Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUSRE39225 E1
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 09/811,104
Publication dateAug 8, 2006
Filing dateMar 16, 2001
Priority dateMar 14, 1997
Fee statusPaid
Also published asCA2281835A1, CA2281835C, DE69828033D1, DE69828033T2, EP0968020A1, EP0968020B1, US5881717, US6668824, WO1998041268A1
Publication number09811104, 811104, US RE39225 E1, US RE39225E1, US-E1-RE39225, USRE39225 E1, USRE39225E1
InventorsFernando J. Isaza, Stanley Y. Wong, Peter Doyle
Original AssigneeNellcor Puritan Bennett Incorporated
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
System and method for adjustable disconnection sensitivity for disconnection and occlusion detection in a patient ventilator
US RE39225 E1
Abstract
The system and method for detecting disconnection and occlusion of a tubing system of a patient ventilator detects disconnection of the tubing system, opens the exhalation valve, delivers an idle flow of breathing gas to the tubing system, disables breath triggering, and generates an alarm. A reconnection of the tubing system can also be detected, to initiate resumption of pressure supported inspiration. For occlusion detection, the pressure drop in the tubing system is determined by pressure sensors in the inspiratory and expiratory airways of the tubing system. The two pressure drop values are compared, and once occlusion is detected, an alarm is generated, and the ventilator responds to protect the patient from over distension. Abatement of the occlusion can also be monitored in a pressure based occlusion status cycling mode, and the ventilator can revert back to normal ventilation when the circuit occlusion or exhaust port occlusion are not detected.
Images(3)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(55)
1. A method for detecting disconnection and occlusion of a patient tubing system of a pneumatically driven, electronically controlled ventilator system for providing breathing gas to a patient during the exhalation phase of a breath cycle, said exhalation phase having a plurality of control intervals, comprising the steps of:
delivering a flow of breathing gas to a patient during an inspiratory phase of a breath cycle;
determining an onset of an exhalation phase of said breath cycle;
suspending gas flow delivery to the patient tubing system during said exhalation phase of said breath cycle;
monitoring exhalation flow and pressure in the patient tubing system during a plurality of control intervals of said exhalation phase of said breath cycle to determine whether a condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred;
monitoring exhalation pressure in the patient tubing system during a plurality of control intervals of said exhalation phase of said breath cycle to determine whether a condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred; and
generating a disconnection signal indicating disconnection of the patient tubing system responsive to said exhalation flow and said pressure in said patient tubing system if said condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has not occurred, and if said condition indicating disconnection of the patient tubing system has occurred.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein said tubing system includes an exhalation line, and said means for monitoring exhalation flow and pressure in the patient tubing system comprises sensing pressure and flow in said exhalation line, and declaring disconnection of the patient tubing system has occurred if, during a control interval, the pressure in the exhalation line is less than or greater than a predetermined pressure range, and if exhalation flow is less than a predetermined flow threshold, for a contiguous period of consecutive control intervals within a predetermined initial period of time following onset of an exhalation phase.
3. The method of claim 1, A method for detecting disconnection of a patient tubing system of a pneumatically driven, electronically controlled ventilator system used to provide breathing gas to a patient, an exhalation phase of a breath cycle having a plurality of control intervals, comprising the steps of:
determining an onset of an exhalation phase of said breath cycle;
monitoring exhalation flow and pressure in the patient tubing system during a plurality of control intervals of said exhalation phase of said breath cycle to determine whether a condition indicating disconnection of the patient tubing system has occurred;
monitoring exhalation pressure in the patient tubing system during a plurality of control intervals of said exhalation phase of said breath cycle to determine whether a condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred; and
generating a disconnection signal indicating disconnection of the patient tubing system responsive to said exhalation flow and said pressure in said patient tubing system if said condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has not occurred, and if said condition indicating disconnection of the patient tubing system has occurred;
wherein said tubing system includes an exhalation line, and said step of monitoring exhalation flow and pressure in the patient tubing system comprises sensing pressure and flow in said exhalation line, and declaring disconnection of the patient tubing system has occurred if, during a control interval, the pressure in the exhalation line is less than or greater than within a predetermined pressure range, and if exhalation flow is less than a disconnection flow limit threshold based upon a flow target and a predetermined disconnection sensitivity, for a contiguous period of consecutive control intervals within a predetermined initial period of time following onset of an exhalation phase.
4. The method of claim 1, wherein said tubing system includes an exhalation line, and said step of monitoring exhalation flow and pressure in the patient tubing system comprises sensing flow in said exhalation line, and declaring disconnection of the patient tubing system has occurred if a desired flow target is greater than or equal to a maximum flow threshold, and the duration of a current inspiration is greater than or equal to a maximum allowed spontaneous inspiration time.
5. The method of claim 1, A method for detecting disconnection of a patient tubing system of a pneumatically driven, electronically controlled ventilator system used to provide breathing gas to a patient, an exhalation phase of a breath cycle having a plurality of control intervals, comprising the steps of:
determining an onset of an exhalation phase of said breath cycle;
monitoring exhalation flow in the patient tubing system during a plurality of control intervals of said exhalation phase of said breath cycle; and
wherein said tubing system includes an exhalation line, and said step of monitoring exhalation flow and pressure in the patient tubing system comprises sensing flow in said exhalation line from beginning of an inspiration to the beginning of an exhalation, determining an exhalation volume from the sensed flow from the beginning of the inspiration to the beginning of the exhalation, and declaring disconnection of the patient tubing system has occurred if the exhalation volume is less than the integral of the net flow from the beginning of inspiration to the beginning of exhalation with respect to time, multiplied by a proportional factor and a disconnection sensitivity factor, for three consecutive breaths.
6. The method of claim 1, wherein said tubing system includes an exhalation line and an inhalation line, and wherein said means for monitoring exhalation pressure in the patient tubing system to determine whether a condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred comprises sensing pressure in said exhalation line, sensing pressure in said inhalation line, determining a pressure drop by comparing pressure in said exhalation line and pressure in said inhalation line, and generating an alarm indicating occlusion if said pressure drop exceeds a predetermined pressure drop threshold.
7. The method of claim 6, further including the step of adjusting said pressure drop for a pressure offset and a gain drift.
8. The method of claim 6, wherein said ventilator system includes a plurality of counters, each of said counters having a different limit corresponding to a different respective pressure drop range, said step of monitoring exhalation pressure in the patient tubing system to determine whether a condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred comprising comparing said pressure drop and said pressure drop threshold in a plurality of consecutive control intervals, and incrementing each of said plurality of counters if the pressure drop is greater than the corresponding pressure range of the plurality of counters, respectively, and generating an alarm if the respective limits of any of said plurality of counters are exceeded.
9. The method of claim 1, wherein said control intervals have a predetermine duration.
10. The method of claim 1, wherein said tubing system includes an exhalation compartment, and wherein said step of monitoring exhalation pressure in the patient tubing system to determine whether a condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred comprises sensing pressure in said exhalation compartment, and generating an alarm indicating occlusion if said pressure in said exhalation compartment exceeds a predetermined exhaust port threshold pressure for a predetermined number of consecutive control intervals within a predetermined period of time during an exhalation phase.
11. The method of claim 1, further comprising the step of generating an occlusion signal indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system if said condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred.
12. The method of claim 11, further comprising the steps of opening the exhalation valve, delivering an idle flow, and monitoring flow and pressure to determine whether a condition indicating abatement of occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred.
13. The method of claim 11, wherein said ventilator system includes a pressure control valve and a safety valve, and breath support is flow triggered, and further comprising the steps of a shut-down phase of closing the pressure control valve, controlling the exhalation valve to maintain patient end expiratory pressure at approximately zero, discontinuing flow triggering, setting the patient end expiratory pressure equal to zero, setting the breathing gas mix to contain 100 percent oxygen, and opening the safety valve.
14. The method of claim 13, further comprising the step of initiating resumption of flow of breathing gas to the patient tubing system during an inspiratory phase of a breath cycle if a condition indicating abatement of occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred.
15. The method of claim 13, wherein said tubing system includes an inhalation line, and further comprising the steps of sensing inspiratory pressure in said inhalation line, maintaining said shut-down phase until inspiratory pressure is less than or equal to 5 cmH2O or until 15 seconds have elapsed, whichever occurs first; initiating an inspiration phase, in which at the beginning the ventilator closes the safety valve, waiting a predetermined interval of time to allow for the safety valve to close, delivering a Pressure Controlled Ventilation based breath with an inspiratory pressure target of approximately 15 cmH2O; initiating a first exhalation phase, in which the ventilator closes the pressure control valve and controls the exhalation valve to maintain a patient end expiratory pressure of approximately zero, until the inspiratory pressure is less than or equal to 5 cmH2O and at least 2.5 sec have passed, or a total of 5 seconds have elapsed since the beginning of the first exhalation phase, initiating a second exhalation phase, in which the ventilator closes the pressure control valve, controls the exhalation valve to maintain a patient end expiratory pressure of approximately zero and opens the safety valve until the inspiratory pressure is less than or equal to 5 cmH2O and at least 2.5 sec have passed, or a total of 5 seconds have elapsed since the beginning of the first exhalation phase; and initiating an inspiration phase with mandatory breath settings while maintaining patient end expiratory pressure of approximately zero.
16. The method of claim 1, further comprising the step of generating an occlusion alarm signal indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system if said condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred.
17. A system for detecting disconnection and occlusion of a patient tubing system of a pneumatically driven, electronically controlled ventilator system for providing breathing gas to a patient during the exhalation phase of a breath cycle, said exhalation phase having a plurality of control intervals, the system comprising:
means for delivering a flow of breathing gas to a patient during an inspiratory phase of a breath cycle;
means for determining an onset of an exhalation phase of said breath cycle;
means for suspending gas flow delivery to the patient tubing system during said exhalation phase of said breath cycle;
means for monitoring exhalation flow and pressure in the patient tubing system during a plurality of control intervals of said exhalation phase of said breath cycle to determine whether a condition indicating disconnection of the patient tubing system has occurred;
means for monitoring exhalation pressure in the patient tubing system during a plurality of control intervals of said exhalation phase of said breath cycle to determine whether a condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred; and
means for generating a disconnection signal indicating disconnection of the patient tubing system responsive to said exhalation flow and said pressure in said patient tubing system if said condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has not occurred, and if said condition indicating disconnection of the patient tubing system has occurred.
18. The system of claim 17, wherein said tubing system includes an exhalation line, and said means for monitoring exhalation flow and pressure in the patient tubing system comprises a pressure sensor connected to said exhalation line and a flow sensor connected to said exhalation line, and means for declaring disconnection of the patient tubing system has occurred if, during a control interval, the pressure in the exhalation line is less than or greater than a predetermined pressure range, and if exhalation flow is less than a predetermined flow threshold, for a contiguous period of consecutive control intervals within a predetermined initial period of time following onset of an exhalation phase.
19. The system of claim 17, wherein said tubing system includes an exhalation line, and said means for monitoring exhalation flow and pressure in the patient tubing system comprises a pressure sensor connected to said exhalation line and a flow sensor connected to said exhalation line, and means for declaring disconnection of the patient tubing system has occurred if, during a control interval, the pressure in the exhalation line is less than or greater than a predetermined pressure range, and if exhalation flow is less than a disconnection flow limit threshold based upon a flow target and a predetermined disconnection sensitivity, for a contiguous period of consecutive control intervals within a predetermined initial period of time following onset of an exhalation phase.
20. The system of claim 17, wherein said tubing system includes an exhalation line, and said means for monitoring exhalation flow and pressure in the patient tubing system comprises a pressure sensor connected to said exhalation line, and means for declaring disconnection of the patient tubing system has occurred if a desired flow target is greater than or equal to a maximum flow threshold, and the duration of a current inspiration is greater than or equal to a maximum allowed spontaneous inspiration time.
21. The system of claim 17, wherein said tubing system includes an exhalation line, and said means for monitoring exhalation flow and pressure in the patient tubing system comprises a flow sensor connected to said exhalation line for measuring exhalation flow from the beginning of an inspiration to the beginning of an exhalation, means for determining an exhalation volume from the sensed flow from the beginning of the inspiration to the beginning of the exhalation, and means for declaring disconnection of the patient tubing system has occurred if the exhalation volume is less than the integral of the net flow from the beginning of inspiration to the beginning of exhalation with respect to time, multiplied by a proportional factor and a disconnection sensitivity factor, for three consecutive breaths.
22. The system of claim 17, wherein said tubing system includes an exhalation line and an inhalation line, and wherein said means for monitoring exhalation pressure in the patient tubing system to determine whether a condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred comprises a pressure sensor connected to said exhalation lines, a pressure sensor connected to said inhalation line, a comparator for determining a pressure drop by comparing pressure in said exhalation line and pressure in said inhalation line, and means for generating an alarm indicating occlusion if said pressure drop exceeds a predetermined pressure drop threshold.
