|Publication number||USRE39644 E1|
|Application number||US 10/219,188|
|Publication date||May 22, 2007|
|Filing date||Aug 15, 2002|
|Priority date||Jan 10, 1997|
|Also published as||CA2287379A1, CA2287379C, US6104815, WO1998030297A1|
|Publication number||10219188, 219188, US RE39644 E1, US RE39644E1, US-E1-RE39644, USRE39644 E1, USRE39644E1|
|Inventors||Allan E. Alcorn, Richard L. Hale|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (17), Referenced by (104), Classifications (16), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/035,290, filed Jan. 10, 1997.
The present invention relates generally to secure communications systems, and more particularly, to a method and apparatus for authenticating and securely communicating, in addition to transactional data, user location data and event time data relating to a computer-based transaction executed using an electronic communication medium interconnecting a remotely located player (client) and a casino (host server).
Many on-line transactions that are completed using a computer require knowledge of the purchaser's actual location, identity and time, such as, for example, the purchase of controlled materials, cash transfer transactions, etc. Heretofore, in order to accommodate such transactions between remote locations, dedicated telephone lines or other secure communications systems have been required. However, as the Internet becomes the media of choice for many communications and commercial transactions, use of the Internet for transactions in which location, time and identity of the parties are required becomes problematic since prior to the present invention there was no way that the parties could be assured of the actual input time of the communication and the location of the other party.
One type of transaction for which the Internet appears particularly attractive is on-line gambling. However, gambling is a regulated industry all over the world. The regulations vary from total prohibition to nearly complete permissive wagering on almost unlimited subject matter. Today it is clear who has jurisdiction for both the establishment of regulations and their enforcement. In the USA, for example, the states have the authority, and the federal government supports the state's authority, to regulate gambling within its borders.
Some form of gambling is legal in all but two states; Utah and Hawaii. Currently, thirty-seven states permit state-sanctioned lotteries and twenty-three states have casinos, while others like California license card parlors. Seven states allow off-track paramutual betting on horse racing over the telephone. These activities are governed by a Gambling Commission established in each state, and the commissions govern the eligibility and licensing of all gambling players, games and businesses permitted to offer games in their state.
In 1976, the U.S. Congress appointed a National Gambling Commission to review the status of the then-current regulations. The Commission returned an endorsement of state sovereignty as to the issue. The few explicit exceptions were for gambling on Indian reservations, on cross-boundary waterways, and on commercial aircraft. The most frequently cited federal regulations are the Interstate Wire Act, 18 U.S.C. Section 1084, and the prohibition of illegal gambling businesses, 18 U.S.C. Section 1955. Both of these laws make federal crimes out of violation of state laws. Each is intended to support state enforcement of their laws.
Internationally, the scene is much the same; that is, the individual nation states regulate gambling within their borders. But there has to date been no successful regulation of gambling beyond a country's geopolitical boundaries. To avoid conflicts with the laws of a particular country, cruise ships that allow gambling are careful to be in international waters before they initiate game play. Jurisdiction is thus generally clear and there are usually few conflicts. The obvious conflicts have been covered domestically by federal laws.
It is important to note the importance of identifying both where the gambling occurs and who the parties (the host casino and the player) to the gambling activity are since it establishes both the legality of the gambling transactions and the jurisdiction for regulation and enforcement. This is of particular concern relative to remote gambling transactions made using a communication medium such as the Internet because one cannot always know where both the client (player) and the host server (usually at a casino) is located when the connecting medium is not “hard wire” connected from one end of the link to the other.
Today a player usually goes into a casino and walks around placing bets and playing games in surroundings that have evolved over many years. He knows where the casino is and the casino knows who and where the player is. Both parties have a sense of confidence that exposure of the transactions within the limits of the law are under control. Both parties know what it means to win and how the winner is to collect his winnings. Everything from access to cash, to knowledge of whether he wins or loses, is acceptably within the party's control or he doesn't play. It is therefore apparent that the security that physical presence in a casino offers versus electronically accommodated remote gambling, supported by bets delivered through electronic fluids transfer, is going to require an adjustment in thinking for both the individual gambler and the casino.
