function.

11. In a programmable circuit having a programmable interconnect array, a first logic cell comprising:

12. The logic cell of claim 11 , wherein said dedicated multiplexer is a **2**:**1** multiplexer comprising two pass gates.

13. The first logic cell of claim 11 , wherein the logic function circuit couples the carry output signal to a carry input of a third logic cell directly.

14. The first logic cell of claim 11 , wherein the logic function circuit couples the carry output signal to the programmable interconnect array before coupling the carry output signal to a carry input of a third logic cell.

15. A first logic cell in a programmable logic device, comprising:

16. A dedicated carry multiplexer in a programmable circuit comprising:

17. The dedicated carry multiplexer of claim 16 wherein the logic function circuit generates any Boolean function of at least four input signals that provide three variables, and the logic function circuit is capable of performing ten different forms of three-*variable functions on the four input signals.*

18. A configurable electronic device comprising:

19. The configurable electronic device according to claim 18 wherein the function generator provides a carry output signal to a second adjacent logic cell without routing through the interconnect structure.

20. The configurable electronic device as recited in claim 18 wherein the function generator provides a carry output signal to the interconnect structure.

21. A dedicated carry multiplexer in a programmable logic device comprising:

22. The dedicated carry multiplexer of claim 21 wherein the logic function circuit provides a carry output signal that is routed directly to a second logic cell.

23. A first logic cell in a programmable logic device, comprising:

24. The first logic cell of claim 23 wherein:

25. The first logic cell of claim 23 wherein:

26. A first logic cell in a programmable logic device, comprising:

27. The first logic cell of claim 26 :

28. The first logic cell of claim 26 :

29. A first logic cell in a programmable logic device, comprising:

30. The first logic cell of claim 29 wherein:

31. The first logic cell of claim 29 wherein:

32. A first logic cell in a programmable logic device, comprising:

33. The first logic cell of claim 32 wherein:

34. The first logic cell of claim 32 wherein:

35. A first logic cell in a programmable logic device, comprising:

36. The first logic cell of claim 35 wherein:

37. The first logic cell of claim 35 wherein:

38. A first logic cell in a programmable logic device, comprising:

39. The first logic cell of claim 38 wherein:

Description

This application is a continuation of U.S. reissue application Ser. No. **08**/**900**,**070**, filed Jul. **24**, **1997**, now abandoned, which is a reissue of U.S. patent application Ser. No. **08**/**153**,**321**, filed Nov. **12**, **1993**, now U.S. Pat. No. **5**,**436**,**574**, which are incorporated by reference.

This invention relates in general to electronic circuits for generation of combinatorial logic. More particularly, this invention relates to a universal logic module for use in programmable logic devices (PLDs).

A logic cell is the fundamental building block of a PLD. Each logic cell typically includes a logic array section to implement combinatorial (“sum of the products”) logic and a register to provide for sequential logic. When combined together in large numbers inside a PLD, they facilitate implementation of complex combinatorial as well as sequential logic. Therefore, versatility and cell size are among the more important considerations in design of logic cells for PLDs.

There exist differing approaches to implementing the combinatorial logic section of a PLD logic cell. One approach employs electrically programmable read only memory (EPROM) elements to implement a programmable AND array that is followed by fixed OR logic. Another method of implementing the programmable combinatorial logic uses look-up tables that can be programmed using random access memory (RAM) cells. Either method requires a number of programmable elements that must be configured for a particular logic function before input variables are applied. Furthermore, existing logic cells tend to be inflexible when implementing frequently occurring specialized functions. For example, two logic cells are required to implement a full adder with carry output using typical existing logic cells.

There is, therefore, room for improvement in methods of implementing combinatorial logic for logic cells in PLDs.

The present invention provides a small and fast universal logic module (ULM) capable of realizing all Boolean functions of three or fewer variables. The ULM of the present invention further includes a separate output that can realize the carry output of a full adder.

In a preferred embodiment, the present invention provides, in a programmable logic device, a ULM having five input terminals and an output terminal. The ULM includes two 4:1 multiplexers and 2:1 multiplexer. Each 4:1 multiplexer includes 4 data inputs, 2 select inputs and one output. The outputs of the 4:1 multiplexers feed two data inputs of the 2:1 multiplexer, whose output forms the ULM output. The eight data inputs of the two 4:1 multiplexers and their select inputs as well as the select input of the 2:1 multiplexer connect to the five input terminals and their complements. An output of one of the 4:1 multiplexers can be used as a carry output of full adder.

