US RE39844 E1 Abstract A method for surface estimation of reservoir properties, wherein location of and average earth resistivities above, below, and horizontally adjacent to the subsurface geologic formation are first determined using geological and geophysical data in the vicinity of the subsurface geologic formation. Then dimensions and probing frequency for an electromagnetic source are determined to substantially maximize transmitted vertical and horizontal electric currents at the subsurface geologic formation, using the location and the average earth resistivities. Next, the electromagnetic source is activated at or near surface, approximately centered above the subsurface geologic formation and a plurality of components of electromagnetic response is measured with a receiver array. Geometrical and electrical parameter constraints are determined, using the geological and geophysical data. Finally, the electromagnetic response is processed using the geometrical and electrical parameter constraints to produce inverted vertical and horizontal resistivity depth images. Optionally, the inverted resistivity depth images may be combined with the geological and geophysical data to estimate the reservoir fluid and shaliness properties.
Claims(67) 1. A method for surface estimation of a resistivity depth image of a subsurface geologic formation, comprising the steps of:
determining the location of and at least one average earth resistivity for the vicinity of the subsurface geologic formation using geological and geophysical data from the vicinity of the subsurface geologic formation;
determining dimensions and probing frequency for an electromagnetic source to substantially maximize transmitted vertical and horizontal electric currents at the subsurface geologic formation using the location and the at least one average earth resistivity;
activating the electromagnetic source at or near the surface of the earth, approximately centered above the subsurface geologic formation;
measuring a plurality of components of electromagnetic response with a receiver array;
determining one or more geometrical and electrical parameter constraints, using the geological and geophysical data; and
processing the electromagnetic response using the geometrical and electrical parameter constraints to produce the resistivity depth image.
2. The method of
combining the resistivity depth image with the geological and geophysical data to estimate one or more properties of the subsurface geological formation.
3. The method of
4. The method of
two continuously grounded circular electrodes positioned in concentric circles.
5. The method of
6. The method of
a third circular electrode positioned concentric with the two circular electrodes.
7. The method of
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10. The method of
11. The method of
12. The method of
13. The method of
14. The method of
15. The method of
16. The method of
verifying the at least one average earth resistivity using the plurality of components of electromagnetic response measured with the receiver array.
17. The method of
applying 3-D wave-equation data processing to the electromagnetic response.
18. The method of
19. The method of
measuring a first electromagnetic response without activating the electromagnetic source;
measuring a second electromagnetic response while activating only the third circular electrode; and
measuring a third electromagnetic response while activating only the two continuously grounded circular electrodes.
20. The method of
merging the first and second electromagnetic responses to produce a fourth electromagnetic response;
inverting the fourth electromagnetic response; and
inverting jointly the third and fourth electromagnetic responses.
21. The method of
inverting the first electromagnetic response;
inverting the second electromagnetic response; and
inverting the third electromagnetic response.
22. The method of
23. The method of
24. The method of
25. The method of
26. The method of
27. The method of
two orthogonal horizontal electric fields;
two orthogonal horizontal magnetic fields; and
a vertical magnetic field.
28. The method of
29. The method of
two orthogonal horizontal electric fields;
two orthogonal horizontal magnetic fields;
and a vertical electric field.
30. The method of
31. A method for surface estimation of an inverted resistivity depth image of a subsurface geologic formation, comprising the steps of:
determining the location of and average earth resistivity above, below, and horizontally adjacent to the subsurface geologic formation using geological and geophysical data from the vicinity of the subsurface geologic formation;
determining dimensions and probing frequency for an electromagnetic source to substantially maximize transmitted vertical and horizontal electric currents at the subsurface geologic formation using the location and the at least one average earth resistivity, said source comprising six or more grounded linear radial electrodes of equal lengths placed along radii separated by equal angles whose radial projections intersect at a common central point, continuously grounded linear terminating electrodes connected substantially orthogonally at each end of the grounded radial electrodes;
activating the electromagnetic source at or near the surface of the earth, approximately centered above the subsurface geologic formation;
measuring a plurality of components of electromagnetic response with a receiver array;
determining one or more geometrical and electrical parameter constraints, using the geological and geophysical data; and
processing the electromagnetic response using the geometrical and electrical parameter constraints to produce the inverted resistivity depth image.