There are currently several individual websites which offer the opportunity to gamble on sports activities, various types of on-line games, and various types of lotteries. Payment for wins and losses are accommodated through use of deposit account and credit card transactions. The proprietors of such websites have taken the position that the gambling “transaction” occurs at the website, and so long as the “transaction” occurs within a jurisdiction where gambling is legal, the wagering, in their view, is legal. However, various state authorities have now taken contrary positions and it doesn't make any difference where the player is extant. In fact, during the past several years, several states have challenged such practices and legal battles in this regard persist.
In the world of the Internet, it is easy to disguise where the website computer executing an application, in this case gaming software, is located, and where the user, i.e., the player sending the transaction to the application, can be found. This means that one can “spoof” the computer at the gambling website into thinking that the remote player is in a venue where it is legal to play the game. Likewise, a website computer connected to the Internet can appear to be executing a game in a location where it is legal, while it is actually located in a jurisdiction wherein such gambling is illegal. In either case, both parties to the transaction may be subject to legal liability if one of them is a resident in a jurisdiction where cross boundary gambling is not legal. Furthermore, in use of a communications medium that is subject to transmission delays, it is possible to change the apparent time of day of the player input to the extent that one could make a play after the legal period for wagering has expired, and yet appear to have entered his bet within the legal time window. This of course makes such play ripe for fraudulent opportunity. There is presently no facility on the Internet to preclude such actions. The Internet is presently used in innumerable non-wagering transactions; thus, any solution that is developed and used in the future must not be perceived as compromising in any way the fundamental assumed rights of the general Internet community.
Remote communication problems, in addition to party location and time of transactional activities that will require solutions in the gambling industry, be it through use of the Internet or any other communications medium, are authentication (identification) of both the casino and the player, privacy of the results of the transaction, security for the games to preclude tampering, and protection against unauthorized access to a player's financial accounts. Although some communications links, such as hardwire connections between remote terminals, are more or less secure, the Internet, in its current implementation, is not designed to be restrictive in any way; in fact, quite the opposite is true. It is probably the least restrictive communications medium in the world. It is also true that any action that may attempt to restrict a user's freedom on the Internet is met with massive resistance. Therefore, a solution to identifying the name and location of a player, and the name and location of the casino, as well as the security of the communications between them, must be carefully constrained to apply only to those who want or need to use it.
It will thus be appreciated that although licensing and taxing is normally done by local or state governments, and regulation is normally enacted at state and federal levels in the U.S., and at the nation's state level internationally, the application of regulations is geopolitical. And such regulations typically apply to the casino, the player and the type of game. To enforce the regulations, it is thus axiomatic that the physical location of both the player and the gaming establishment must be known. Furthermore, transactional legitimacy also requires the establishment of both the time and date of each transaction as well.
It is therefore a principal objective of the present invention to provide a transactional method and apparatus having means for determining the location of each party to a remotely linked transaction.
Another objective is to provide a system of the type described having means for determining the time of a transaction conducted between remote sites using an unsecured communication medium such as the Internet.
Still another objective of the present invention is to provide a system of the type described in which all communications between a remote player and a gaming site can be securely conducted.
Briefly, a presently preferred embodiment of the present invention includes the provision of a user terminal adapted to enable a player in one location to remotely communicate via a communications medium such as the Internet with a gaming host in another location. Location of the remote user terminal, the host server and universal time are determined using means for accessing the global positioning satellite (GPS) system. Player authentication (identity verification) is determined by use of a personal identification number (PIN) and electronic signature verification service. Security of communication is accomplished through use of a public/private key encryption system.
The remote user terminal may be comprised of one or more discreet components adapted to be used with a laptop or desktop personal computer (PC), or may be embodied in a stand alone or self-contained single unit that is portable and communicates via radio waves, telephone lines or the Internet to a host server.
An important advantage of the present invention is that it allows remote users to legally gamble at legal casino sites using an unsecured communications medium such as the Internet as the connecting medium.
Another advantage of the present invention is that it facilitates denial of gambling or other transactional privileges to those who are resident at locations or in jurisdictions that would make such transactions illegal.
Still another advantage of the present invention is that it assures that the time a wager is placed, or other action taken, is accurately determined and recorded.
A still further advantage of this present invention is that it assures security in the transaction.
