|Publication number||USRE39546 E1|
|Application number||US 11/253,281|
|Publication date||Apr 3, 2007|
|Filing date||Oct 17, 2005|
|Priority date||Aug 20, 1999|
|Also published as||US6089923, US6428362, USRE43366, USRE44961, WO2001015283A1|
|Publication number||11253281, 253281, US RE39546 E1, US RE39546E1, US-E1-RE39546, USRE39546 E1, USRE39546E1|
|Original Assignee||Adc Telecommunications, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (71), Non-Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (10), Classifications (14), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a continuation of application Ser. No. 09/378,105, filed Aug. 20, 1999 now Pat. No. 6,089,923 which application(s) are incorporated herein by reference.
The present invention relates to electrical connectors, and specifically to electrical connectors having closely spaced contacts and printed circuit boards where interference from crosstalk in the connector is a concern.
Various electrical connectors are known for use in the telecommunications industry to transmit voice, data, and video signals. It is common for some electrical connectors to be configured to include a plug which is connectable to a jack mounted in the wall, or as part of a panel or other telecommunications equipment mounted to a rack or cabinet. The jack includes a housing which holds a plurality of closely spaced contact springs in the appropriate position for contacting the contacts of a plug inserted into the jack. The contact springs of the jack are often mounted to a printed circuit board, either vertically or horizontally. An RJ45 plug and jack connector system is one well known standard including closely spaced contacts.
Crosstalk between the contacts and circuit pathways in telecommunications connectors is a concern. U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,299,956 and 5,700,167 are examples of various connectors including jacks and plugs which attempt to address the problem of crosstalk in the circuit board. It is desired to improve performance of the electrical connectors, such as an RJ45 connector, where crosstalk problems increase as higher frequencies are transmitted through the connector.
Most of the crosstalk problems occurring in a connector, such as an RJ45 connector, is mainly caused by the plug. This crosstalk is produced by the non-periodic or random discharges of crosstalk energy due to the imbalanced capacitance and/or inductance in the plug and the contact springs of a jack. RJ45 types of connectors are mainly used with balanced twisted pairs of conductors or wires. There is no grounding to shield the crosstalk energy.
One of the known techniques commonly used to solve the crosstalk problem in a connector is to balance the capacitance on the printed circuit board or on a substrate of the connector to minimize or eliminate the leaking energies from the unbalanced capacitance. The known method of reducing crosstalk generally includes forming of a capacitor by using two parallel conductive lines or wires and inducing electro-magnetic field to compensate the lesser field produced by the capacitive imbalance in the plug. This method is often referred to as capacitance balancing or capacitive compensation. The known compensation technique is applied at the nearest unbalanced components, which are the contact springs of a jack and the mated RJ45 plug. This technique is very useful for the TIA/EIA category 5 and Enhanced category 5 (5E) connector. However, the crosstalk performance of these connectors is rated only up to 100 MHz. Higher frequencies are in demand in the telecommunication and data transmission industry. The TIA/EIA category 6 connector standards have been proposed to meet the demand. Under the proposed category 6 standards, the connector is required to meet the crosstalk specifications up to 250 MHz, which is about 150% more bandwidth than the category 5's.
In order to meet this specifications, additional compensations or additional parallel conductive lines are needed to be placed on the circuit board at the nearest unbalanced components. It has been found that capacitive compensation only worsens the directivity or equal-level of the far-end crosstalk (FEXT) of the connector because the capacitor formed by two conductive lines has an inductive effect which is not accountable for. Also, it has been found that the additional compensation has a reverse capacitive effect on the near-end crosstalk (NEXT) of the connector. Generally, the far end and the near end are defined according to the two ends of the printed circuit board. The end to which signals are being injected is the near end. The opposite is the far end.
In addition, the natural crosstalk characteristic for short transmission lines, i.e. −20 dB per frequency decade, will be lost if the connector is heavily compensated. This natural crosstalk characteristic is generally required to be maintained in order for a connector to meet the category 6 crosstalk specifications.
Accordingly, the known compensation technique is either insufficient to compensate the crosstalk, or problematic by overcompensating for the crosstalk. The known compensation technique has been considered ineffective when applied to the development of a category 6 or a category 6 type of connector, and particularly, it is unable to meet the crosstalk specifications up to 250 MHz.