32. A method for surface estimation of one or more properties of a subsurface geologic formation, comprising the steps of:
determining the location of and at least one average earth resistivity for the vicinity of the subsurface geologic formation using geological and geophysical data from the vicinity of the subsurface geologic formation;
determining dimensions and probing frequency for an electromagnetic source to substantially maximize transmitted vertical and horizontal electric currents at the subsurface geologic formation using the location and the at least one average earth resistivity, said source comprising six or more grounded linear radial electrodes of equal lengths placed along radii separated by equal angles whose radial projections intersect at a common central point;
activating the electromagnetic source at or near the surface of the earth, approximately centered above the subsurface geologic formation;
measuring a plurality of components of electromagnetic response with a receiver array;
determining one or more geometrical and electrical parameter constraints, using the geological and geophysical data;
processing the electromagnetic response using the geometrical and electrical parameter constrains to produce one or more inverted resistivity depth images of the subsurface geologic formation; and
combining the inverted resistivity depth images with the geological and geophysical data to estimate the properties.
33. A method for surface estimation of one or more properties of a subsurface geologic formation, comprising the steps of:
determining the location of and at least one average earth resistivity for the vicinity of the subsurface geologic formation;
determining dimensions and probing frequency for an electromagnetic source to substantially maximize transmitted vertical electric currents at the subsurface geologic formation using the location and the at least one average earth resistivity;
measuring at least a vertical electromagnetic response with a receiver array;
determining one or more geometrical and electrical parameter constraints, using geological and geophysical data from the vicinity of the subsurface geologic formation;
processing the electromagnetic response using the geometrical and electrical parameter constraints to estimate the one or more properties.
34. A method for surface estimation of a resistivity depth image of a subsurface geologic formation, said method comprising the steps of:
obtaining electromagnetic data, said data consisting of measurements previously made with a receiver array of a plurality of electromagnetic field components produced by a focused electromagnetic source located at or near the surface of the earth and approximately centered above the geologic formation, said focused electromagnetic source having been designed by determining the location of and at least one average earth resistivity for the vicinity of the subsurface geologic formation using geological and geophysical data from the vicinity of the subsurface geologic formation, and then determining dimensions and probing frequency for the electromagnetic source to substantially maximize transmitted vertical and horizontal electric currents at the subsurface geologic formation using the location of and the at least one average earth resistivity; determining one or more geometrical and electrical parameter constraints, using geological and geophysical data from the vicinity of the subsurface geologic formation; and processing the electromagnetic field measurements using the geometrical and electrical parameter constraints to produce the resistivity depth image. 35. The method of
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42. The method of
3-D wave-equation data processing to the electromagnetic field measurements. 43. The method of
guided inversion. 44. The method of
dimensional resistivity depth image. 45. The method of
46. The method of
47. The method of
measuring a first electromagnetic response without activating the electromagnetic source; measuring a second electromagnetic response while activating only the third circular electrode; and measuring a third electromagnetic response while activating only the two continuously grounded circular electrodes; and wherein the processing step further comprises: merging the first and second electromagnetic responses to produce a fourth electromagnetic response; inverting the fourth electromagnetic response; and inverting jointly the third and fourth electromagnetic responses. 48. The method of
inverting the first electromagnetic response; inverting the second electromagnetic response; and inverting the third electromagnetic response. 49. A method for surface estimation of a resistivity depth image of a subsurface geological formation, comprising the steps of:
obtaining an electromagnetic source whose dimensions and probing frequency were determined to substantially maximize transmitted vertical and horizontal electric currents at the subsurface formation using a location of and at least one average earth resistivity for the vicinity of the formation, said location and average resistivity having been determined from geological and geophysical data from the vicinity of the formation; measuring a plurality of components of electromagnetic response with a receiver array; and sending the electromagnetic response data to be processed, using one or more geometrical and electrical parameter constraints determined from the geological and geophysical data, to produce the resistivity depth image. 50. The method of