23. The system of claim 22, further including means for adjusting said pressure drop for a pressure offset and a gain drift.
24. The system of claim 22, wherein said ventilator system includes a plurality of counters, each of said counters having a different limit corresponding to a different respective pressure drop range, said means for monitoring exhalation pressure in the patient tubing system to determine whether a condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred comprising a comparator for comparing said pressure drop and said pressure drop threshold in a plurality of consecutive control intervals, means for incrementing each of said plurality of counters if the pressure drop is greater than the corresponding pressure range of the plurality of counters, respectively, and means for generating an alarm if the respective limits of any of said plurality of counters are exceeded.
25. The system of claim 17, wherein said control intervals have a predetermined duration.
26. The system of claim 17, wherein said tubing system includes an exhalation compartment, and wherein said means for monitoring exhalation pressure in the patient tubing system to determine whether a condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred comprises a pressure sensor for measuring pressure in said exhalation compartment, and means for generating an alarm indicating occlusion if said pressure in said exhalation compartment exceeds a predetermined exhaust port threshold pressure for a predetermined number of consecutive control intervals within a predetermined period of time during an exhalation phase.
27. The system of claim 17, further comprising means for generating an occlusion signal indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system if said condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred.
28. The system of claim 17, further comprising means for opening the exhalation valve, means for delivering an idle flow, and means for monitoring flow and pressure to determine whether a condition indicating abatement of occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred.
29. The system of claim 17, wherein said ventilator system includes a pressure control valve, a safety valve, and means for flow triggering breath support, and further comprising shut-down phase means for closing the pressure control valve, controlling the exhalation valve to maintain patient end expiratory pressure at approximately zero, discontinuing flow triggering, setting the patient end expiratory pressure equal to zero, setting the breathing gas mix to contain 100 percent oxygen, and opening the safety valve.
30. The system of claim 29, further comprising means for initiating a resumption of flow of breathing gas to the patient tubing system during an inspiratory phase of a breath cycle if a condition indicating abatement of occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred.
31. The system of claim 29, wherein said tubing system includes an inhalation line, and further comprising occlusion status cycling means for sensing inspiratory pressure in said inhalation line, maintaining said shut-down phase until inspiratory pressure is less than or equal to 5 cmH2O or until 15 seconds have elapsed, whichever occurs first; initiating an inspiration phase, in which at the beginning the ventilator closes the safety valve, waiting a predetermined interval of time to allow for the safety valve to close, delivering a Pressure Controlled Ventilation based breath with an inspiratory pressure target of approximately 15 cmH2O; initiating a first exhalation phase, in which the ventilator closes the pressure control valve and controls the exhalation valve to maintain a patient end expiratory pressure of approximately zero, until the inspiratory pressure is less than or equal to 5 cmH2O and at least 2.5 sec have passed, or a total of 5 seconds have elapsed since the beginning of the first exhalation phase; initiating a second exhalation phase, in which the ventilator closes the pressure control valve, controls the exhalation valve to maintain a patient end expiratory pressure of approximately zero and opens the safety valve until the inspiratory pressure is less than or equal to 5 cmH2O and at least 2.5 sec have passed, or a total of 5 seconds have elapsed since the beginning of the first exhalation phase; and initiating an inspiration phase with mandatory breath settings while maintaining patient end expiratory pressure of approximately zero.
32. The system of claim 17, further comprising means for generating an occlusion signal indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system if said condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred.
33. A method for detecting occlusion of a patient tubing system of a pneumatic driven, electronically controlled ventilator system for providing breathing gas to a patient during the exhalation phase of a breath cycle, said exhalation phase having a plurality of control intervals, comprising the steps of:
delivering a flow of breathing gas to a patient during an inspiratory phase of a breath cycle;
determining an onset of an exhalation phase of said breath cycle;
suspending gas flow delivery to the patient tubing system during said exhalation phase of said breath cycle;
monitoring exhalation pressure in the patient tubing system during a plurality of control intervals of said exhalation phase of said breath cycle to determine whether a condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred; and
generating a occlusion signal indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system responsive to said pressure in said patient tubing system if said condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred.
34. The method of claim 33, wherein said tubing system includes an exhalation line and an inhalation line, and wherein said step of monitoring exhalation pressure in the patient tubing system to determine whether a condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred comprises sensing pressure in said exhalation line, sensing pressure in said inhalation time, determining a pressure drop by comparing pressure in said exhalation line and pressure in said inhalation line, and generating an alarm indicating occlusion if said pressure drop exceeds a predetermined pressure drop threshold.
35. The method of claim 34, further including the step of adjusting said pressure drop for a pressure offset and a gain drift.
36. The method of claim 34, wherein said ventilator system includes a plurality of counters, each of said counters having a different limit corresponding to a different respective pressure drop range, said step of monitoring exhalation pressure in the patient tubing system to determine whether a condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred comprising comparing said pressure drop and said pressure drop threshold in a plurality of consecutive control intervals, and incrementing each of said plurality of counters if the pressure drop is greater than the corresponding pressure range of the plurality of counters, respectively, and generating an alarm if the respective limits of any of said plurality of counters are exceeded.
37. The method of claim 33, wherein said control intervals have a predetermine duration.
38. The method of claim 33, wherein said tubing system includes an exhalation compartment, and wherein said step of monitoring exhalation pressure in the patient tubing system to determine whether a condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred comprises sensing pressure in said exhalation compartment, and generating an alarm indicating occlusion if said pressure in said exhalation compartment exceeds a predetermined exhaust port threshold pressure for a predetermined number of consecutive control intervals within a predetermined period of time during an exhalation phase.
39. The method of claim 33, further comprising the step of generating an occlusion signal indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system if said condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred.
40. The method of claim 39, further comprising the steps of opening the exhalation valve, delivering an idle flow, and monitoring flow and pressure to determine whether a condition indicating abatement of occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred.
41. The method of claim 39, wherein said ventilator system includes a pressure control valve, a safety valve, and breath support is flow triggered, and further comprising the steps of a shut-down phase of closing the pressure control valve, controlling the exhalation valve to maintain patient end expiratory pressure at approximately zero, discontinuing flow triggering, setting the patient end expiratory pressure equal to zero, setting the breathing gas mix to contain 100 percent oxygen, and opening the safety valve.
42. The method of claim 41, further comprising the step of initiating resumption of flow of breathing gas to the patient tubing system during an inspiratory phase of a breath cycle if a condition indicating abatement of occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred.
43. The method of claim 41, wherein said tubing system includes an inhalation line, and further comprising the steps of sensing inspiratory pressure in said inhalation line, maintaining said shut-down phase until inspiratory pressure is less than or equal to 5 cmH2O or until 15 seconds have elapsed, whichever occurs first; initiating an inspiration phase, in which at the beginning the ventilator closes the safety valve, waiting a predetermined interval of time to allow for the safety valve to close, delivering a Pressure Controlled Ventilation based breath with an inspiratory pressure target of approximately 15 cmH2O; initiating a first exhalation phase, in which the ventilator closes the pressure control valve and controls the exhalation valve to maintain a patient end expiratory pressure of approximately zero, until the inspiratory pressure is less than or equal to 5 cmH2O and at least 2.5 sec have passed, or a total of 5 seconds have elapsed since the beginning of the first exhalation phase, initiating a second exhalation phase, in which the ventilator closes the pressure control valve, controls the exhalation valve to maintain a patient end expiratory pressure of approximately zero and opens the safety valve until the inspiratory pressure is less than or equal to 5 cmH2O and at least 2.5 sec have passed, or a total of 5 seconds have elapsed since the beginning of the first exhalation phase; and initiating an inspiration phase with mandatory breath settings while maintaining patient end expiratory pressure of approximately zero.
44. The method of claim 33, further comprising the step of generating an occlusion alarm signal indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system if said condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred.
45. A system for detecting occlusion of a patient tubing system of a pneumatically driven, electronically controlled ventilator system for providing breathing gas to a patient during the exhalation phase of a breath cycle, said exhalation phase having a plurality of control intervals, each of said control intervals having a predetermined duration, the system comprising:
means for delivering a flow of breathing gas to a patient during an inspiratory phase of a breath cycle;
means for determining an onset of an exhalation phase of said breath cycle;
means for suspending gas flow delivery to the patient tubing system during said exhalation phase of said breath cycle;
means for monitoring exhalation pressure in the patient tubing system during a plurality of control intervals of said exhalation phase of said breath cycle to determine whether a condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred; and
means for generating an occlusion signal indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system responsive to said pressure in said patient tubing system if said condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred.
46. The system of claim 45, wherein said tubing system includes an exhalation line and an inhalation line, and wherein said means for monitoring exhalation pressure in the patient tubing system to determine whether a condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred comprises a pressure sensor connected to said exhalation line, a pressure sensor connected to said inhalation line, a comparator for determining a pressure drop by comparing pressure in said exhalation line and pressure in said inhalation line, and means for generating an alarm indicating occlusion if said pressure drop exceeds a predetermined pressure drop threshold.
47. The system of claim 46, further including means for adjusting said pressure drop for a pressure offset and a gain drift.
48. The system of claim 46, wherein said ventilator system includes a plurality of counters, each of said counters having a different limit corresponding to a different respective pressure drop range, said means for monitoring exhalation pressure in the patient tubing system to determine whether a condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred comprising a comparator for comparing said pressure drop and said pressure drop threshold in a plurality of consecutive control intervals, means for incrementing each of said plurality of counters if the pressure drop is greater than the corresponding pressure range of the plurality of counters, respectively, and means for generating an alarm if the respective limits of any of said plurality of counters are exceeded.
49. The system of claim 45, wherein said tubing system includes an exhalation compartment, and wherein said means for monitoring exhalation pressure in the patient tubing system to determine whether a condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred comprises a pressure sensor for measuring pressure in said exhalation compartment, and means for generating an alarm indicating occlusion if said pressure in said exhalation compartment exceeds a predetermined exhaust port threshold pressure for a predetermined number of consecutive control intervals within a predetermined period of time during an exhalation phase.
50. The system of claim 45, further comprising means for generating an occlusion signal indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system if said condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred.
51. The system of claim 50, further comprising means for opening the exhalation valve, means for delivering an idle flow, and means for monitoring flow and pressure to determine whether a condition indicating abatement of occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred.
52. The system of claim 50, wherein said ventilator system includes a pressure control valve, a safety valve, and means for flow triggering breath support, and further comprising shut-down phase means for closing the pressure control valve, controlling the exhalation valve to maintain patient end expiratory pressure at approximately zero, discontinuing flow triggering, setting the patient end expiratory pressure equal to zero, setting the breathing gas mix to contain 100 percent oxygen, and opening the safety valve.
53. The system of claim 52, further comprising means for initiating a resumption of flow of breathing gas to the patient tubing system during an inspiratory phase of a breath cycle if a condition indicating abatement of occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred.
54. The system of claim 52, wherein said tubing system includes an inhalation line, and further comprising occlusion status cycling means for sensing inspiratory pressure in said inhalation line, maintaining said shut-down phase until inspiratory pressure is less than or equal to 5 cmH2O or until 15 seconds have elapsed, whichever occurs first; initiating an inspiration phase, in which at the beginning the ventilator closes the safety valve, waiting a predetermined interval of time to allow for the safety valve to close, delivering a Pressure Controlled Ventilation based breath with an inspiratory pressure target of approximately 15 cmH2O; initiating a first exhalation phase, in which the ventilator closes the pressure control valve and controls the exhalation valve to maintain a patient end expiratory pressure of approximately zero, until the inspiratory pressure is less than or equal to 5 cmH2O and at least 2.5 sec have passed, or a total of 5 seconds have elapsed since the beginning of the first exhalation phase; initiating a second exhalation phase, in which the ventilator closes the pressure control valve, controls the exhalation valve to maintain a patient end expiratory pressure of approximately zero and opens the safety valve until the inspiratory pressure is less than or equal to 5 cmH2O and at least 2.5 sec have passed, or a total of 5 seconds have elapsed since the beginning of the first exhalation phase; and initiating an inspiration phase with mandatory breath settings while maintaining patient end expiratory pressure of approximately zero.
55. The system of claim 45, further comprising means for generating an occlusion alarm signal indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system if said condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred.
Description
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