These and other objects and advantages of the present invention will no doubt become apparent to those skilled in the art after having read the following detailed description of the preferred embodiment illustrated in the several figures of the drawings.
Referring now to
The position fix of receiver 20 at or near any point on the Earth can be obtained by measuring the pseudo-distance to any four system satellites that are in the radio visibility zone of the receiver. Furthermore, pseudo-distance measurements allow determination of the receiver's time scale shift relative to the universal coordinated time. Although not necessarily relevant to the present invention, additional measurements of the radial pseudo-speed (the rate of pseudo-distance variation) also allows determination of the speed of movement of a user carrying the receiver.
All satellites of the Navstar system transmit a radio navigation pseudo-noise signal with the same carrier frequency f(c)=1572.42 MHz. Identification of each satellite in the system is by the individual ranging pseudorandom sequence assigned to the satellite and modulating the carrier. In one mode, termed the easily detected (C/A) signal mode, the pseudorandom sequence is designated the Gold Code with a code element transmission rate of 1.023 MHz, and each code sequence comprising 1023 elements so that the repetition of the sequence is one millisecond.
Along with the Gold Code sequence each satellite of the Navstar system transmits binary symbols at a fifty baud rate. These symbols carry information on the satellite'ephemerides and clock (navigation data necessary to calculate the receiver's position fix), and a synchronization code (preamble) marking the reference points of the navigation data. The preamble is repeated every six seconds in the form of an eight-symbol Barker code. The serially transmitted preamble and navigation data constitute a navigation message composed of lines of six second length.
The radio navigation signal generation and transmitting subsystem on board the Navstar system satellites comprises a high precision time and frequency standard, a carrier frequency generator, a Gold Coded psuedorandom sequencer (individual for each satellite), a navigation data generator, a synchronization code generator, a modulating signal generator to provide two postional (zero degrees minus 180 degrees) phase modulation of the carrier frequency (this modulating signal being a modulus 2 sum of the navigation message symbols), and pseudorandom sequence elements, and a transmitter.
In receiver 20 the arriving radio navigation signal is correlated to a reference signal. The heterodyne frequency of the reference signal is fixed relative to signals received from all satellites of the Navstar system, and the generated copy of the Gold coded sequence varies in accordance with a particular satellite signal being received. The correlation between the Gold Coded sequence and its copy is analyzed until the auto correlation function obtains its maximum (auto correlation peak), this evidencing synchronism between the Gold Coded sequence and its copy. On obtaining this synchronism, as well as the synchronization of the carrier frequency phase, the pseudo-distance (and the pseudo-speed if used) is measured and the navigation message is received.
As indicated above, receiver 20 is a specially modified GPS receiver, and includes secure IC devices with RSA keys, a means for executing the public key algorithm (RSA), a keyboard that allows the user to enter his PIN number, a front-end reception circuit to amplify, filter and convert the frequency of signals arriving from the output of its receiving antenna 21, a local oscillator and other reference frequency generators, and a psuedorandom sequence delay detector and tracking device. The delay detector and tracking device comprises a received Gold Code copy generator, a carrier frequency detector and tracking unit, a navigation message demodulator to detect the synchronization code and navigation data, and a navigation processor. The latter component uses the detected synchronization code to set the reference point of the received navigation data (start of the navigation message line), and the output data from the Gold Code detection and tracking unit and from the carrier frequency detection and tracking unit to execute measurements of the pseudo-distance (and radial pseudo-speed). Serial or parallel processing of the signals arriving from four satellites allows this processor to thereafter calculate the position fix (and perhaps speed) of the receiver along with a correction factor for its time scale.
It will thus be apparent that receiver 20 will develop a very accurate universal time signal and position information accurate to within approximately 100 meters. This data along with the users PIN number is encrypted by the RSA encryption system contained within the unit 20 and coupled into an input port of PC 11.
During operation of the system illustrated in
As indicated generally in the block diagram of
It may also be desirable to authenticate the operating system and game software resident in the server and each terminal using a method such as that disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,643,086, expressly incorporated herein by reference.