optimal configuration. 51. The method of
52. The method of
53. The method of
54. The method of
55. The method of
measuring a first electromagnetic response without activating the electromagnetic source; measuring a second electromagnetic response while activating only the third circular electrode; and measuring a third electromagnetic response while activating only the two continuously grounded circular electrodes. 56. The method of
57. The method of
58. The method of
half of the length of the radial electrode from each end. 59. The method of
60. The method of
tenth of the length of the radial electrodes. 61. The method of
62. The method of
63. The method of
64. The method of
two orthogonal horizontal electric fields; two orthogonal horizontal magnetic fields; and a vertical magnetic field. 65. The method of
66. The method of
two orthogonal horizontal electric fields; two orthogonal horizontal magnetic fields; and a vertical electric field. 67. The method of
Description This application is a reissue of U.S. application Ser. No. This invention relates generally to the field of geophysical prospecting. More particularly, the invention relates to surface measurement of subsurface geologic formation electrical resistivity. Specifically, the invention is a method of combining seismic and electromagnetic data to prospect for subsurface formations that contain hydrocarbons. Remote mapping and analysis from the surface of the earth of hydrocarbons reservoired at depth remains a difficult technical task. This is so despite recent advances in 3D seismic imaging, seismic direct hydrocarbon indicator (DHI) and amplitude variation with offset (AVO) analyses, and seismic attribute mapping and interpretation. Seismic detection difficulties arise in part from the fact that the mechanical properties of reservoirs, to which the seismic probe responds, are often only slightly modified when hydrocarbons replace formation waters, especially in the case of oil. The modification may be of the order of only 10's of percent. Subtle mechanical effects related to seismic wave propagation and reflection can mask DHI and AVO signatures or even produce misleading signatures. For example, low gas saturation in water sands can produce false seismic DHIs. Because of such effects, drill-well success rates are too low and exploration costs are too high in many basins. In addition, rapid and low-cost assessment of discovered undeveloped hydrocarbon reserves requires good knowledge of reservoir properties at large distances from the discovery well. Acquiring this knowledge is problematic using only seismic data. There is an urgent need to remotely measure and map other reservoir formation properties that are sensitive to hydrocarbons, and to combine interpretation of these other properties with interpretations of seismic data and their mapped attributes. One particularly important formation property is electrical resistivity, which is strongly related to the pore fluid type and saturation. The bulk electrical resistivity of reservoirs is often increased substantially when hydrocarbons are present. The increase can be of the order of 100's to 1000's of percent. However, increased formation resistivity alone may not uniquely indicate hydrocarbons. For instance, carbonates, volcanics, and coals can also be highly resistive. Nevertheless, spatial correlation of high formation resistivity with potential traps imaged by seismic data, or with seismic DHI or AVO effects at reservoir depth, provides strong evidence of the presence of oil or gas and valuable information on their concentrations. For example, a low gas saturation high-porosity sandstone reservoir encased in shale can produce a strong seismic DHI and an AVO curve indicative of gas. However, it would also have low electrical resistivity and hence would be a high-risk drill-well prospect. Most hydrocarbon reservoirs are inter-bedded with shale stringers or other non-permeable intervals and hence are electrically anisotropic at the macroscopic scale. Thus, it is important to measure both the vertical (transverse) and horizontal (longitudinal) electrical resistivities of the reservoir interval. Remote measurement of the vertical and horizontal resistivities of the reservoir interval, combined with estimation of the resistivity of the non-permeable bedding, would provide quantitative bounds on the reservoir's fluid content, such as the hydrocarbon pore volume. However, there is no existing technology for remotely measuring reservoir formation resistivity from the land surface or the seafloor at the vertical resolution required in hydrocarbon exploration and production. Based on the thicknesses of known reservoirs and predicted future needs, this required resolution would be equal to or less than two percent of depth from the earth's surface or seafloor. For