This invention relates generally to breathing ventilators, and more particularly relates to a pneumatically driven, electronically controlled ventilator system for providing breathing gas to a patient, and a method and system for detection of disconnection and occlusion in an airway of the ventilatory system.

2. Description of Related Art

A patient receiving breath pressure support from a ventilator system typically receives breathing gas through a patient circuit of the ventilator. The patient circuit generally consists of two flexible conduits connected to a fitting called a patient wye. The free ends of the conduits are attached to the ventilator so that one conduit receives breathing gas from the ventilator's pneumatic system, and the other conduit returns gas exhaled by the patient to the ventilator. The volume of the exhaled gas may then be measured in a spirometer before it finally exits through an exhalation valve. The wye fitting is typically connected to the patient's breathing attachment or enclosure, which conducts breathing gas into the lungs, and exhaled gas from the lungs to the exhalation branch of the patient circuit. The pneumatic system at the inspiratory end of the patient circuit is typically closed before a breath, and the exhalation valve at the exhalation end of the patient circuit is typically preceded by a one-way valve, to prevent gas from flowing retrograde in the exhalation branch of the patient circuit.

Occurrences of low pressures in the exhalation limb of the patient's breathing gas circuit during the exhalation phase of the presence supported breath can be a cause of concern for the patient unless they are carefully controlled. Pressures in the patient lung that fall below PEEP (Positive End Expiratory Pressure, a baseline pressure value) can impair a patient's lung function, and it can be important to maintain PEEP in a patient's lung to prevent collapse of the lung.

Disconnections of a patient breathing circuit can occur at the inspiratory limb, the expiratory limb, the patient circuit wye, or between the endotracheal tube and the patient wye. Patient either no breathing gas or very little gas from the ventilator, and can interfere severely with maintenance of PEEP. During ventilation, it is also desirable to be able to assess the state of the tubing system so that conditions such as kinked tubes and high resistance fillers that can occlude the flow of breathing gas and interference with maintenance of PEEP are detected, to prevent injury to the patient attached to the ventilator, and so that increases in the work of breathing are minimized. It is also important to detect an occlusion condition in which the exhalation valve is stuck closed. Therefore, it is important to be able to detect disconnections and occlusions and to alert the respiratory therapist to these conditions. The present invention meets these needs.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Briefly, and in general terms, the present invention provides for a system and method for detecting disconnection and occlusion of a tubing system in the patient circuit of a patient ventilator. Once a patient tubing disconnection has been determined, the ventilator can then open the exhalation valve, deliver an idle flow with 100% oxygen to the tubing system, disable breath triggering, and generate an alarm indicating disconnection. The system and method of the invention can also detect a reconnection of the tubing system, and initiate resumption of pressure supported inspiration. For occlusion detection, the pressure drop in the tubing system is determined by pressure sensors in the inspiratory and expiratory airways of the tubing system. The two pressure drop values are compared and a severe alarm will sound if the actual pressure drop exceeds the severe level. Once occlusion is detected, the ventilator can respond to protect the patient from over distension, and can monitor the tubing system for abatement of the occlusion in a pressure based occlusion status cycling mode. The ventilator can revert back to normal ventilation when either circuit occlusion or exhaust port occlusion are not detected.