Thus, there is a need for a connector including an improved crosstalk compensation technique for a printed circuit board. Further, there is a need for a connector with balanced capacitance and/or inductance on the printed circuit board to minimize or eliminate crosstalk in the connector.
The present invention provides a method of compensating crosstalk for a printed circuit board of a connector. The present invention also provides a connector including such crosstalk compensation method.
The present method of compensating crosstalk for a printed circuit board includes a forward compensation process and a reverse compensation process. The forward compensation process compensates capacitively for the unbalanced capacitance in the plug by forming capacitors, for example, using the parallel conductive lines or wires on the printed circuit board. The reverse compensation process can be used to compensate the unbalanced capacitance and inductance caused by the forward compensations in the same pair combination of the connector. In other words, the reverse compensation negates the forward compensation at the far-end of the printed circuit board by forming capacitors, for example, using the parallel conductive lines or wires, at the far-end of the printed circuit board.
In one aspect of the present invention, the method of compensating crosstalk in a connector arrangement includes: providing a plurality of pairs of conductors on a printed circuit board, the pairs of conductors connecting to respective front and rear terminals, each pair of conductors including a ring conductor and a tip conductor, and the ring and tip conductors being substantially disposed in parallel to control the transmission line impedance; sending electrical signals between the front and rear terminals; generating forward-compensating capacitance, induced between two of the pairs of conductors, proximate the respective front terminals by providing a first capacitor between a first conductor of the first pair and a second conductor of the second pair and providing a second capacitor between a second conductor of the first pair and a first conductor of the second pair; and generating reverse-compensating capacitance/inductance to compensate the unbalanced capacitance/inductance induced between the two pairs of conductors by the first and second capacitors at the front terminal. The reverse-compensating capacitance/inductance is disposed proximate the rear terminals by providing a third capacitor between the first conductor of the first pair and the first conductor of the second pair and providing a fourth capacitor between the second conductor of the first pair and the second conductor of the second pair.
Accordingly, unbalanced capacitance/inductance, induced between the two pairs of conductors on the printed circuit board is compensated by the first, second, third, and fourth capacitors.
In one aspect of the present invention, the capacitance/inductance of the same two pairs of conductors is compensated at the opposite terminals in the reverse compensation process.
In another aspect of the present invention, the forward-reverse compensation technique can also be applied to minimize or eliminate crosstalk induced between any other combinations of two pairs of conductors on the printed circuit board.
One of the advantages of the forward-reverse compensation technique is that by reversing the compensations of ones at the opposite terminals, both the far-end crosstalk performance and the near-end crosstalk performance are improved. The inductance effect resulted from forming the capacitors at the front terminals of the printed circuit board of the connector is also balanced.
These and various other features as well as advantages that characterize the present invention will be apparent upon reading of the following detailed description and review of the associated drawings.
The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in and constitute a part of this specification, illustrate several aspects of the invention and together with the description, serve to explain the principles of the invention. A brief description of the drawings is as follows:
Reference will now be made in detail to exemplary aspects of the present invention that are illustrated in the accompanying drawings. Wherever possible, the same reference numbers will be used throughout the drawings to refer to the same or like parts.
As shown in the illustrated preferred embodiment, the jack 26 and plug 32 is an 8 contact type (i.e., 4 twisted pair) connector arrangement. While the various aspects of the present invention are particularly useful for 8 contact modular connectors, it will be appreciated that other types of connectors could also be used.
Referring also to
The jack 26 includes a front jack housing 54, and a rear insert assembly 56 in the illustrated preferred embodiment. The jack housing 54 is adapted to be snap-fit into a face plate, panel, or other mounting arrangement.
The insert assembly 56 is adapted to snap fit within a back side 61 of the housing 54. The insert assembly 56 includes a connector mount 66, a plurality of insulation displacement terminals 68, a termination cap 70, the circuit board 40, and the contact springs 34 (e.g., eight contact springs) mounted on the circuit board 40. When assembled, the insulation displacement terminals 68 and the termination cap 70 mount at a top side of the connector mount 66, while the circuit board 40 mounts to a bottom side of the connector mount 66. As so assembled, the contact springs 34 project upward between resilient locking tabs 76 (only one shown) of the connector mount 66. The locking tabs 76 are adapted to snap fit within corresponding openings 78 defined by the housing 54. Further detail relating to an exemplary housing and connector mount suitable for practicing the present invention are disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/327,053, filed Jun. 7, 1999 that is hereby incorporated by reference. Details relating to contact spring configurations suitable for use with the present invention are disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/378,404, which is entitled Telecommunications Connector for High Frequency Transmissions, which was filed on a date concurrent with the filing date of this application, and which is hereby incorporated by reference. Other spring configurations are possible, such as those shown in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/231,736, filed Jan. 15, 1999 hereby incorporated by reference. Other spring configurations are possible for use with circuit board 40, as desired. Further, front terminals 46 are shown in 3 rows across board 40 in the preferred embodiment. Other arrangements are possible such as more or less rows.