example, this would resolve a 200-ft net reservoir thickness (vertical sum of hydrocarbon bearing rock thicknesses within the reservoir interval) or less at a typical 10,000-ft reservoir depth. Overviews of electromagnetic imaging technology are given by M. N. Nabighian (ed.), Electromagnetic Methods in Applied Geophysics, Vols. 1 & 2, SEG Investigations in Geophysics No. 3, 1988; A. G. Nekut and B. R. Spies, Proceedings IEEE, v. 77, 338-362, 1989; and by M. S. Zhdanov and G. V. Keller, The Geoelectrical Methods in Geophysical Exploration, Elsevier, 1994. Imaging of electrically conductive objects such as ore bodies has been the dominant application for electromagnetic methods. In applications for hydrocarbon exploration, most of the technology was developed to image large geological structures in regions where seismic data are low in quality or are absent, and little other geological or geophysical information is available. Direct exploration for hydrocarbons using surface-based electromagnetic imaging has been attempted since the 1930s, but with little commercial success. This lack of success is due to the low spatial resolution and the ambiguous interpretation results of current electromagnetic methods, when applied in stand-alone and spatially under-sampled ways to the geological imaging problem. Low subsurface resolution is one consequence of the diffusive nature of the low frequency electromagnetic waves, that is, below 1 kHz, required to penetrate the earth to reservoir depths. The vertical resolution of such electromagnetic waves is relatively insensitive to bandwidth, unlike the seismic case, but is very sensitive to the accuracy and precision of phase and amplitude measurements and to the inclusion of constraints from other data. That is, the unconstrained geophysical electromagnetic data inverse problem is mathematically ill posed, with many possible geologic structures fitting electromagnetic data equally well. Consequently, the vertical resolution of unconstrained electromagnetic imaging is typically no better than 10 percent of depth. This gives a resolution of only a 1000-ft net reservoir thickness at a typical 10,000-ft reservoir depth. However, within a given resolved layer, conventional resistivity measurement accuracy can be within a factor of two, which is adequate for oil and gas exploration. Electromagnetic technology that is applicable to direct reservoir imaging uses electrically grounded controlled sources to produce vertical and horizontal current flow in the subsurface at the reservoir depth. The five embodiments of this technology, well known within the electromagnetic imaging community, are: (1) the LOTEM method described by K. M. Strack, Exploration with Deep Transient Electromagnetics, Elsevier, 1992; (2) the SIROTEM method, described by Buselli in U.S. Pat. No. 4,247,821; (3) CGG's TRANSIEL® system, described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,535,5293; (4) the EMI method, described by Tasci et al. in U.S. Pat. No. 5,563,513; and (5) the WEGA-D method described by B. W. Smith and J. Dzwinel in WEGA-D SYSTEM®, WEGA-D Geophysical Research Ltd., 1984. A newer version of WEGA-D named PowerProbe® has been developed by the Canadian company Enertec, a successor to WEGA-D Geophysical Research. All five methods suffer from the vertical resolution limitation of approximately 10% of depth cited above, which makes them unsuitable for direct reservoir imaging except for unusually thick reservoirs. This resolution limitation results from one or more of the following deficiencies in each method: (1) lack of means to focus the electromagnetic input energy at the target reservoir; (2) spatial undersampling of the surface electromagnetic response fields; (3) measurement of only a few components (usually one) of the multi-component electromagnetic surface fields that comprise full tensor electromagnetic responses at each receiver (except for WEGA-D/PowerProbe); (4) data processing using 1-D, 2-D, or pattern recognition algorithms rather than full 3-D imaging methods; and (5) lack or paucity of explicit depth information and resistivity parameter values incorporated into the data processing to constrain the inversion results. Another serious limitation in these five methods is their use of high-impedance contact electrodes and connecting wires, with greater than 1 Ohm total series resistance, to transmit the source current into the subsurface. This output impedance is primarily a result of the small surface area of the electrodes that contact (i.e. ground to) the earth. High output impedance severely limits the electrical current at the reservoir depth, which in turn reduces the strengths of the surface electromagnetic responses to the subsurface reservoir for a given source power. Current lmitatin due to high-impedance sources also results in reduced depths of exploration, especially in electrically conductive sedimentary basins. The effective depth of electromagnetic exploration increases as a fractional power of source strength, between M V.S. Mogilatov and B. Balashov,J. Appl. Geophys., v. 36, 31-41, 1996; and Mogilatov's Russian patent 2,084,929-C1 describe the use of surface electric