US RE40385 E1 Abstract An orthogonal complex spreading method for a multichannel and an apparatus thereof are disclosed. The method includes the steps of complex-summing α
_{n1}W_{M,n1}X_{n1 }which is obtained by multiplying an orthogonal Hadamard sequence W_{M,n1 }by a first data X_{n1 }of a n-th block and α_{n2}W_{M,n2}X_{n2 }which is obtained by multiplying an orthogonal Hadamard sequence W_{1,n2 }by a second data X_{n2 }of a n-th block; complex-multiplying α_{n1}W_{M,n1}X_{n1}+jα_{n2}W_{M,n2}X_{n2 }which is summed in the complex type and W_{M,n3}+jPW_{M,n4 }of the complex type using a complex multiplier and outputting as an in-phase information and quadrature phase information; and summing only in-phase information outputted from a plurality of blocks and only quadrature phase information outputted therefrom and spreading the same using a spreading code.Claims(287) 1. An orthogonal complex spreading method for multiple channels, comprising the steps of:
complex-summing W
_{M,n1}X_{n1}, which is obtained by multiplying an orthogonal code sequence W_{M,n1 }by first data group X_{n1 }of a n-th block, and W_{M,n2}X_{n2}, which is obtained by multiplying an orthogonal code sequence W_{M,n2 }by second data group X_{n2 }of a n-th block, M and n being positive integers; complex-multiplying the complex summed form of W
_{M,n1}X_{n1}+jW_{M,n2}X_{n2}, by a complex form of W_{M,n3}+jW_{M,n4 }and outputting (W_{M,n1}X_{n1}+jW_{M,n2}X_{n2})×(W_{M,n3}+jW_{M,n4}) as an output signal; and summing in-phase and quadrature phase parts of the output signal outputted from a plurality of blocks as
K is a predetermined integer greater than or equal to 1 to generate I channel and Q channel signal.
2. The method of
3. The method of
4. The method of
5. The method of
6. The method of
7. The method of
8. The method of
9. The method of
_{M,11}=W_{0}, W_{M,12}=W_{2}, and W_{M,13}=W_{0}, W_{M,14}=W_{1}, when M=4.10. The method of
_{M,12}=W_{4}.11. The method of
_{M,n1}=W_{0}, W_{M,n2}=W_{2p}, where p represents a predetermined number in a range from 0 to (M/2)−1, and W_{M,n3}=W_{2n−2}, W_{M,n4}=W_{2n−1}.12. The method of
_{M,21}=W_{0}, W_{M,22}=W_{4}, W_{M,23}=W_{2}, W_{M,24}=W_{3 }when M=8 in case of two channels.13. The method of
_{M,12}=W_{6}, and W_{M,22}=W_{6}.14. An orthogonal complex spreading apparatus, comprising:
a plurality of complex multiplication blocks, each for complex-multiplexing a complex signal W
_{M,n1}X_{n1}+jW_{M,n2}X_{n2 }by W_{M,n3}+jW_{M,n4 }wherein W_{M,n1}X_{n1 }is obtained by multiplying an orthogonal code sequence W_{M,n1 }by first data group X_{n1 }of n-th block and W_{M,n2}X_{n2 }is obtained by multiplying orthogonal sequence W_{M,n2 }by second data group X_{n2 }of the n-th block, wherein M and n are positive integers and W_{M,n1}, W_{M,n2}, W_{M,n3 }and W_{M,n4 }are predetermined orthogonal sequences; and a summing unit for summing in-phase and quadrature phase parts of an output signal from each block of the plurality of the complex multiplication blocks as
K is a predetermined integer greater than or equal to 1.
15. The apparatus of
16. The apparatus of
17. The apparatus of
a first multiplier for multiplying the first data group X
_{n1 }by the orthogonal code sequence W_{M,n1}; a second multiplier for multiplying the second data group X
_{n2 }by the orthogonal code sequence W_{M,n2}; third and fourth multipliers for multiplying the output signal W
_{M,n1}X_{n1 }from the first multiplier and the output signal W_{M,n2}X_{n2 }from the second multiplier by orthogonal code sequence W_{M,n3}; fifth and sixth multipliers for multiplying the output signal W
_{M,n1}X_{n1 }from the first multiplier and the output signal W_{M,n2}X_{n2 }from the second multiplier by orthogonal code sequence W_{M,n4}; a first adder for subtracting output signal from the sixth multiplier from output signal (ac) from the third multiplier and outputting an in-phase information; and
a second adder for summing output signal from the fourth multiplier and output signal from the fifth multiplier and outputting quadrature phase information.