In one currently preferred embodiment, the invention accordingly provides for a method for detecting disconnection or occlusion of a patient tubing system of a pneumatically driven, electronically controlled ventilator system for providing used to provide breathing gas to a patient during the exhalation phase of a breath cycle, the exhalation phase having a plurality of control intervals, with each of the control intervals having a predetermined duration . A method of the invention comprises the steps of delivering a flow of breathing gas to a patient during an inspiratory phase of a breath cycle, determining an onset of an exhalation phase of the breath cycle, suspending gas flow delivery to the patient tubing system during the exhalation phase of the breath cycle, and monitoring exhalation flow and pressure in the patient tubing system during a plurality of control intervals of the exhalation phase of the breath cycle to determine whether a condition indicating disconnection of the patient tubing system has occurred. The exhalation pressure in the patient tubing system is monitored during a plurality of control intervals of the exhalation phase of the breath cycle to determine whether a condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred; and a disconnection signal indicating disconnection of the patient tubing system is generated responsive to the exhalation flow and the pressure in the patient tubing system if the condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has not occurred, and if the condition indicating disconnection of the patient tubing system has occurred.

In another currently preferred embodiment, the invention provides for a system for detecting disconnection or occlusion of a patient tubing system of a pneumatically driven, electronically controlled ventilator system for providing used to provide breathing gas to a patient during the exhalation phase of a breath cycle, the exhalation phase having a plurality of control intervals, with each of the control intervals having a predetermined duration . The system comprises means for delivering a flow of breathing gas to a patient during an inspiratory phase of a breath cycle, means for determining an onset of an exhalation phase of the breath cycle, means for suspending gas flow delivery to the patient tubing system during the exhalation phase of the breath cycle, and means for monitoring exhalation flow and pressure in the patient tubing system during a plurality of control intervals of the exhalation phase of the breath cycle to determine whether a condition indicating disconnection of the patient tubing system has occurred. The system may include means for monitoring exhalation pressure in the patient tubing system during a plurality of control intervals of the exhalation phase of the breath cycle to determine whether a condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred, and means for generating a disconnection signal indicating disconnection of the patient tubing system responsive to the exhalation flow and the pressure in the patient tubing system if the condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has not occurred, and if the condition indicating disconnection of the patient tubing system has occurred.

In a presently preferred embodiment, a disconnection alarm signal is generated, the exhalation valve is opened, an idle flow is delivered, and flow and pressure are monitored to determine whether a condition indicating reconnection of the patient tubing system has occurred. In another currently preferred embodiment, the resumption of flow of breathing gas to the patient tubing system is initiated during an inspiratory phase of a breath cycle if a condition indicating reconnection of the patient tubing system has occurred.

The invention also provides for a method for detecting occlusion of a patient tubing system of a pneumatically driven, electronically controlled ventilator system for providing used to provide breathing gas to a patient during the exhalation phase of a breath cycle, the exhalation phase having a plurality of control intervals, each of the control intervals having a predetermined duration . A method of the invention comprises the steps of delivering a flow of breathing gas to a patient during an inspiratory phase of a breath cycle, determining an onset of an exhalation phase of the breath cycle, suspending gas flow delivery to the patient tubing system during the exhalation phase of the breath cycle, monitoring delivered flows and exhaled flows; monitoring exhalation pressure in the patient tubing system during a plurality of control intervals of the exhalation phase of the breath cycle to determine whether a condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred: and generating occlusion, signal indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system responsive to the pressure in the patient tubing system if the condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred.

In another presently preferred embodiment, the invention provides for a system for detecting occlusion of a patient tubing system of a pneumatically driven, electronically controlled ventilator system for providing used to provide breathing gas to a patient during the exhalation phase of a breath cycle, the exhalation phase having a plurality of control intervals, with each of the control intervals having a predetermined duration . The system comprises means for delivering a flow of breathing gas to a patient during an inspiratory phase of a breath cycle, means for determining an onset of an exhalation phase of the breath cycle, means for suspending gas flow delivery to the patient tubing system during the exhalation phase of the breath cycle, means for monitoring delivered flows and exhaled flows, means for monitoring exhalation pressure in the patient tubing system during a plurality of control intervals of the exhalation phase of the breath cycle to determine whether a condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred, and means for generating an occlusion signal indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system responsive to the pressure in the patient tubing system if the condition, indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred.

In a presently preferred embodiment, the invention also provides for generation of an occlusion signal indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system if the condition indicating occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred. In a currently preferred embodiment, an occlusion alarm signal is generated, the exhalation valve is opened, an idle flow is delivered, and flow and pressure are monitored in an occlusion status cycling mode to determine whether a condition indicating abatement of occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred. The invention also provides for initiation of the resumption of flow of breathing gas to the patient tubing system during an inspiratory phase of a breath cycle if a condition indicating abatement of occlusion of the patient tubing system has occurred.

These and other aspects and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following detailed description and the accompanying drawings, which illustrate by way of example the features of the invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of the system for detecting disconnection and occlusion of a patient tubing system for a patient ventilator, according to the invention; and

FIG. 2 is a flow chart illustrating the occlusion status cycling mode of the system of the invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

Pressures in the tubing system of a patient ventilator can fall below a baseline pressure value during disconnections and occlusions of the tubing system, risking impairment of a patient's lung function, and possible collapse of the lung. Patient breathing circuit disconnections result in the patient receiving either no breathing gas or very little gas from the ventilator, and can interfere severely with maintenance of PEEP. Occlusions in the tubing system can also dangerously increase the work of breathing. It is therefore important to be able to detect disconnections and occlusions and to respond to these conditions.

As is illustrated in the drawings, which illustrate, by way of example, the invention, in a first embodiment, the invention provides for a method and system for detection of disconnection and occlusion of a patient tubing system of a pneumatically driven, electronically controlled ventilator system. Parameters used to detect patient tubing system disconnections include pressure and exhalation flow levels measured by the pressure and flow sensors located in the exhalation module during the first 200 msec of exhalation, the volume retuned during the exhalation phase, the volume delivered during the previous inspiratory phase, and in pressure based ventilation, the desired flow level if the time limit is reached.

The system 10 for detecting disconnection and occlusion of the patient tubing system of a pneumatically driven, electronically controlled ventilator system 12 is illustrated schematically in FIG. 1. The patient 14 is connected by the tubing system 16 to receive breathing gas. The tubing system includes an exhalation line 18 and an inhalation line 20 connected to the patient by a patient wye 21. A pressure sensor 22 and a flow sensor 24 are connected to the exhalation line to monitor pressure and flow, respectively, of the breathing gas in the exhalation line, and a pressure sensor 26 is also connected to the inhalation line to monitor the pressure in the inhalation line. All inputs from the sensors are received by a microprocessor 28 which governs all of the microcomputer based functions of the ventilator system, and which controls activation of a disconnection alarm 30, and an occlusion alarm 32. The exhalation line is connected to an exhalation compartment 34, which also includes a pressure sensor 36 for monitoring pressure of breathing gas in the exhalation compartment. The ventilator system includes a pressure control valve 40 controlling pressure of breathing gas delivered to the patient, and a safety valve 42, typically connected to the exhalation line, for relieving excessive pressure of the breathing gas in the tubing system.

In a first set of criteria, a condition indicating disconnection of the patient tubing system has occurred can be declared if, during a control interval, the pressure in the tubing system as sensed by a pressure sensor in the exhalation line of the tubing system falls outside within a desired, predetermined range, and exhalation flow is less than a desired, predetermined threshold, for a contiguous period of consecutive control intervals within a predetermined initial period of time following onset of an exhalation phase. In a preferred embodiment of the first set of criteria, the control interval is 5 msec., and all of the following three conditions must be met at some time during the first 200 msec. of an exhalation phase, for a contiguous period of 100 consecutive milliseconds:

    • If Pat_press(n)≧−0.5 cmH2O
    • AND Pat_press(n)≦0.5 cmH2O
    • AND Dry_exh_flow(n)≦0.5 lpm
      where Pat_press (n) is the pressure in the tubing system as sensed by a pressure sensor in the exhalation line of the tubing system during a control interval, and Dry_exh_flow (n) is the exhalation flow as measured by the exhalation flow sensor, compensated for the breathing gas mix and for humidity in the gas to represent dry conditions. Typically, an estimated amount of water vapor flow is removed from the initial flow measurement from the exhalation flow sensor Exh_flow. Then, the remaining dry flow is compensated for the expected gas mix (N2, O2).

However, even if all of the above conditions of the first set of criteria are met, the declaration of the patient tubing system disconnection is preferably deferred until a period of time has elapsed, in which it can be determined whether occlusion of the tubing system has occurred. In a presently preferred embodiment, this delay period is about 300 msec following the onset of exhalation, independent of the breath phase. Detection of a tubing occlusion is allowed to be declared first, since it is possible for a tubing occlusion to falsely generate all the patient tubing system disconnection conditions of the first criteria.

Patient tubing system disconnections will usually be detected based on the flow seen by the exhalation flow sensor and the Pat_press level, during the first 200 msec of any exhalation. In the vast majority of cases, the Pat_press level will be at or near zero cmH2O of pressure, and since no communication exists between the ventilator's inspiration and exhalation ports, no flow will be detected by the exhalation flow sensor.