concentric ring dipoles and radial electric bipoles. A. G. Tarkov, Bull. Acad. Sci. U.S.S.R., Geophys. Ser., no. 8, 11, 1957, R. N. Gupta and P. K. Bhattacharya, Geophysics, v. 28, 608-616, 1963, and by A. Dey et al., Geophysics, v. 40, 630-640, 1975 describe the use of opposite-polarity collinear surface electric bipoles (“unipoles”). However, ring electrodes described by Mogilatov and Balashov do not contain discussions of, much less calculations for, the optimum electrode dimensions needed to maximize the vertical electric field or current density at the target (reservoir) depth. The unipole methods described by Tarkov, Gupta, Bhattacharya, and Dey et al. do not include discussions of or calculations for the effects of changing the source frequency, or the effects of using finite-length unipoles (second electrodes not at infinite distance), on the optimum configuration needed to maximize the vertical electric field or current density at the target depth. S. K. Verma and S. P. Sharma, Geophysics, v. 60, 381-389, 1995 and H. Maurer and D. E. Boerner, Geophys. J. Int., v. 132, 458-468, 1998 discuss optimization of surface electromagnetic source array configurations in order to best focus energy onto subsurface targets. However, Verma and Sharma restrict their discussion to subsurface conducting layers, and do not include unipole or concentric ring dipole arrays in their calculations. Maurer and Boerner discuss the more general problem of optimization of surface electromagnetic surveys for imaging subsurface targets, but do not discuss unipole, multiple radial bipole, or concentric ring dipole sources. Conventional geophysical electromagnetic data processing finds the minimum earth structure, that is, the simplest resistivity model, which is consistent with the measured data within the experimental error bounds, but without explicit incorporation of a priori information. Incorporation of hard constants into the data processing significantly improves spatial resolution and resistivity accuracy, which are not simply related to signal wavelength or bandwidth as in the seismic case. Examination of well log and other data shows that, in most cases, major seismic boundaries are also major resistivity boundaries. In addition, interpretation of seismic, gravity, and magnetic data would provide good knowledge of the major lithologies present in a prospective area before drilling. Applying constraints for a large number, (10's to 100's) of layers and other major geologic boundaries (for instance, faults) would be novel for electromagnetic imaging of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Two previous method have described the incorporation of seismic constraints to improve spatial resolution in low-frequency electromagnetic geophysical inversion. Although not applied to hydrocarbon reservoir imaging, a method was developed by G. M. Hoversten et. al., Geophysics, v. 63, 826-840, 1998a; and SEG Annual Meeting Expanded Abstracts, v. 1, 425-428, 1998b to improve 2-D natural-source electromagnetic (magnetotelluric) imaging of the base of salt structures in the offshore Gulf of Mexico. Vertical resolution of the salt base improves by a factor of 2 to 3 when the depth to the top of salt is constrained by 3-D seismic data and when the salt resistivity is fixed. Natural-source methods such as that of Hoversten et al. lack the vertical resolution required for direct imaging of resistive hydrocarbon reservoirs, because they measure the earth's response to the flow of horizontal subsurface electrical currents that are insensitive to regions of increased resistivity. D. L. Alumbaugh and G. A. Newman, Geophys. J. Int., v. 128, 355-363, 1997; and SEG Annual Meeting Expanded Abstracts, v. 1, 448-451, 1998 have described the use of seismic constraints to improve resolution in cross-well electromagnetic imaging within hydrocarbon reservoirs, in a manner similar to that of Hoversten et al. for surface magnetotelluric data. However, the cross-well method requires the existence of at least two wells that penetrate the reservoir. Estimation of the reservoir's fluid type, saturation, and shaliness factor from surface geophysical measurements has been previously conducted using only seismic reflection data, in particular various seismic interval attributes (amplitude widths, ratios, phases, etc.). Here, the shaliness factor is the ratio of net hydrocarbon bearing zone thickness (pay) to gross reservoir thickness. It is well known in the industry that the electromagnetic response of a vertically layered earth depends on the direction of the resistivity measurement. See, for instance, M. S. Zhdanov and G. V. Keller (1994, op. cit.). However, there is no existing remote (surface-based) electromagnetic method for measuring both the separate vertical and horizontal resistivities of a reservoir interval at depth. Directional resistivity measurements for reservoirs have been restricted to in-situ methods, such as well logging. Specific technologies for indirect electromagnetic detection of reservoired hydrocarbons at depth have also been developed, but these rely on the detection of electrically altered zones (“chimneys”) above reservoirs caused