This embodiment of the present invention can realize all Boolean functions of three or fewer variables by assigning the three (or fewer) variables, their complements and the constants 0 and 1 to the five input terminals. Furthermore, this circuit is capable of realizing the carry output of a full adder at a secondary output without any additional circuitry. The ULM, therefore, does not require reconfiguring programmable elements to change its logic functions and is capable of implementing a full adder with carry output. Accordingly, the ULM of the present invention provides a small and versatile combinational circuit for use in PLDs.

A further understanding of the nature and advantages of the present invention may be gained by reference to the following detailed description and diagrams.

FIG. 1 is a logic diagram of the ULM of the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a circuit schematic showing a transistor implementation of the ULM of the present invention; and

FIGS. 3A and 3B show logic cells using the ULM of the present invention implementing carry propagation circuitry.

A universal logic module (ULM) is a combinatorial logic circuit that can produce a set of multi-variable logic functions by only manipulating the application of variables to its several input terminals. The number of all possible unique logical functions of three variables (or less) is given by the expression [2**(2**3)], which is equal to [2**8] or 256. It has long been known that if both true and complements of all input variables as well as the resulting output function are available, the number of nondegenerate (or canonical forms of) three-variable logic functions can be reduced to ten. That is, all Boolean functions of three variables, x, y and z, can be converted into one of ten functions f(x,y,z) by some combination of inverting the inputs, inverting the output, and permuting the inputs.

FIG. 1 shows a logic diagram of the three-variable ULM of the present invention. The ULM includes two 4:1 multiplexers **100** and **102**, whose singular outputs feed two data inputs of a 2:1 multiplexer **104**, respectively. An output of multiplexer **104** forms the output f of the ULM. Two select inputs of multiplexer **100** connect to the two select inputs of multiplexer **102** and connect to inputs b and c, respectively. The eight data inputs of the two 4:1 multiplexers **100** and **102** connect to various permutations of two inputs a**1** and a**2**, and their complements. A select input of multiplexer **104** connects to a fifth input d. The output of multiplexer **102**, carry, can realize a carry output of a full adder. The ULM, therefore, has five inputs a**1**, a**2**, b, c and d, and output f, and a carry output.

Table 1 shows one example of how the three input variables x, y and z, their complements and the constants 0 and 1 can be assigned to the five inputs of the ULM of FIG. 1, in order to realize the ten different canonical forms of three-variable functions listed in the f(x,y,z) column.

TABLE 1 | ||||||||

a1 | a2 | b | c | d | f(x,y,z) | carry(x,y,z) | ||

1 | x | y | x | z | z | xyz | N.A. | |

2 | 0 | x | y | z | 1 | xyz + x′y′z′ | N.A. | |

3 | 0 | x | y′ | y′ | z | (x XOR y)z | N.A. | |

4 | 0 | x | y′ | z | y′ | (x + y)z | N.A. | |

5 | 0 | 0 | x | y | z | xy′z′ + x′yz′ + x′y′z | N.A. | |

6 | 0 | y | 0 | x | z | xz′ + x′y′z | N.A. | |

7 | x | 1 | y | z | 1 | xy + xz + yz | N.A. | |

8 | x | y | 1 | 1 | z | xz′ + yz | N.A. | |

9 | z | z | 1 | x′ | y′ | xy XOR z | N.A. | |

10 | x | 1 | y | z | 0 | x XOR y XOR z | xy + xz + yz | |

Application of DeMorgan's Law allows, for example, the function f(x,y,z)=x+y+z to be realized by using the first line in Table 1 that defines the function f(x,y,z)=xyz and inverting all inputs and the output. The function f(x,y,z)=xz XOR y can be realized from the ninth function f(x,y,z)=xy XOR z in Table 1, by swapping y and z. All functions of fewer than three variables can be readily realized by selecting an appropriate three-variable function from Table 1 and setting one or more of its inputs to 0 or 1. For example, the ninth function f(x,y,z)=xy XOR z converts to f(x,y)=xy by setting z to 0. Through these known methods the ULM of FIG. 1 can realize all 256 functions of three or fewer variables using the assignments shown in Table 1.