In a second set of criteria, a condition indicating disconnection of the patient tubing system has occurred can be declared if the pressure in the tubing system as sensed during a control interval by a pressure sensor in the exhalation line of the tubing system falls outside a desired, predetermined range, and exhalation flow is less than a disconnection flow limit threshold based upon a flow target and a predetermined disconnection sensitivity, for a contiguous period of consecutive control intervals within a predetermined initial period of time following onset of an exhalation phase. In a preferred embodiment of the second set of criteria, the control interval is 5 msec, and all of the following three conditions must be met for a contiguous period of 10000 consecutive milliseconds, during the exhalation phase:

    • If Pat_press(n)≧0.5 cmH2O
    • AND Pat_press(n)≦0.5 cmH2O
    • AND Dry_exh_flow(n)≦disconnect_flow_limit
      where flow_target is the value of the ventilator's predetermined desired steady state flow delivery during the exhalation phase; disconnect_flow_limit is defined as flow_target*(1−disconnect_sensitivity/100), and if disconnect_flow_limit is less than 0.5 lpm, then disconnect_flow_limit is 0.5 lpm.

Disconnect_sensitivity is a setting, expressed in percent, that represents the percent of volume delivered in the previous inspiration, that was not returned (i.e., was lost) during the exhalation phase of the same breath. In a presently preferred embodiment, the range of disconnect_sensitivity is as follows:
20%≧disconnect_sensitivity≧95%

In the case of a disconnection at the patient circuit inspiratory limb it is possible for the patient to generate flows in excess of 0.5 lpm and pressures outside the 0.5 cmH2O range of the first set of criteria, but is unlikely that these events will coincide with the first 200 msec of exhalation for long periods of time. This is the reason why the second set of criteria was developed.

When patient tubing system disconnections occur in a particular exhalation phase, they will usually be detected during a next exhalation, or if the disconnection does not cause autocycling of the ventilator, the disconnection can be detected during the current exhalation by the second set of criteria.

In a third set of criteria, a condition indicating disconnection of the patient tubing system has occurred can be declared if a desired flow target is greater than or equal to a maximum flow input to the flow controller, and the duration of a current inspiration is greater than or equal to a maximum allowed spontaneous inspiration time. This third set of criteria can be defined as follows:

    • If Desired_flow>=Flow_cmd_limit
    • AND Insp_time>=Time_limit
      where Insp_time is the duration of the current inspiration, Time_limit is the maximum allowed spontaneous inspiration time, and Flow_cmd_limit is the maximum flow input to the flow controller. For Pressure Based Ventilation (PBV), Flow_cmd_limit is dependent upon the patient type, and is typically 200 lpm for adult patients, and 80 lpm for pediatric patients.

The third set of criteria applies during the inspiration phase of a breath only, and only for spontaneous breaths, such as Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) or Pressure support, for example.

The third set of disconnection detection criteria reflects the fact that if a true disconnection occurs, during Pressure Based Ventilation (PBV), the desired flow will be driven to the maximum command limit if enough time is allowed. This type of response is generated, even for the lowest pressure support level, if a total disconnection occurs at the beginning of the breath or during the previous exhalation, at any of the limbs or the endotracheal tube side of the wye. Thus this criteria fits very well for reconnection verification purposes, which will be discussed further below.

In a fourth set of criteria, a condition indicating disconnection of the patient tubing system has occurred can be declared if the exhalation volume is less than the integral of the net flow from the beginning of inspiration to the beginning of exhalation with respect to time, multiplied by a proportional factor and a disconnection sensitivity factor, for three consecutive breaths. The fourth criteria can be defined as follows:

    • Exh_vol<Insp_vol*proportional_factor*(1−disconnect_sensitivity/100)
    • for three (3) consecutive breaths
      where
      Inspvol = - BeginInsp BeginExhal NetFlow * δt / 60 ( Eq . 1 )
      Exh_vol=Σ(Net_flow*δt/60) if O_exh_finished=0; and proportional_factor is defined by the pseudo code below:
    • If EIP-SOIP≦0.1
    • Then proportional_factor=0
    • Else proportional_factor=(EIP−EEPU0)/(EIP−SOIP)
      where EIP=End of inspiration pressure; EEPU0=End of exhalation pressure unfiltered at the time Q_exh_finished is set to 1; and SOIP (start of inspiration pressure)=value of P_wye_unfiltered at the beginning of the current breath's inspiration.

P_wye_unfiltered is calculated using the equation:
P_wye_estimaten=MAX (P_wye_imp_based_estimaten, P_wye_exh_based_eliminaten);
where
P_wye_imp_based_estimaten=Pat_press_imp_filteredn−Ri*(Air_flown+O2_flown).

The term P_wye_exh_based_estimaten is defined by the pseudo code below:

If Exh_flow<150

The P_wye_exh_based estimaten=Pat_press_filteredn

    • −Re*Exh_flown
    • Else P_wye_exh_based_estimatesn=Pat_press_filteredn
    • −Re*150
      where:
    • Ri=Ri_slope*(Air_flown+O2_flown)+Ri_intercept
    • Re=Re_slope*Exh_flown+Re_intercept
    • Ri_slope=Slope for the inspiratory limb resistance equation
    • Ri_intercept=intercept for the inspiratory limb resistance equation
    • Re_slope=Slope for the expiratory limb resistance equation.
    • Ri_intercept=intercept for the expiratory limb resistance equation.

Q_exh_finished is set to 0 (zero) at the beginning of exhalation and becomes 1 (one) the first time Net_flow_change_counter is greater than 20 AND at least 200 msec of exhalation have elapsed or if the exhalation phase ends, whichever occurs first. Once Q_exh_finished is set to 1, it remains in this state until the beginning of the next exhalation phase. Net_flow_change_counter is initialized to zero at the beginning of exhalation and incremented as indicated by the pseudo code below:

If Abs(Net_flow_filteredn − Net_flow_filteredn−1) < 0.01 =
flow_target
AND Net_flow ≦ 0.2 + 0.08 = flow_target
Then Net_flow_change_counter =
Net_flow_change_counter + 1
Else Net flow_change_counter = 0;

where:

    • flow_target=Value of the ventilator's predetermined desired steady state flow delivery during the exhalation phase. For pressure triggering mode of the value for flow_target is 1 lpm (Purge_flow). For flow triggering mode the value is Base_flow.
    • n=control interval initialized to zero at the beginning of exhalation
    • Net_flow_filteredn=Filtered Net_flow value. An alpha filter (α=0.9) is used to filter Net_flow.
    • Net_flow_filtered−1=Net_flow of last inspiration interval.

Insp_vol is initialized to 0 (zero) at the beginning of inspiration. Exh_vol is initialized to zero at the beginning of exhalation. The inequality in the criteria is tested only once, and always during the interval where Q_exh_finished is set to 1.

The fourth set of criteria enables the ventilation to also detect disconnections at the patient side of the endotracheal tube, since the volume returned will be much less than the volume delivered during a previous inspiration. A detection threshold setting, used by the therapist, is incorporated in the fourth set of criteria to avoid false disconnection detections generated by leaks in the patient lungs or the tubing circuit. Three consecutive breaths are needed for the fourth set of criteria for declaration of disconnecting to avoid false declarations when the patient “out-draws” the ventilator during volume ventilation.

Once any one set of criteria for declaring disconnection of the patient tubing system are met, the ventilator will open the exhalation valve, deliver an idle flow, such as typically a 5 lpm idle flow with 100% oxygen in the breathing gas mix, if possible, disable breath triggering, and generate an alarm indicating disconnection of the patient tubing.

Abatement of the condition of disconnection of the tubing system, or reconnection, will be detected when any one of the following conditions occurs:

    • 1) If 80% of the idle flow is detected by the exhalation flow sensor as Qexh (the exhalation flow compensated to dry flow) for 500 consecutive milliseconds; or
    • 2) When both Pinsp and Pexh read less than −1.5 cmH2O for more than 100 consecutive milliseconds;
    • 3) When both Pinsp and Pexh read more than 1.0 cmH2O for more than 100 consecutive milliseconds; or
    • 4) If Pinsp reads more than 10 cmH2O for more than 100 msec, consecutively.

Upon detection of a reconnection, the ventilator will initiate delivery of a pressure supported inspiration (PSI), and will return to normal ventilation, typically using the settings in effect prior to the patient tubing system disconnection, once the inspiration phase of the PSI is over. Typically, the ventilator system will check for disconnection of the tubing system from the beginning of the PSI until the end of the exhalation following the PSI using all but the fourth set of criteria, and then using all criteria thereafter.

In another currently preferred embodiments, the invention also provides for a method and system for dynamically monitoring the pressure drop of the tubing system (i.e. including the patient airway tubing, bacteria filters, and humidifier system) of a pneumatically driven, electronically controlled ventilator system for providing breathing gas to a patient during the exhalation phase of a breath cycle, with the exhalation phase having a plurality of control intervals, and each of the control intervals having a predetermined duration, for increases in pressure drop due to occlusions in the tubing system. Those skilled in the art will recognize that the predetermined duration of the control intervals may be fixed, and will also recognize that it may be advantageous to vary the control intervals according to sampling criteria established during operation of the ventilator, based upon performance of the ventilator while ventilating the patient. During ventilation, the pressure drop for a severe occlusion is computed based on the tubing type obtained, the delivered flows and the exhaled flows. The actual pressure drop is determined by comparing the pressure drop values from the inspiratory and expiratory pressure sensors, and an alarm indicating severe occlusion will be generated if the actual pressure drop exceeds a predetermined severe threshold level. The ventilator monitors the occlusion in a pressure based occlusion status cycling mode. This mode serves to protect the patient from over distension and to determine if the severe occlusion abates. The ventilator reverts back to normal ventilation when either tubing circuit occlusion or exhaust port occlusion are not detected.