As indicated in the flow diagram of
As indicated in
In a public-key/private-key crypto system each member of the system has two keys, a public key and a private key. The public keys are available to all members of the system, but the private keys are known only to their owners. Both of these keys are usually integer digital numbers that are nearly impossible to guess, to compute or to determine one from the other. They are typically very large integers of approximately 100 digits. Despite their enormous sizes, they can be easily created using well known methods. The principle concept enabling the use of these “digital signatures” is the extreme difficulty of factoring the product of two large prime numbers. Although there exist algorithms than can output the prime factors of any input series of numbers, if the primes in the factorization are two one-hundred digit integers, then even the best algorithm, run on the fastest computer of today's technology takes an extraordinarily long period of time. On the other hand, finding such arbitrary prime numbers and using them in the creation of the keys is quite easy and can be done in a matter of minutes. Thus even though the creation of the private key and public key is not a time consuming process, determination of the private key from the public key is a very difficult and time consuming task. In using public-key/private-key encryption systems, a sender can use his private key as his digital signature. Since this private key is known only to him and need not be shared, a forgery of the signature is not possible using today's algorithms.
On the other side of the communication link, the receiving server can confirm the authorship of a message by using the public key of the sender to decrypt the message. Thus, the public key provides an accurate authentication of the sender. Furthermore, by encrypting the transmitted message with the receiver's public key, the sender prevents third party intruders from obtaining the message in plain text form. Although the intruders may know the public key of the sender, they still need the private key of the intended receiver in order to decrypt the intercepted message. Hence, as long as the private key is private to the receiver, an intercepted message cannot be interpreted by an intruder.
Accordingly, in this simple embodiment of the present invention, once the communication link has been established and authenticated, and the user is authorized to play a game (or engage in some other transaction), he can immediately commence play by making an appropriate input via keyboard/joystick 12. In the case of a slot-machine type game, such input might be representative of the actuation of a “play” button, or the pull of a slot-machine handle. In response thereto, PC 11 will display on its monitor 18 a representation of the game being played and communicate the player input to the server 15. The server will in turn energize a random number generator, determine a game output, and communicate the output back to the PC which in turn selects an appropriate game ending routine and displays a corresponding result. In the case of a win, the casino server will have credited the player's account with the winning amount after having initially decremented the player's account by the amount originally wagered. The game can be continuously played in this manner with all communications being encrypted and decrypted at both ends of the communications channel, and with the ultimate result being that even though the Internet channel is an unsecured channel, the encryption renders the transactional communication secure.
An alternative version of the present invention is embodied in a “set-top box” configuration as depicted at 48 in FIG. 5 and includes a game player module 50 and associate CD-ROM drive 51, specifically adapted for use with a conventional home video receiver. In this embodiment, the public-key/private-key secure loader 52 is embodied in one or more IC chips directly assocaited with, or perhaps made an integral part of the GPS module 54, or other time and position signal generator, so that the encryption function is applied to the time and position data before it otherwise enters the gaming module. This further militates against tampering with the security features of the system. Player input to this unit is through a handheld remote control unit (not shown) that includes an infrared transmitter which generates infrared control signals that are coupled to the unit through an infrared receiver port 56 or the like.
Referring now to
In this embodiment, ROM 115 will be programmed to include the user's private key, the server's public key, an operating program for microprocessor 111, a public key/private key encryption algorithm and an authentication algorithm. Games, catalogs or other data to be implemented in use of the unit can be loaded via CD/ROM drive 116. In order to enhance the security of the unit, it is preferable that at least the components 111, 115 and 120 be mounted to a single circuit board and perhaps be encapsulated so as to discourage tampering. Since the microprocessor 111, ROM 115 and GPS module 120 are integrated into a single unit 121, it can be assured that all data and software entering the unit can be authenticated, and all data transmitted between the remote unit 110 and the casino server is encrypted.
It will thus be appreciated that the present invention can be implemented in many forms to provide a remote terminal means for enabling commercial transactions of any type to be made with different levels of security even though the communication is made over an insecure link, be it the Internet, radio waves, a telephone network or a cable medium. The system has particular utility for transactions in which time and location of the respective parties is critical, and security of communication is required. The user's location and the server location are assured by the incorporation of the GPS subsystems, user identification is ensured by the use of a PIN number or other personal identifier, and security of communication is ensured by the use of public-key/private-key encryption.