18. The apparatus of
19. The apparatus of
20. A permuted orthogonal complex spreading method for multiple channels allocating at least two input channels to first and second groups, comprising the steps of:
multiplying a predetermined orthogonal code sequence W
_{M,n1 }by first data group X_{n1}; multiplying orthogonal code sequence M
_{M,n2 }by second data group X_{n2}; summing output signals W
_{M,n1}X_{n1 }and W_{M,n2}X_{n2 }in the complex form of
and
complex-multiplying the received output signal
wherein P is a predetermined sequence, and W
_{M,I }and W_{M,Q }are orthogonal code sequences. 21. The method of
multiplying, and the spreading code is generated based on at least a PN code.22. The method of
23. The method of
24. The method of
25. The method of
_{M,I}=W_{0}, W_{M,Q}=W_{2q+1 }(where q represents a predetermined number in a range from 0 to (M/2)−1).26. The method of
multiplying the first data group X
_{n1 }by gain α_{n1}; and multiplying the second data group X
_{n2 }by gain α_{n2}. 27. The method of
_{M,11}=W_{0}, W_{M,12}=W_{2}, and W_{M,I}=W_{0}, W_{M,Q}=W_{1}, when M=4.28. The method of
_{M,12}=W_{4}.29. The method of
_{M,n1}=W_{0}, W_{M,n2}=W_{2q+1}, wherein q represents a predetermined number in a range from 0 to (M/2)−1 and W_{M,I}=W_{0}, W_{M,Q}=W_{1}.30. The method of
summing output signals W
_{M,n1}X_{n1 }from a first sequence multiplier; and summing output signals W
_{M,n2}X_{n2 }from a second sequence multiplier. 31. A permuted orthogonal complex spreading apparatus for multiple channels, allocating at least two input channels to first and second groups, comprising:
a first multiplier block having at least one channel contained in a first group of channels, each for outputting W
_{M,n1}X_{n1 }which is obtained by multiplying first data group X_{n1 }by orthogonal code sequence W_{M,n1}, and M and n are positive integers; a second multiplier block having a number of channels having at least one channel contained in a second group of channels, each for outputting W
_{M,n2}X_{n2 }which is obtained by multiplying a first data group X_{n2 }by orthogonal code sequence W_{M,n2}; a complex multiplier for receiving the output signals from the first and the second multiplier blocks in a complex form of
and complex-multiplying received output signal by W
_{M,I}+jPW_{M,Q}, wherein W_{M,I }and W_{M,Q }are predetermined orthogonal code sequence permuted and P is a predetermined sequence. 32. The apparatus of
33. The apparatus of
34. The apparatus of
_{M,11}=W_{0}, W_{M,12}=W_{4}, W_{M,21}=W_{2}, and W_{M,I}=W_{0}, W_{M,Q}=W_{1}, when M=8 in case of three input channels.35. The apparatus of
_{M,11}=W_{0}, W_{M,12}=W_{2}, and W_{M,I}=W_{0}, W_{M,Q}=W_{1 }in case of three input channels.36. The apparatus of
_{M,11}=W_{0}, W_{M,12}=W_{4}, W_{M,21}=W_{2}, W_{M,31}=W_{6}, and W_{M,I}=W_{0}, W_{M,Q}=W_{1 }in case of four input channels.37. The apparatus of
_{M,11}=W_{0}, W_{M,12}=W_{4}, W_{M,31}=W_{2}, W_{M,I}=W_{0}, W_{M,Q}=W_{1 }and W_{M,21}=W_{8 }in case of four input channels.38. The apparatus of
_{M,11}=W_{0}, W_{M,12}=W_{4}, W_{M,21}=W_{2}, W_{M,31}=W_{6}, W_{M,22}=W_{1}, and W_{M,I}=W_{0}, W_{M,Q}=W_{1 }in case of five input channels.39. The apparatus of
