|Publication number||USRE38777 E1|
|Application number||US 08/766,634|
|Publication date||Aug 16, 2005|
|Filing date||Dec 13, 1996|
|Priority date||Aug 16, 1993|
|Publication number||08766634, 766634, US RE38777 E1, US RE38777E1, US-E1-RE38777, USRE38777 E1, USRE38777E1|
|Inventors||Theodore P. Adams, Dennis A. Brumwell, Joseph S. Perttu, Charles G. Supino|
|Original Assignee||Angeion Corp.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (16), Referenced by (12), Classifications (4), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a continuation-in-part application of an application filed in the United States Patent and Trademark Office on Jul. 16, 1992, entitled DUAL BATTERY SYSTEM FOR IMPLANTABLE DEFIBRILLATOR, Ser. No. 07/913,626, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,235,979 which is a file-wrapper continuation of an application by the same title filed on Mar. 3, 1991, both of which are assigned to the assignee of the present invention, and the disclosure of which is incorporated by reference in the present application. This application is related to a co-pending application filed in the United States Patent and Trademark Office on Mar. 15, 1993, entitled IMPLANTABLE CARDIOVERTER DEFIBRILLATOR HAVING A SMALLER DISPLACEMENT VOLUME, Ser. No. 08/033,632, U.S. Pat. No. 5,405,363, which issued on Apr. 11, 1995, and which is assigned to the assignee of the present invention and the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated in the present application.
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention pertains to a cardioverter defibrillator, and more particularly, to an improved dual battery power system for use with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator.
2. Background of the Invention
Implantable cardioverter defibrillators have several unique battery requirements, as compared to other implantable products. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator demands a battery with the following general characteristics: very high reliability, highest possible energy density (i.e., small size), extremely low self-discharge rating (i.e., long shelf life), very high current capability, high operating voltage, and high sealability (i.e., no gas or liquid venting).
Some of these parameters have some measure of mutual exclusively, making it difficult to optimize the battery of electronics without making compromises to the design of the implantable device. In its monitoring mode, the implantable cardioverter defibrillator requires the battery to deliver continuous currents in the range of only 10-30 μA, while in its defibrillation mode, the same battery must delivery currents in the range of one to two amps, some five orders of magnitude greater than the current required for the monitoring mode.
Presently, all manufactured implantable cardioverter defibrillators use a single battery system to power the implantable device. The longevity of an implanted cardioverter defibrillator with a single battery configuration and the number of shocks the defibrillator is capable of delivering are strictly dependant on the remaining battery capacity at any given time. As the device ages, its ability to deliver an adequate number of defibrillating shocks declines as the battery is depleted by the monitoring electronics. Similarly, if a patient receives a large number of shocks soon after implant, the remaining monitoring life is reduced. Thus, it is difficult to assess the condition of the battery and its remaining useful life after it has been in use for a period of time.
A further disadvantage of the single battery configuration is that the ideal voltage requirements for the monitoring and output functions are opposite. For the monitoring function, it is desirable to use the lowest possible voltage that the circuits can operate reliably with in order to conserve energy. This is typically in the order of 1.5-3.0 V. On the other hand, the output circuit works most efficiently with the highest possible battery voltage in order to produce firing voltages of up to about 750 V.
All existing manufactured implantable cardioverter defibrillators have compromised between these two demands by using a single battery system or configuration which is typically comprised of two lithium silver vanadium pentoxide cells electrically connected in series to produce an output battery voltage of about 6 V. The battery voltage must be elevated via an inverter circuit to the firing voltage of about 750 V. The net result is that power is wasted in both the monitoring and output circuits because the monitoring circuit which requires only 2-3 V must operate from a relatively high 6 V source, and the output circuit whose efficiency is a function of the supply voltage must operate from the relatively low 6 V source.
At least two previous development attempts have been made to avoid some of the problems inherent in using a single battery system configuration for an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. In the Medtronic Model 2315, lithium thionyl chloride batteries were employed for the high-voltage charging circuit and lithium manganese dioxide batteries were used for the remaining low voltage circuitry. Similarly, the Telectronics Model 4201 initially tried to employ separate batteries for the low voltage circuits (lithium iodine) and high-voltage circuits (lithium silver vanadium pentoxide). Troop, P. J., “Implantable Cardioverters and Defibrillators”, Current Problems in Cardiology, Vol. XIV, No. 12, (December 1989), pp. 703-04. Unfortunately, neither of these devices resulted in practical, manufactured implantable cardioverter defibrillators and the dual battery approach was abandoned in both cases.
While single battery systems have proved workable for implantable cardioverter defibrillators, the use of a single battery system necessarily involves a compromise between the ideal power supplies which would otherwise be used for the various types of circuitry within the implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Accordingly, it would be desirable to provide for an improved dual battery power system for an implantable cardioverter defibrillator which avoids the need for the compromises required of single battery systems, and which overcomes the problems of earlier attempts at dual battery systems.