In a preferred gaming implementation, a gaming casino might provide remote gamblers with a unit such as that depicted in
Player module 50 is coupled to the Internet or other medium via a modem 58 and RF-11 telephone type connector 60. The output of unit 48 to a player interface such as a TV or video monitor (not shown) may be accomplished by direct connection via an SVHS connector 62 or by coupling it through an RF modulator 64 for output as a channel 3 or 4 signal to a TV monitor.
The initializing sequence is complete when the remote unit/server communications are established and initial data acquisition from the GPS is complete. Initial GPS data acquisition being complete means that there are sufficient satellites in view of the remote unit to determine the geoposition of the player (i.e., the position of his remote unit). If either of these events does not complete and error conditions occur, an appropriate error message will be displayed to the player.
The next series of events involves the exchanging of encrypted identifiers between the remote unit and the server to mutually authenticate the system. This insures knowledge of the identity of both the server and the remote unit and confirms that neither has been modified without authentication. If any part of the authentication process is unsuccessful, an appropriate error message is displayed to the player, the server will record whatever information it can, and the modem will disconnect the remote unit from the server.
Once the remote unit, server and application software are initialized and authenticated, the player is prompted to enter his PIN number (or possibly a player identifier and PIN number). This player information is encrypted and sent to the server along with the player's encrypted signature. The server decrypts the received message and confirms that this player has a valid account and is authorized to use this particular remote unit. At this time the player can access many on-line casino functions that do not involve gambling.
In order to entitle the player to commence legal gaming, the agency (or agencies) having jurisdiction over the player and the casino must be established. Jurisdiction is established by determining the locations of the casino, the player and possibly the server. The location of the casino is known, and the location of the server is controlled by the casino. What must be specifically determined is the location of the player. Furthermore, for some applications, the exact time of a transaction, to an as yet to be established precision, must be known. For purposes of establishing jurisdiction, the geopostion of the player's remote unit is defined to be the location of the player. The remote unit's location and the precise time is computed from GPS signals. The player's location is registered relative to jurisdictions allowing legal gambling, and he is allowed to proceed. If the player is not in a location where gambling is legal, he is notified in real time and the remote unit is disconnected from the server.
Encryption is needed for authenticating transactions and insuring player privacy. The player selects his game and the play for processing by the remote unit. The play is typically comprised of the selection of the next move and the amount of the wager. In the remote unit, the play selection is combined with a game identifier; the player's PIN number or other ID and the time the play was selected. Time is determined continuously from the GPS data. This data taken together forms the transaction request to the server. The remote unit encodes the data and transmits it via the communication return path and its internal modem (or other return path as suggested above) to the server.
Upon receipt of a complete transaction request, the server records the request and determines the transaction result. The result is the next state for the game (e.g., RNG output), and the effect of the transaction on the player's credit account. These data are then encrypted and returned to the players remote unit via the communicating return path. Upon receipt of the return transmission, the remote unit decrypts and authenticates the communicated data, computes the display for the next state of the player's game, and presents the output of the play on a display screen. The remote unit is now ready to accept the player's next selection.
When the player desires to terminate play, he powers off the unit. The server is aware when power is turned off at the remote unit because the connecting line or other medium “hangs up.” This is the only indication needed to notify the server that the player is finished playing. The server at this time closes all open activities linked to the player's session.
The critical elements of the system are thus the means for insuring:
All of these elements are required for this application of the technology. It will, of course, be appreciated that although the preceding is a description of a sequence of events defining the normal operation of the system, the exact sequence of events may change somewhat with an alternative implementation of the invention.
Although the present invention has been described above in terms of several specific embodiments, it is anticipated that alterations and modifications thereof will no doubt become apparent to those skilled in the art. It is therefore intended that the following claims be interpreted as covering all such alterations and modifications as fall within the time, spirit and scope of the invention.
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|U.S. Classification||380/251, 380/258, 463/16|
|International Classification||A63F13/12, G07F17/32|
|Cooperative Classification||A63F2300/401, A63F13/12, A63F2300/50, A63F2300/407, G07F17/3255, G07F17/32, A63F2300/532, G07F17/3237|
|European Classification||G07F17/32, G07F17/32K10, A63F13/12|
|Feb 15, 2008||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8
|Feb 25, 2008||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Feb 15, 2012||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 12