The tubing pressure drop mathematical model (dPmodel) can be expressed by a quadratic equation with flow as the independent variable, as follows:
dPmodelmA*Q2+B*A+C   (Eq. 2)
where A, B, C are constants and Q is the flow through the tubing. The constant C is zero since dP is zero when Q is zero. Therefore Eq. 2 becomes
dPmodelmA*Q2+B*Q   (Eq. 3)

The remaining coefficients, A and B, can be obtained using a straight line fit of dPmodel/Q:
dPmodelQ=A*Q+B   (Eq. 4)
where A and B are constants to the straight line fit.

The quadratic pressure drop model (Eq. 3) is valid only for static measurements in flows. For dynamic flow rates, some errors are encountered in this model; but the model still serves as a good approximation of the pressure drop as a function of flow.

The actual or measured tubing circuit pressure drop, dP, is the difference between the inspiratory pressure sensor reading, Pinsp, and the expiratory reading Pexh:
dP=Pinsp−Pexh   (Eq. 5)

For occlusion detection purposes Eq.5 is modified to account for the pressure and low flow sensor accuracies (i.e. offset & gain drift). The determination of dP is thus typically adjusted for such factors as offset and gain drift, based upon the following equation:
dPmeas=(Pinsp−Pexh)−(0.7+Abs(Pinsp)*0.062)   (Eq. 6)

The pressure drop threshold for a severe occlusion is dependent upon the tubing classification as either adult or pediatric. Thus the pressure drop threshold for a severe occlusion, dPsevere, is defined for an adult patient by:
dPsevere=0.005*Q2+0.1491*Q+0.0142   (Eq. 7)
and for a pediatric patient by:
dPsevere=0.0082*Q2+0.1431*Q+0.136   (Eq. 8)
where Q is the flow is lpm causing the pressure drop to rise to a severe level. Since the location of the pressure drop increase is unknown, the maximum flow between Qinsp and Qexh is used:
Q=max[Qinsp, Qexh]  (Eq. 9)

The threshold dPsevere is typically limited to a minimum value of 5 cmH2O to prevent false triggering of the alarm due to the usage of a Cascade Humidifier or due to the presence of water in the tubing circuit, and typically in limited to a maximum of 100 cmH2O, since 100 cmH2O is typically the maximum set wye pressure.

The actual or measured tubing circuit pressure drop, and the pressure drop threshold for a severe occlusion, dPsevere, for either an adult patient or a pediatric patient, is determined in every 5 ms cycle and are compared. If the measured pressure drop exceeds the pressure drop threshold for a severe occlusion for the prescribed durations discussed below, a severe occlusion alarm is annunciated and ventilation switches to an occlusion status cycling mode, discussed further below.

In one currently preferred embodiment, three independent time counters are used to monitor violations of a severe occlusion threshold depending on the magnitude of dPmeas. A violation occurs when dPmeas exceeds the threshold dPsevere. The three time counters are associated to dPmeas values that fall in the pressure ranges of >20, >10, and >5 cmH2O respectively. Each counter is individually incremented if a violation occurs and if dPmeas is greater than the corresponding pressure range. If the condition for each counter is not met, then the counter is reset. Once the counters exceed 10, 20, and 40 cycles (i.e., for 50, 100, or 200 consecutive milliseconds) respectively, a severe occlusion alarm is annunciated.

The following pseudo code implements the above algorithm:

if (dPmeas > dPsevere)
{
if (dPmeas > 20)
t20—cm = t20—cm + 1;
else
t20—cm = 0;
if (dPmeas > 10)
t10—cm = t10—cm + 1;
else
t10—cm = 0;
if (dPmeas > 5)
t5—cm = t5—cm + 1;
else
t5—cm = 0;
}
else
{
t5—cm = 0;
t10—cm = 0;
t20—cm = 0;
}
if (t5—cm > 40 OR t10—cm > 20 OR t20—cm > 10)
severe_occlusion_detected = 1;

Occlusion of the exhalation exhaust port can also be detected from increases in the pressure drop of the exhalation compartment. The exhalation compartment includes those portions of the conduit downstream of the exhalation pressure transducer, including the heater manifold, flow sensor, exhalation valve, and any tubing attached to the exhalation outlet port. The amount of increase in pressure drop for the exhalation compartment is the same for a severe occlusion defined for adult patients. This increase is typically given by
Pincrease=0.005*Q2+0.1491*Q+0.0142 tm (Eq. 10)
where
Q=Qexh

The exhaust port pressure threshold, Pexhaust port thresh is calculated as the pseudo code below indicates.

If Pincrease<1
Then Pexhaust port —thresh =7.35+PEEP+Pexh*0.03   (Eq. 11)
Else Pexhaust port thresh+PEEP+Pexh*0.03+6.35   (Eq. 12)
where Pexhaust port thresh has an upper bound of 100 cmH2O.

The exhalation pressure sensor measurement, Pexh, is compared to Pexhaust port thresh. If Pexh>Pexhaust port thresh, for100 consecutive milliseconds, and 200 msec have elapsed in the exhalation phase, a seven occlusion alarm is annunciated and ventilation switches to the occlusion status cycling mode. It is commonly difficult to detect this type of occlusion during inspiration, and this mode of occlusion detection is disabled during exhalation pauses.

The maximum flow delivered from the ventilator is dependent upon patient type. The maximum flow limits (Flow_cmd_limit) for adult and pediatric patients are typically 200 and 80 lpm, respectively.

In a presently preferred embodiment, concurrently with the declaration of severe occlusion or the detection of exhalation exhaust port occlusion, the invention provides for a pressure-based occlusion status cycling mode. Occlusion status cycling serves two objectives: 1) protecting the patient from over distension while attempting to ensure that the patient receives some ventilation, and 2) monitoring the inspiratory and expiratory phases to determine if the severe occlusion abates. An occlusion status cycling ensues, the severe occlusion may relax to either a partial or a normal state. If an occlusion does abate, it must qualify as less than a severe before the ventilator system will revert to settings in effect prior to the patient tubing system occlusion. During occlusion status cycling, a purge flow is not to be established.

Referring to FIG. 2, the flow chart depicts the sequence of events that must be performed for the implementation of occlusion status cycling. Five phases of occlusion status cycling have been defined for the purpose of flow charting.

Phase 1: An exhalation phase in which the ventilator closes the pressure solenoid valves, controls the expiratory valve to zero PEEP, discontinuous flow triggering, sets PEEP equal to zero, sets the breathing gas oxygen percentage to 100, and opens the safety valve. This shut-down state persists until Pinsp≦5 cmH2O or until 15 seconds have elapsed, whichever occurs first. This phase is typically entered if an occlusion is detected while ventilating with normal settings.

Phase 2: An inspiration phase, in which at the beginning the ventilator closes the safety valve. After the 500 msec have elapsed, to allow for safety valve closure, the ventilator system delivers a Pressure Controlled Ventilation (PCV) based breath with an inspiratory pressure target of 15 cmH2O, a flow acceleration percent of 100, an inspiratory time of (2500-500) msec., and using Pinsp as the feedback signal for control.

Phase 3: An exhalation phase, in which the ventilator closes the pressure solenoid valves and controls the exhalation valve to zero PEEP. Exhalation will last until (Pinsp≦5 cmH2O AND at least 2.5 sec have passed) OR a total of 5 seconds have elapsed since the beginning of the exhalation.

Phase 4: An exhalation phase, in which the ventilator closes the pressure solenoid valves, controls the exhalation valve to zero PEEP and opens the safety valve. Exhalation will last until (Pinsp<5 cmH2O AND at least 2.5 sec have passed) OR a total of 5 secs. have elapsed since the beginning of the exhalation

Phase 5: An inspiration phase with current mandatory settings, the only exception being PEEP which remains at zero. Pexh is used as the feedback signal for control purposes if the breathing algorithm is pressure based.