by the purported slow leakage of hydrocarbons upward from the reservoir. The existence and relationships of alteration chimneys to reservoired hydrocarbons have not been unequivocally demonstrated. Changes in resistivity (increases and decreases) and polarizability (or induced polarization) are claimed by the practitioners of chimney detection to occur at various locations within such chimneys. Electromagnetic methods to locate chimneys were developed by Sternberg et al., as described in their U.S. Pat. No. 4,446,434, and Tasci et al., as described in their U.S. Pat. No. 5,563,513. The TRANSIEL® and WEGA-D/PowerProbe systems can also be used to detect hydrocarbon chimneys. These methods suffer the same depth resolution limitations as listed above, for the reasons cited in the preceding paragraph. The invention is a method for surface estimation of reservoir properties of a subsurface geologic formation. First, the location of and average earth resistivities above, below, and horizontally adjacent to the subsurface geologic formation are determined, using geological and geophysical data in the vicinity of the subsurface geologic formation. Second, the dimensions and probing frequency for an electromagnetic source are determined to substantially maximize transmitted vertical and horizontal electric currents at the subsurface geologic formation, using the location and the average earth resistivities. Next, the electromagnetic source is activated at or near surface, approximately centered above the subsurface geologic formation and a plurality of components of electromagnetic response are measured with a receiver array. Next, geometrical and electrical parameter constraints are determined, using the geological and geophysical data. Finally, the electromagnetic response is processed using the geometrical and electrical parameter constraints to produce inverted vertical and horizontal resistivity depth images. In an alternative embodiment, the inverted resistivity depth images may be further combined with the geological and geophysical data to estimate the reservoir fluid and shaliness properties. In a further alternative embodiment, the average earth resistivities above, below, and horizontally adjacent to the subsurface geological formation are verified using the plurality of components of electromagnetic response measured with the receiver array. The present invention and its advantages may be more easily understood by reference to the following detailed description and the attached drawings in which: While the invention will be described in connection with its preferred embodiments, it will be understood that the invention is not limited thereto. On the contrary, it is intended to cover all alternatives, modifications and equivalents that may be included within the spirit and scope of the invention, as defined by the appended claims. The invention is a method whereby the average vertical and horizontal formation resistivities of a hydrocarbon reservoir are remotely mapped from the land surface or the seafloor, using low-frequency electromagnetic waves constrained by seismic depth imaging and other a priori information about the subsurface. The invention overcomes the electromagnetic low vertical resolution problem by a combination of data acquisition and processing steps that are targeted at mapping the resistivity of a previously located or prospective reservoir. One embodiment of the layout of the apparatus used in the invention is shown in FIG. In this embodiment of the present invention, two continuously grounded electrodes The dimensions and probing frequency for a given reservoir depth and average earth resistivity, plus the corresponding electrical impedance of the grounded electrodes Preferably, the radius c of the insulated ring source An alternative embodiment of the grounded electrodes is shown in FIG. Electromagnetic responses are collected by an array of multi-component receivers Preferably, electromagnetic responses are measured at each receiver site over a gird having receiver spacing intervals x and y≦0.5 d, where d is the vertical distance (depth) from the land surface or seafloor The spatial positions and orientations at the earth's surface or seafloor Preferably, the multi-component electromagnetic receiver data are processed using full wave-equation methods. This 3-D processing includes, but is not limited to, data noise suppression, source deconvolution, and model-guided inversion. Both frequency-domain and time-domain methods are used, depending upon the methods used for the data acquisition. Alternatively, electromagnetic wave-equation migration may be used such as that described by M. Zhdanov et al, Exploration Geophysics, v 26, 186-194, 1995; M. Zhdanov and O. Portniaguine, Geophys. J. Int., v 131, 293-309, 1997; and M. Zhdanov et al, SEG Annual Meeting Expanded Abstracts, v. 1, 461-468,1998. Preferably, standard electromagnetic industry data processing techniques such as those described by M. N. Nabighian (1988, op. cit.); K.