The ULM of FIG. 1 can also implement a two-input full adder with carry output. The tenth function f(x,y,z)=x XOR y XOR z in Table 1 allows the ULM to implement a full adder by assigning, for example, x and y to the two inputs and z to carry-in (C_{in}). The output multiplexer **102** in FIG. 1 generates the carry output function xy+xz+yz as shown on the last line of Table 1.

FIG. 2 shows a preferred embodiment of the circuit implementation of the ULM of FIG. **1**. The 4:1 multiplexers are implemented using eight pass gates **200** arranged in four rows of two serially-connected transistors as shown in blocks **202** and **204**. The gate terminals of pass gates **200** receive the select signals c and b and their complements. Two inverters **206** provide the complements of signals c and b to both multiplexer blocks **202** and **204**. The four transistor rows of each block **202** and **204** receive signals a**1**, a**2** and their complements at the input side, and connect together to form outputs **208** and **210**, respectively, at the output side. The 2:1 multiplexer **104** includes two transistors **200**, receiving outputs **208** and **210** at one end and connecting together at the other end to form output terminal f. The select signal d and its complement feed the gate terminals of transistors **200** of the 2:1 multiplexer **104**. The output **210** of multiplexer block **204** forms the carry output. Inverters **206** generate the complements of the five input signals. It is possible to further reduce the transistor count for the circuit in FIG. **2**. Because the circled pairs of transistors **200** act logically as two parallel transistors, they can be combined into a single, larger transistor, without affecting the operation of the circuit. This reduces the device count by four transistors.

The ULM of the present invention is used as the combinatorial circuit of a logic cell in a programmable logic device (PLD). The logic cell typically includes a programmable flip-flop which receives the output f at its input. The flip-flop enables the PLD to perform sequential logic. The PLD comprises a large number of logic cells that connect together through a programmable interconnect array. To drive other circuitry, the ULM outputs (f and carry) may require buffering.

One approach to implementing the carry propagation circuitry is to use an additional 2:1 multiplexer as part of the ULM and propagate carry from cell to cell without using the interconnect array. Alternatively, the carry output can feed into the programmable interconnect array before connecting to a carry input of another cell. FIG. 3A shows both these implementations in one circuit. Logic cells **300** includes a 2:1 multiplexer **302** that receives the signals c and c_{in }at its input terminals. The output of multiplexer **302** connects to the terminal of the ULM that was previously connected to the c signal. Input b can also be used as the carry input as shown in FIG. **3**B), allowing the designer to select the one (i.e. either or c and b) that optimizes circuit layout (e.g. the input terminal closest to the carry terminal). The select input of multiplexer **302** is controlled by a programmable architecture bit (not shown). This logic cell **300** shows carry output feeding the c_{in }terminal of the next module **304** locally. The advantage of locally propagating the carry is in area savings as well as speed. Logic cell **304** is similarly constructed as logic cell **300** except for the fact that the carry output signal is not locally propagated, instead it connects to the programmable interconnect array **306**. This will enable the carry output signal to connect to c_{in }of any other logic cell at the cost of silicon area and speed.

In conclusion, the present invention provides a small and fast universal logic module (ULM) for use in programmable logic devices, which is capable of realizing all Boolean functions of three or fewer variables. The ULM of the present invention further includes a separate output that can realize the carry output of a full adder. While the above is a complete description of the preferred embodiments of the present invention, it is possible to use various alternatives, modifications and equivalents. For example, the ULM circuit of FIG. 2 may further provide for a programmable inversion of the output f. Therefore, the scope of the present invention should be determined not with reference to the above description but should, instead, be determined with reference to the appended claims, along with their full scope of equivalents.

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Referenced by

Citing Patent | Filing date | Publication date | Applicant | Title |
---|---|---|---|---|

US7414431 * | Oct 9, 2006 | Aug 19, 2008 | Cswitch Corporation | Dedicated logic cells employing configurable logic and dedicated logic functions |

US7836113 | Oct 9, 2006 | Nov 16, 2010 | Agate Logic, Inc. | Dedicated logic cells employing configurable logic and dedicated logic functions |

Classifications

U.S. Classification | 326/39, 326/41, 326/40, 326/44, 326/38 |

International Classification | G06F7/00, G06F7/575 |

Cooperative Classification | G06F7/575, G06F7/00 |

European Classification | G06F7/575, G06F7/00 |

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