it will be apparent from the foregoing that while particular forms of the invention have been illustrated and described, various modifications can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Accordingly, it is not intended that the invention be limited, except as by the appended claims.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3120843 *Jul 7, 1959Feb 11, 1964Abraham HymanMonitor for mechanical respirator
US3333584 *Jun 18, 1964Aug 1, 1967Air ShieldsPressure breathing monitor
US3595228 *Nov 27, 1968Jul 27, 1971Heron Michael WFlow line break alarm device
US3741208 *Feb 23, 1971Jun 26, 1973Ingelstedt SLung ventilator
US3811400 *Jul 21, 1972May 21, 1974Globe Safety Prod IncFluid operated alarm system
US3831595 *Jul 25, 1972Aug 27, 1974Airco IncRespirator
US3848591 *Oct 13, 1972Nov 19, 1974Philips CorpElectronically-controlled gas pressure meter
US3867934 *May 4, 1973Feb 25, 1975Veriflo CorpPressure monitor for a lung ventilator
US3877467 *Dec 5, 1973Apr 15, 1975Plicchi GianniArtificial respiration system
US3916888 *Oct 4, 1973Nov 4, 1975Tecna CorpRespirator
US4096858 *Dec 20, 1976Jun 27, 1978Chemetron CorporationVolume-rate respirator system and method
US4155357 *Feb 27, 1978May 22, 1979Sandoz, Inc.Patient ventilator disconnect alarm
US4176617 *Mar 23, 1978Dec 4, 1979Pilipski MLow pressure alarm
US4286589 *Nov 13, 1979Sep 1, 1981Thompson Harris AExtension lead for a respirator alarm system
US4287886 *May 12, 1980Sep 8, 1981Thompson Harris ARemote pressure sensor tube for the alarm system of a respirator
US4302640 *Nov 7, 1979Nov 24, 1981Bourns Medical Systems, Inc.Flow detector
US4318399 *Nov 28, 1979Mar 9, 1982Aga AktiebolagRespirator apparatus
US4550726 *Jul 15, 1982Nov 5, 1985Mcewen James AMethod and apparatus for detection of breathing gas interruptions
US4825802 *Nov 13, 1987May 2, 1989Societe Anonyme DragerPheumatic alarm for respirator
US4883051 *Feb 18, 1988Nov 28, 1989Summa Vest, Inc.Disposable breathing system and components
US5057822 *Sep 7, 1990Oct 15, 1991Puritan-Bennett CorporationMedical gas alarm system
US5313937 *Jun 19, 1992May 24, 1994Respironics Inc.Leak compensation method and apparatus for a breathing system
US5320092 *Aug 5, 1991Jun 14, 1994Ryder Steven LFluid delivery apparatus with alarm
US5537997 *Jun 7, 1995Jul 23, 1996Respironics, Inc.Sleep apnea treatment apparatus and passive humidifier for use therewith
US5626129 *Nov 30, 1994May 6, 1997Josef KlimmDevice for monitoring at least one connection in a medical tubing system
US5715812 *Mar 12, 1996Feb 10, 1998Nellcor Puritan BennettCompliance meter for respiratory therapy
US5720709 *Aug 1, 1996Feb 24, 1998S.M.C. Sleep Medicine CenterApparatus and method for measuring respiratory airway resistance and airway collapsibility in patients
US5740796 *Nov 6, 1996Apr 21, 1998Siemens Elema AbVentilator system and method for operating same
EP0099743A2 *Jul 15, 1983Feb 1, 1984Saltwater West Research Ltd.Method and apparatus for detection of breathing gas interruptions
EP0459647A2 *May 10, 1991Dec 4, 1991Puritan-Bennett CorporationApparatus and method for flow triggering of breath supported ventilation
EP0742027A2 *Apr 22, 1996Nov 13, 1996Instrumentarium OyArrangement for leak testing taking place in connection with a ventilator
Non-Patent Citations
Reference
1 *Drager-Evita Intensive Care Ventilator Instruction Manual.
2 *Marketing Brochure-Pediatric-Adult Star 1500 Ventilator-Infrasonics, Inc. Star Products.
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US8302602Sep 30, 2008Nov 6, 2012Nellcor Puritan Bennett LlcBreathing assistance system with multiple pressure sensors
US8322339Sep 1, 2006Dec 4, 2012Nellcor Puritan Bennett LlcMethod and system of detecting faults in a breathing assistance device
US8400290Jan 19, 2010Mar 19, 2013Covidien LpNuisance alarm reduction method for therapeutic parameters
US8418691Mar 20, 2009Apr 16, 2013Covidien LpLeak-compensated pressure regulated volume control ventilation
US8418692May 7, 2010Apr 16, 2013Covidien LpVentilation system with removable primary display
US8421465Apr 9, 2010Apr 16, 2013Covidien LpMethod and apparatus for indicating battery cell status on a battery pack assembly used during mechanical ventilation
US8424520Sep 23, 2008Apr 23, 2013Covidien LpSafe standby mode for ventilator
US8424521Feb 27, 2009Apr 23, 2013Covidien LpLeak-compensated respiratory mechanics estimation in medical ventilators
US8424523Mar 23, 2010Apr 23, 2013Covidien LpVentilator respiratory gas accumulator with purge valve
US8425428Mar 16, 2009Apr 23, 2013Covidien LpNitric oxide measurements in patients using flowfeedback
US8434479Feb 27, 2009May 7, 2013Covidien LpFlow rate compensation for transient thermal response of hot-wire anemometers
US8434480Mar 30, 2009May 7, 2013Covidien LpVentilator leak compensation
US8434481Mar 23, 2010May 7, 2013Covidien LpVentilator respiratory gas accumulator with dip tube
US8434483Mar 23, 2010May 7, 2013Covidien LpVentilator respiratory gas accumulator with sampling chamber
US8434484Mar 23, 2010May 7, 2013Covidien LpVentilator Respiratory Variable-Sized Gas Accumulator
US8439032Sep 30, 2008May 14, 2013Covidien LpWireless communications for a breathing assistance system
US8439036Dec 1, 2009May 14, 2013Covidien LpExhalation valve assembly with integral flow sensor
US8439037Dec 1, 2009May 14, 2013Covidien LpExhalation valve assembly with integrated filter and flow sensor
US8443294Dec 16, 2010May 14, 2013Covidien LpVisual indication of alarms on a ventilator graphical user interface
US8448641Aug 2, 2012May 28, 2013Covidien LpLeak-compensated proportional assist ventilation
US8453643Apr 27, 2010Jun 4, 2013Covidien LpVentilation system with system status display for configuration and program information
US8453645Jul 23, 2010Jun 4, 2013Covidien LpThree-dimensional waveform display for a breathing assistance system
US8457706May 15, 2009Jun 4, 2013Covidien LpEstimation of a physiological parameter using a neural network
US8469030Dec 1, 2009Jun 25, 2013Covidien LpExhalation valve assembly with selectable contagious/non-contagious latch
US8469031Dec 1, 2009Jun 25, 2013Covidien LpExhalation valve assembly with integrated filter
US8482415Apr 15, 2010Jul 9, 2013Covidien LpInteractive multilevel alarm
US8485183Jun 5, 2009Jul 16, 2013Covidien LpSystems and methods for triggering and cycling a ventilator based on reconstructed patient effort signal
US8485184Jun 5, 2009Jul 16, 2013Covidien LpSystems and methods for monitoring and displaying respiratory information
US8485185Jun 5, 2009Jul 16, 2013Covidien LpSystems and methods for ventilation in proportion to patient effort
US8499252Jul 27, 2010Jul 30, 2013Covidien LpDisplay of respiratory data graphs on a ventilator graphical user interface
US8511306Apr 27, 2010Aug 20, 2013Covidien LpVentilation system with system status display for maintenance and service information
US8528554Sep 3, 2009Sep 10, 2013Covidien LpInverse sawtooth pressure wave train purging in medical ventilators
US8539949Apr 27, 2010Sep 24, 2013Covidien LpVentilation system with a two-point perspective view
US8547062Apr 9, 2010Oct 1, 2013Covidien LpApparatus and system for a battery pack assembly used during mechanical ventilation
US8551006Sep 17, 2009Oct 8, 2013Covidien LpMethod for determining hemodynamic effects
US8554298Sep 21, 2010Oct 8, 2013Cividien LPMedical ventilator with integrated oximeter data
US8555881Jun 17, 2011Oct 15, 2013Covidien LpVentilator breath display and graphic interface
US8555882Jul 16, 2012Oct 15, 2013Covidien LpVentilator breath display and graphic user interface
US8585412Sep 30, 2008Nov 19, 2013Covidien LpConfigurable respiratory muscle pressure generator
US8595639Nov 29, 2010Nov 26, 2013Covidien LpVentilator-initiated prompt regarding detection of fluctuations in resistance
US8597198May 27, 2011Dec 3, 2013Covidien LpWork of breathing display for a ventilation system
US8607788Jun 30, 2010Dec 17, 2013Covidien LpVentilator-initiated prompt regarding auto-PEEP detection during volume ventilation of triggering patient exhibiting obstructive component
US8607789Jun 30, 2010Dec 17, 2013Covidien LpVentilator-initiated prompt regarding auto-PEEP detection during volume ventilation of non-triggering patient exhibiting obstructive component
US8607790Jun 30, 2010Dec 17, 2013Covidien LpVentilator-initiated prompt regarding auto-PEEP detection during pressure ventilation of patient exhibiting obstructive component
US8607791Jun 30, 2010Dec 17, 2013Covidien LpVentilator-initiated prompt regarding auto-PEEP detection during pressure ventilation
US8638200May 7, 2010Jan 28, 2014Covidien LpVentilator-initiated prompt regarding Auto-PEEP detection during volume ventilation of non-triggering patient
US8640700Mar 23, 2009Feb 4, 2014Covidien LpMethod for selecting target settings in a medical device
US8652064Sep 30, 2008Feb 18, 2014Covidien LpSampling circuit for measuring analytes
US8676285Jul 28, 2010Mar 18, 2014Covidien LpMethods for validating patient identity