-M. Strack (1992, op. cit.); G. Buselli and M. Cameron, Geophysics, v. 61, 1633-1646, 1996; and G. D. Egbert Geophys. J. Int., v. 130, 475-496, 1997 are used for suppression of both natural background and human-generated electromagnetic noise. Preferably, data redundancy from multiple-receiver multi-component responses and from many source repetitions, combined with local noise measurements and signal cross-correlation techniques, are used within these standard methods to achieve noise suppression. Preferably, such techniques are applied to the data to produce a signal-to-noise ratio greater than or equal to 1 and signal accuracy greater than or equal to 1.0% for each electromagnetic component used within the multi-component data inversion. The electromagnetic source signature (source-generated noise) is suppressed automatically by the self-canceling field geometry of the grounded electrodes ( Preferably, the data from the array of receivers Preferably, the spatial positions of geometrical constraints are obtained from surfaces, such as horizons and faults, interpreted in dense 2-D or in 3-D depth-converted stacked seismic reflection data. Preferably, standard industry seismic interpretation packages, such as Geoquest IESX©, Paradigm GeoDepth©, or Jason Workbench©, are used to produce the interpreted seismic surfaces, to tie the seismic depth data to well log, gravity, magnetic, and other geoscience data, and to transfer these depth surfaces to the 3-D electromagnetic inversion starting model. Resistivity values for the initial electromagnetic depth model for geologic units bounded by the interpreted seismic surfaces are produced by any of a number of standard industry methods well known to one skilled in the art. These methods include ties to log data; extrapolation from regional data bases; application of empirical resistivity transforms using seismic intervals, well sonic velocities, or acoustic impedances; and initial layered-earth (1-D) resistivity inversion derived from the collected electromagnetic receiver data. Preferably, constraints are enforced during the inversion using standard industry techniques, such as described in M. A. Meju, Geophysical Data Analysis: Understanding Inverse Problems and Theory, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 1994. These standard techniques include Tikhanov regularization, Bayesian methods, sharp-boundary approaches (G. Hoversten et al., 1998, op. cit.), equivalent integral conductance and resistance methods, and minimum gradient support techniques (O. Portniaguine and M. Zhdanov, 1998, op. cit.). In an alternative embodiment of the invention, interpretation of the inverted resistivity depth cubes (“inversions”) includes comparison of the 3-D resistivity-depth values with interpreted 3-D seismic features and all mapped attributes derived from the seismic data (pre-stack and post-stack). Preferably, the separate and mathematically joint electromagnetic inversions produced from the grounded electrode sources and from the insulated loop source and magnetotelluric source are compared and combined with each other and with the seismic reflection features and seismic attributes to estimate the fluid type, hydrocarbon pore volume, saturation, and the shaliness factor (net pay-to-gross reservoir thickness ratio) within the reservoir over its mapped extent. The reservoir may be seismically defined by a combination of stratigraphic or structural closure or limits of mapped seismic attributes. The preferred method of this alternative embodiment of the invention to estimate fluid type, hydrocarbon pore volume, saturation and shaliness factor is as follows. The resistivity inversion at the reservoir depth produced from electromagnetic receiver data collected using the grounded electrode sources is used to measure the vertically averaged resistivity ρ Equations (1) and (2) contain three unknown averaged reservoir parameters: ρ The invention described above is designed to provide an order of magnitude improvement in subsurface vertical electromagnetic resolution over current technology. The following example illustrates the application of the invention for onshore (land) hydrocarbon reservoir resistivity mapping. After 3-D seismic data in the survey area are acquired, interpreted, and converted to the depth domain, the prospective reservoir is identified (depth d and extent 1). Knowledge of the earth's electrical resistivity for the survey area, averaged over intervals of 0.10×d, from the earth's surface to three times the reservoir depth (3×d) and five times the reservoir extent (5×1), is gathered using existing electromagnetic survey data and well logs, or is estimated using geologic basin analogs. The diameters of the grounded electrodes are calculated by numerically solving the uninsulated buried low-frequency electromagnetic antenna problem as discussed above, or by iterated 3D electromagnetic modeling, using the reservoir depth and vertically averaged layered-earth resistivities as inputs. The diameter of the optional insulated loop electrode is determined using standard methods known in the art. A preferred procedure is to obtain substantially optimal parameter values to substantially maximize the electric filed at the reservoir depth. However, as an alternative procedure, a sub-optimal aspect ratio b/a could be used to reduce electrode