An improved dual battery power system in accordance with the present invention involves the use of two separate battery power sources for an implantable cardioverter defibrillator, each having optimized characteristics for monitoring functions and for output energy delivery functions, respectively. The monitoring functions are supplied electrical power by a first battery source, such as a conventional pacemaker power source in the form of a lithium iodide battery cell which is optimized for long life at very low current levels. The output energy delivery functions are supplied by a separate second battery source, such as a pair of lithium vanadium pentoxide battery cells, which is optimized for high current drain capability and low self-discharge for long shelf life. The first battery source provides electrical power only to the monitoring functions of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator, and the second battery source provides all of the electrical power for the output energy delivery functions.
With the improved dual battery system configuration of the present invention, the minimum expected monitoring life of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator is independent of the amount of electrical pulse therapy delivered by the device, such as the number of cardioversion/defibrillation countershocks or the amount of pacing. As a result, the end of the minimum useable lifespan of the first battery source is highly predictable based on steady state current drain calculations. The lifespan of the second source battery source is also amenable to calculation based upon the number and amount of energy levels of previously delivered electrical pulse therapies.
The major advantage of the present invention is that each battery source voltage can be optimized for the particular circuit wherein it is used. The first battery source is preferably a relatively low current, low voltage source, from 1.5 to 3.0 V typically; whereas the second battery source is preferably comprised of as high of a current and voltage as battery chemistry and battery packaging efficiencies allow, typically ranging from 6 to 18 V.
Unlike existing implantable cardioverter defibrillators, a preferred embodiment of the present invention utilizes a separate hardware-based, low-power monitoring circuitry to monitor for certain wake-up conditions which will then activate the output delivery circuitry which includes a microprocessor that performs further detection and, if necessary, selects an appropriate cardioversion/defibrillation therapy to be delivered. The output delivery circuitry includes additional hardware circuitry that, when enabled, can delivery deliver pacing therapy pulses with energy supplied from the output power source battery without the need to wake the microprocessor.
Because the two batteries of the present invention can be optimized for their particular functions, different assumptions about the total energy requirements of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator can be made. For example, all existing manufactured implantable cardioverter defibrillators provide power systems which are designed to supply an initial number of defibrillation countershocks of at least 250 shocks. In a single battery system, even when no shocks are delivered, the number of remaining shocks in the device decreases with age due to the fact that the energy for the monitoring functions are drawn from this battery. In the present invention, assuming good charge retention of the output battery, essentially no energy is drawn from the output battery until an electrical pulse therapy is delivered. Consequentially, one advantage of the dual battery system of the present invention is that a smaller initial number of defibrillation countershocks can be specified for an implanted device, while maintaining the same minimum expected life span for the device, thereby allowing a reduction in the overall size of the implanted device.
Another advantage of a preferred embodiment of the present invention includes a backup protection feature whereby energy from the output power source battery can be used to power the monitoring circuitry in the event that the monitoring power source battery ceases to function. A further advantage of a preferred embodiment of the present invention includes a booster feature which regulates the system supply voltage to prevent ripple in the supply voltage during capacitor charging. Still another other advantages include a greater longevity provided for by lowering energy drain by the monitoring circuitry, the simplified circuit design that results in a decrease in the risk of high internal currents causing interference to other parts of the low current monitoring and control circuitry, and the ability to use rechargeable batteries.
In operation, as in
A preferred mode of operation of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator shown in
In one embodiment, a microprocessor with an RC gated oscillator circuit that is controlled by the microprocessor within the inverter/output circuit 38 implements a wake-up control that can respond to the wake-up conditions. The wake-up conditions handled by the microprocessor based circuit in the inverter/output circuit 38 include, for example, a tachycardia threshold determination, a telemetry indication, or a time condition. In the case of the tachycardia threshold determination, for example, threshold determination circuitry in the monitoring circuit 34 detects the occurrence of 3 consecutive R-waves at a rate faster than a predetermined programmable rate. In response, the monitoring circuit 34 wakes-up the microprocessor in the inverter/output circuit 38, which verifies that a cardiac arrhythmia is occurring and selects an appropriate electrical pulse therapy. If an electrical pulse therapy is to be delivered, the battery 36 would charge the inverter/output circuit 38 to deliver one or more high voltage cardioversion/defibrillator countershocks. If the wake-up condition was a telemetry indication, then the microprocessor circuit of the inverter/output circuit 38 might “output” a telemetry response, for example, rather than a electrical pulse therapy response. Alternatively, if the microprocessor circuit of the inverter/output circuit 38 determines that no action is required in response to the wake-up condition, then no “output” may be generated in response and the microprocessor would turn off the RC gated oscillator circuit, thereby shutting off the clock to the microprocessor.