In a typical terminal pin assignments, such as in a RJ45 connector, best shown in
In addition, in
The forward compensation is illustrated in FIG. 18. At the front portion 42 of the connector, a capacitor C35′ is added in dashed lines between terminals 46-3 and 46-5, such that the capacitance between terminals 46-3 and 46-4 and the capacitance between terminals 46-3 and 46-5 are balanced.
As shown in
As shown in
Also as shown in
The compensating conductive lines 52 are terminated on the isolation displacement contacts with a preferable 100 Ohm resistor as generally specified in the industry. It is appreciated that other resistance can be used at the terminal within the scope of the present invention. Further, the shape or type of compensating capacitors can be varied. For example, C64′, C35′, C34′, C64″, and C35″ are capacitors formed on the same layer as shown in
In a preferred printed circuit board arrangement, the layer shown in
Accordingly, by reversing the compensations of ones at opposite terminals, i.e. at the rear portion 44, the forward-reverse compensation processes allow the capacitance/inductance induced between pair I and pair II to be balanced on the printed circuit board. As a result, crosstalk caused by the imbalanced capacitance/inductance of pair I and pair II is minimized or eliminated.
It is appreciated that the imbalance capacitance/inductance caused by the other pair combinations, such as the other five pair combinations shown in
The capacitors for pair combinations (except pair combination III/IV) are 52-C46′, 52-C68′, 52-C25′, 52-C65′, 52-C67′, and 52-C67″ as shown in
In a preferred embodiment, the layer shown in
It will be appreciated that the forward-reverse compensating technique can also be used to compensate unbalanced inductance in the plug and/or contact springs by forming additional capacitors in the reverse compensation process.
It will also be appreciated that other types of electro-magnetic field can be used to compensate unbalanced capacitance/inductance on the printed circuit board. For example, the electro-magnetic field can be a combination of capacitor and an inductor.
It is further appreciated that the capacitors and/or inductors used in the forward-reverse compensation technique can be implemented in other parts of the connector, i.e. not necessarily on the printed circuit board, without departing from the principles of the present invention.
The forward-reverse crosstalk compensation technique of the present invention significantly improves the near-end as well as the far-end crosstalk performance. For example, the near-end crosstalk can be as low as −64 dB at 100 MHz frequency and as low as −48 at 250 MHz frequency. The far-end crosstalk can be as low as −52 dB at 100 MHz frequency and as low as −44 dB at 250 MHz.
The above specification, examples and data provide a complete description of the manufacture and use of the composition of the invention. Since many embodiments of the invention can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, the invention resides in the claims hereinafter appended.
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|U.S. Classification||439/676, 439/941, 333/1|
|International Classification||H05K1/16, H05K1/02, H01R24/00|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S439/941, H01R13/6466, H05K2201/10189, H05K1/162, H05K2201/09236, H05K1/0228|
|European Classification||H05K1/02C2C, H01R23/00B|
|Apr 3, 2008||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: JPMORGAN CHASE BANK, N.A., AS ADMINISTRATIVE AGENT
Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:ADC TELECOMMUNICATIONS, INC.;REEL/FRAME:020753/0037
Effective date: 20080403
|Aug 18, 2009||CC||Certificate of correction|
|Jan 11, 2010||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: ADC TELECOMMUNICATIONS, INC., MINNESOTA
Free format text: RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNOR:JPMORGAN CHASE BANK, N.A.;REEL/FRAME:023758/0177
Effective date: 20091124
|Jul 6, 2015||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: TYCO ELECTRONICS SERVICES GMBH, SWITZERLAND
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:ADC TELECOMMUNICATIONS, INC.;REEL/FRAME:036060/0174
Effective date: 20110930