cost, installation effort, and survey permitting. For instance, an aspect ratio b/a=4 could be used. Use of this value for b/a would result in a 24.5% reduction in vertical electric field at the reservoir target, as shown in Assume a vertically averaged resistivity of the earth of value ρ Nine power sources/controllers The partially grounded electrodes Electromagnetic receivers The five-component receivers are deployed simultaneously in large groups (16 or more) within the survey area, with as many receiver groups deployed as possible and practical for the local conditions of the survey (e.g. terrain difficulties, logistical support). Data are gathered for each receiver group by a central processing unit (EMI type FAM/CSU™ or equivalent). Differential GPS geodetic methods are used to measure the positions (x, y, z) of all receivers to within 0.1 meters accuracy. The GPS signal is also used for phase synchronization (timing) of all receiver data. The receiver data are collected in three ways. First, the receiver data are collected as time records with all sources The three sets of receiver data are processed in the following way. After noise suppression using standard industry methods as described above, the second set of vertical magnetic dipole data and the third set of grounded radial electrode measurements are converted to the complex frequency-wavenumber domain using standard industry 2-D Fourier and Radon transform techniques. The first set of magnetotelluric data and the second set of vertical magnetic dipole data are merged together in the frequency-wavenumber domain, for each electromagnetic tensor component of the data. The merged magnetotelluric and vertical magnetic dipole data sets are inverted, and the grounded radial electrode data set is inverted separately. Then the merged magnetotelluric and vertical magnetic dipole data and the grounded radial electrode data are inverted jointly, as discussed in D. Jupp and K. Vozoff, Geophys. Prospecting, v. 25, 460-470, 1977. The magnetotelluric data, the vertical magnetic dipole data, and the grounded radial electrode data are also inverted separately. All data inversions use the 3-D frequency-domain finite-difference fully nonlinear methods of G. A. Newman and D. L. Alumbaugh (1996, 1997, op. cit.), modified to allow for the geometries of the grounded radial electrode and the insulated loop source current arrays. Depth and parameter value constraints are enforced during the inversion, using sharp-boundary methods (G. Hoversten et al, 1998, op. cit.) and integral resistance and conductance bounds within the update region of the nonlinear inversion 3-D mesh that contains the reservoir target, combined with minimum-gradient support techniques (O. Portniaguine and M. Zhdanov, 1998, op. cit.). The nonlinear inversion update region is centered on the target reservoir, and extends 100 meters above and below the reservoir and 200 meters laterally from each reservoir edge. The starting model for both the merged magnetotelluric and vertical magnetic dipole data inversion and the grounded radial electrode data inversion is an interpreted seismic depth model in which the mechanical properties (primarily the interval acoustic impedances) are replaced with resistivity estimates. The resistivity estimates may come from electromagnetic survey data, well logs, empirical relations to seismic parameters, or geologic basin analogs, as described above. The inversions are performed by means of a digital electronic computer of the massively parallel processor (MPP) type, or alternatively using a network of electronic digital computers that mimic an MPP computer. After the separate magnetotelluric, vertical magnetic dipole, and grounded radial electrode data inversions are completed, the magnetotelluric—vertical magnetic dipole and grounded radial electrode data are inverted jointly. The five respective 3-D depth cubes of inverted resistivity (magnetotelluric, vertical magnetic dipole, grounded radial electrode, merged magnetotelluric—vertical magnetic dipole, and merged magnetotelluric—vertical magnetic dipole—grounded radial electrode) are compared, and the ratios of their resistivity values are formed at each depth location using 3D visualization method. Finally, values of ρ The benefits provided by this invention include at least the following two. The first benefit is cost and cycle-time reduction in hydrocarbon exploration, development, and production activities, including reducing exploration drill-well risk, improving discovered-undeveloped reservoir delineation and assessment, and improving reservoir monitoring and depletion. The second benefit is improved business capture of new exploration ventures and field commercializations by offering unique, proprietary reservoir properties estimation technology. It should be understood that the invention is not to be unduly limited to the foregoing which has been set forth for illustrative purposes. Various modifications and alternatives will be apparent to those skilled in the art without departing from the true scope of the invention, as defined in the following claims. Patent Citations
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