One important feature which distinguishes the improved dual battery system 30 from the previous attempts to implement dual battery systems in that the division of labor between the battery 32 and the battery 36 is not based on low voltage output vs. high voltage output, but rather is based on monitoring functions vs. output functions. In the two dual battery systems described in the background art section, all of the low voltage circuitry of the implantable cardiovascular defibrillator was powered from a low voltage battery. As a result, both the monitoring function (which typically operate operates on 3 V levels), as well as the pacing therapy output functions (which typically operate on 6 V levels), were designed to derive the energy from the low voltage battery. The end result of this type of arrangement is that the life of the low voltage battery is totally dependant upon the amount of pacing therapy which may be delivered by the device and, thus, the minimum effective life of the device is effectively unknown.
In contrast, the improved dual battery power system of the present invention takes all of its “output” energy from the output battery 32. For example, the present invention does not take the energy for pacing therapy from the monitoring battery 32, but rather from the output battery 36. As a result, the monitoring lifespan of an implantable defibrillator in accordance with the present invention is known and calculable based on the specifications of the monitoring battery 32. Without a known lifespan of the device, it is simply not possible to provide a viable implantable defibrillator, as evidenced by the fact that both of the previous attempts at dual battery systems which did not have known lifespans for the monitoring circuitry were unsuccessful and did not result in manufactured implantable cardioverter defibrillators.
Referring now to
Referring now to
A LiI monitoring battery cell 111 provides a low current, low voltage output of about 2.0-2.8 V with a maximum current draw on the order of 30-80 μA. The output of the monitoring battery cell 111 is capacitively decoupled by a capacitor 114. Schottky diodes 118 and 120 enable the power system to run the 3 V bus from the battery cell 111 during battery startup sequencing such that the device can be successfully initiated by first inserting the monitoring battery cell 111 before the output batteries are inserted.
A pair of LiAgV2O5 output battery cells 121, 122 provide a relatively high current, high voltage output of 4.0 to 6.5 V with a maximum current draw of between about 2.0-4.0 A. The high current output of the output battery cells 121, 122 is capacitively decoupled by a capacitor 124. A center point ground 126 isolates the high current portion of the circuitry from the low current portion of the circuitry, thereby allowing for simpler circuit design and greater reliability of the low current portion of the circuitry. A voltage booster 130 insures a 6 V supply on the 6 Volt Bus, even while the output battery cells 121, 122 are under heavy load conditions, while the diodes 132 in the voltage booster 130 isolates the boosted voltage from the battery cell voltage during periods of high current draw.
An inverter circuit 140 uses the high current output and an Inverter Gate Drive Voltage of 12 to 18 volts provided by a 3X charge pump circuit 142 from the 6 Volt Bus to drive a high-voltage flyback transformer in the inverter circuit 140. The output of the transformer charges a capacitor system (not shown) to produce the high voltage (50-800 V) capacitive discharge output pulse which forms either a cardioversion of defibrillation pulse countershock. The Inverter Gate Drive Voltage is capacitively decoupled by capacitor 144. The inverter circuit 140 may be of the type described, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 4,800,883.
The Main System Power is a regulated 3.0 V supplied primarily by the monitoring battery cell 111 unless the current draw on the Main System Power exceeds about 30-80 μA. In the event of a current overdraw situation, such as when the microprocessor in inverter/output circuitry 38 responds to a wake-up condition, the output of the output battery cells 121, 122 is added to the output of the monitoring battery cell 111 to generate the required current. The circuitry to accomplish this is shown generally at 150 and is described in greater detail in connection with the description of FIG. 6.
The unregulated 2.5 V output of the monitoring battery cell 111 is supplied as an input to a 3/2 charge pump 136 which, like the 3X charge pump circuit 142, is driven by a 1 KHz divider output of a 32 KHz oscillator crystal 134. The charge pump circuit 136 raises the output of the monitoring batteries to about 3.75 V which is capacitively decoupled by a capacitor 146 . The 3.75 V output of the charge pump circuit 136 and the unregulated 6.0 Volt Bus are fed as inputs to a dual input voltage regulator 152. A voltage/current reference circuit 146 provides a reference voltage of 1.28 V and a reference current of 100 nA to the voltage regulator 152. A p-n-p transistor 154 controls whether the 6.0 Volt Bus input will be added to the 3.75 V output of the charge pump circuit 136 if a current overdraw condition exists with respect to the monitoring battery cell 111. The charge pump circuit 136 also provides a negative output of −2.0 to −2.5 V to supply the Main Power System negative voltage requirements of op amps, etc.
Referring now to
Referring now to
The voltage booster 130 of the preferred embodiment as shown in
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