US8676529Jan 31, 2011Mar 18, 2014Covidien LpSystems and methods for simulation and software testing
US8677996May 7, 2010Mar 25, 2014Covidien LpVentilation system with system status display including a user interface
US8707952Apr 29, 2010Apr 29, 2014Covidien LpLeak determination in a breathing assistance system
US8714154Mar 30, 2011May 6, 2014Covidien LpSystems and methods for automatic adjustment of ventilator settings
US8720442Apr 27, 2012May 13, 2014Covidien LpSystems and methods for managing pressure in a breathing assistance system
US8746248Dec 12, 2008Jun 10, 2014Covidien LpDetermination of patient circuit disconnect in leak-compensated ventilatory support
US8757152Nov 29, 2010Jun 24, 2014Covidien LpVentilator-initiated prompt regarding detection of double triggering during a volume-control breath type
US8757153Nov 29, 2010Jun 24, 2014Covidien LpVentilator-initiated prompt regarding detection of double triggering during ventilation
US8776790Jul 16, 2009Jul 15, 2014Covidien LpWireless, gas flow-powered sensor system for a breathing assistance system
US8776792Apr 29, 2011Jul 15, 2014Covidien LpMethods and systems for volume-targeted minimum pressure-control ventilation
US8783250Feb 27, 2011Jul 22, 2014Covidien LpMethods and systems for transitory ventilation support
US8788236Jan 31, 2011Jul 22, 2014Covidien LpSystems and methods for medical device testing
US8789529Jul 28, 2010Jul 29, 2014Covidien LpMethod for ventilation
US8792949Mar 6, 2009Jul 29, 2014Covidien LpReducing nuisance alarms
US8794234Sep 24, 2009Aug 5, 2014Covidien LpInversion-based feed-forward compensation of inspiratory trigger dynamics in medical ventilators
US8800557Apr 1, 2010Aug 12, 2014Covidien LpSystem and process for supplying respiratory gas under pressure or volumetrically
US8826907Jun 5, 2009Sep 9, 2014Covidien LpSystems and methods for determining patient effort and/or respiratory parameters in a ventilation system
US8844526Mar 30, 2012Sep 30, 2014Covidien LpMethods and systems for triggering with unknown base flow
US8902568Sep 27, 2006Dec 2, 2014Covidien LpPower supply interface system for a breathing assistance system
US8905024Mar 12, 2013Dec 9, 2014Covidien LpFlow rate compensation for transient thermal response of hot-wire anemometers
US8924878Dec 4, 2009Dec 30, 2014Covidien LpDisplay and access to settings on a ventilator graphical user interface
US8939150Oct 21, 2013Jan 27, 2015Covidien LpLeak determination in a breathing assistance system
US8950398Feb 19, 2013Feb 10, 2015Covidien LpSupplemental gas safety system for a breathing assistance system
US8973577Mar 11, 2013Mar 10, 2015Covidien LpLeak-compensated pressure regulated volume control ventilation
US8978650Apr 26, 2013Mar 17, 2015Covidien LpLeak-compensated proportional assist ventilation
US9022031Jan 31, 2012May 5, 2015Covidien LpUsing estimated carinal pressure for feedback control of carinal pressure during ventilation
US9027552Jul 31, 2012May 12, 2015Covidien LpVentilator-initiated prompt or setting regarding detection of asynchrony during ventilation
US9030304Jan 3, 2014May 12, 2015Covidien LpVentilator-initiated prompt regarding auto-peep detection during ventilation of non-triggering patient
US9038633Mar 2, 2011May 26, 2015Covidien LpVentilator-initiated prompt regarding high delivered tidal volume
US9084865Mar 15, 2007Jul 21, 2015Covidien AgSystem and method for regulating a heating humidifier
US9089657Oct 31, 2011Jul 28, 2015Covidien LpMethods and systems for gating user initiated increases in oxygen concentration during ventilation
US9089665Mar 11, 2013Jul 28, 2015Covidien LpVentilator respiratory variable-sized gas accumulator
US9114220Jun 24, 2013Aug 25, 2015Covidien LpSystems and methods for triggering and cycling a ventilator based on reconstructed patient effort signal
US9119925Apr 15, 2010Sep 1, 2015Covidien LpQuick initiation of respiratory support via a ventilator user interface
US9126001Jun 21, 2013Sep 8, 2015Covidien LpSystems and methods for ventilation in proportion to patient effort
US9144658Apr 30, 2012Sep 29, 2015Covidien LpMinimizing imposed expiratory resistance of mechanical ventilator by optimizing exhalation valve control
US9186075 *Mar 24, 2009Nov 17, 2015Covidien LpIndicating the accuracy of a physiological parameter
US9205221Apr 23, 2013Dec 8, 2015Covidien LpExhalation valve assembly with integral flow sensor
US9254369Dec 15, 2014Feb 9, 2016Covidien LpLeak determination in a breathing assistance system
US9262588Jun 21, 2013Feb 16, 2016Covidien LpDisplay of respiratory data graphs on a ventilator graphical user interface
US9269990Oct 24, 2012Feb 23, 2016Covidien LpBattery management for a breathing assistance system
US9289573Dec 28, 2012Mar 22, 2016Covidien LpVentilator pressure oscillation filter
US9302061Feb 26, 2010Apr 5, 2016Covidien LpEvent-based delay detection and control of networked systems in medical ventilation
US9327089Mar 30, 2012May 3, 2016Covidien LpMethods and systems for compensation of tubing related loss effects
US9358355Mar 11, 2013Jun 7, 2016Covidien LpMethods and systems for managing a patient move
US9364624Dec 7, 2011Jun 14, 2016Covidien LpMethods and systems for adaptive base flow
US9364626Aug 20, 2013Jun 14, 2016Covidien LpBattery pack assembly having a status indicator for use during mechanical ventilation
US9375542Nov 8, 2012Jun 28, 2016Covidien LpSystems and methods for monitoring, managing, and/or preventing fatigue during ventilation
US9381314Sep 14, 2012Jul 5, 2016Covidien LpSafe standby mode for ventilator
US9387297Aug 15, 2013Jul 12, 2016Covidien LpVentilation system with a two-point perspective view
US9411494Feb 11, 2013Aug 9, 2016Covidien LpNuisance alarm reduction method for therapeutic parameters
US9414769Aug 20, 2013Aug 16, 2016Covidien LpMethod for determining hemodynamic effects
US9421338Mar 12, 2013Aug 23, 2016Covidien LpVentilator leak compensation
US9463293 *Dec 17, 2010Oct 11, 2016Koninklijke Philips N.V.Servo ventilation using negative pressure support
US9492629Feb 14, 2013Nov 15, 2016Covidien LpMethods and systems for ventilation with unknown exhalation flow and exhalation pressure
US9498589Dec 31, 2011Nov 22, 2016Covidien LpMethods and systems for adaptive base flow and leak compensation
US20080078390 *Sep 29, 2006Apr 3, 2008Nellcor Puritan Bennett IncorporatedProviding predetermined groups of trending parameters for display in a breathing assistance system
US20100249549 *Mar 24, 2009Sep 30, 2010Nellcor Puritan Bennett LlcIndicating The Accuracy Of A Physiological Parameter
US20130047990 *Dec 17, 2010Feb 28, 2013Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Servo ventilation using negative pressue support
US20140014095 *Jul 11, 2012Jan 16, 2014Nellcor Puritan Bennett LlcTracheal tube with inner cannula indication system
USD653749Apr 27, 2010Feb 7, 2012Nellcor Puritan Bennett LlcExhalation module filter body
USD655405Apr 27, 2010Mar 6, 2012Nellcor Puritan Bennett LlcFilter and valve body for an exhalation module
USD655809Apr 27, 2010Mar 13, 2012Nellcor Puritan Bennett LlcValve body with integral flow meter for an exhalation module
USD692556Mar 8, 2013Oct 29, 2013Covidien LpExpiratory filter body of an exhalation module
USD693001Mar 8, 2013Nov 5, 2013Covidien LpNeonate expiratory filter assembly of an exhalation module
USD701601Mar 8, 2013Mar 25, 2014Covidien LpCondensate vial of an exhalation module
USD731048Mar 8, 2013Jun 2, 2015Covidien LpEVQ diaphragm of an exhalation module
USD731049Mar 5, 2013Jun 2, 2015Covidien LpEVQ housing of an exhalation module
USD731065Mar 8, 2013Jun 2, 2015Covidien LpEVQ pressure sensor filter of an exhalation module
USD736905Mar 8, 2013Aug 18, 2015Covidien LpExhalation module EVQ housing
USD744095Mar 8, 2013Nov 24, 2015Covidien LpExhalation module EVQ internal flow sensor
CN104857606A *Apr 22, 2015Aug 26, 2015深圳市科曼医疗设备有限公司Breathing machine as well as pipeline falling-off detection method and device thereof
WO2011130367A1 *Apr 13, 2011Oct 20, 2011Obenchain Valerie AGas flow and pressure error alarm
Classifications
U.S. Classification128/202.22, 128/204.21, 128/204.23, 128/205.23
International ClassificationA61M39/10, A61M16/00
Cooperative ClassificationA61M16/0051, A61M2039/1005, A61M2016/0042, A61M2016/0039, A61M2205/15
European ClassificationA61M16/00K
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Jul 30, 2001ASAssignment
Owner name: NELLCOR PURITAN INCORPORATED, CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:DOYLE, PETER;REEL/FRAME:012029/0644
Effective date: 20010315
Jan 16, 2002ASAssignment
Owner name: NELLCOR PURITAN BENNETT INCORPORATED, CALIFORNIA
Free format text: CORRECTIVE ASSIGNMENT TO CORRECT THE ASSIGNEE S NAME PREVIOUSLY RECORDED AT REEL 012029, FRAME 0644;ASSIGNOR:DOYLE, PETER;REEL/FRAME:012492/0459
Effective date: 20010315
Oct 4, 2006REMIMaintenance fee reminder mailed
Feb 8, 2007SULPSurcharge for late payment
Year of fee payment: 7
Feb 8, 2007FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 8
Sep 16, 2010FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 12