_{M,n1}=W_{0}, W_{M,12}=W_{4}, W_{M,21}=W_{2}, W_{M,31}=W_{6}, W_{M,22}=W_{3}, and W_{M,I}=W_{0}, W_{M,Q}=W_{1 }in case of five input channels.40. The apparatus of
_{M,11}=W_{0}, W_{M,12}=W_{4}, W_{M,31}W_{2}, W_{M,22}=W_{6}, and W_{M,I}=W_{0}, W_{M,Q}=W_{1 }and W_{M,21}=W_{8 }in case of five input channels.41. The apparatus of
_{0}X_{11}+jW_{4}X_{12}, W_{2}X_{21 }and W_{6}X_{31 }are replaced by α_{11}W_{0}X_{11}+jα_{12}W_{4}X_{12}, α_{21}W_{2}X_{21 }and α_{31}W_{6}X_{31}, and a gain α_{n1 }and a gain α_{n2 }are the identical gain in order to remove the phase dependency by an interference occurring in a multipath of a self signal and an interference occurring by other users.42. The apparatus of
_{M,n1}=W_{0}, W_{M,n2}=W_{2}, and W_{M,I}=W_{0}, W_{M,Q}=W_{1}.43. The apparatus of
_{n1 }by gain α_{n1}, and the second multiplier block comprises at least a fourth multiplier the second data group X_{n2 }by gain α_{n2}.44. The apparatus of
_{M,11}=W_{0}, W_{M,12}=W_{4/1}, and W_{M,I}=W_{0}, W_{M,Q}=W_{1/4}, when M=8 in case of two input channels.45. The apparatus of
_{M,11}=W_{0}, W_{M,12}=W_{4/1}, W_{M,21}=W_{2}, and W_{M,I}=W_{0}, W_{M,Q}=W_{1/4}, when M=8 in case of three input channels.46. The method of
_{M,11}=W_{0}, W_{M,12}=W_{2/1}, and W_{M,I}=W_{0}, W_{M,Q}=W_{1/2}, when M=8 in case of two input channels.47. The apparatus of
_{M,11}=W_{0}, W_{M,12}=W_{2/1}, W_{M,21}=W_{4}, and W_{M,I}=W_{0}, W_{M,Q}=W_{1/2}, when M=8 in case of three input channels.48. The apparatus of
a first adder for outputting
by summing output signals from the first multiplier block; and
a second adder for outputting
by summing output signals from the second multiplier block.
49. The apparatus of
a spreading unit for multiplying the signal
received by the complex multiplier by a spreading code.
50. The apparatus of
51. The apparatus of
_{M,n1}, W_{M,n2}, W_{M,I}, and W_{M,Q }are orthogonal Hadamard sequences.52. The apparatus of
fifth and sixth multipliers for multiplying said output signal from the first multiplier block and said output signal from the second sequence multiplier by orthogonal sequence W
_{M,I}; seventh and eighth multipliers for multiplying said output signal from the first multiplier block and output signal α
_{n2}W_{M,n2}X_{n2 }from the second multiplier block by orthogonal sequence W_{M,Q}; a third adder for subtracting output signal from the eighth multiplier from output signal from the fifth multiplier to output an in-phase information; and
a second adder for summing output signal from the sixth multiplier and output signal from the seventh multiplier to output quadrature-phase information.
53. A permuted orthogonal complex spreading apparatus for multiple channels, allocating at least two input channels into first and second groups, comprising:
first and second multiplier blocks for respectively multiplying first and second data group X
_{n1}, and X_{n2 }with a set of predetermined orthogonal sequences W_{M,n1}, and W_{M,n2 }to output W_{M,n1}X_{n1 }and W_{M,n2}X_{n2}; a complex multiplier for receiving the output signals W
_{M,n1}X_{n1 }and W_{M,n2}X_{n2 }from the first and the second multiplier blocks in the complex form of
and multiplying a received signal
by a predetermined sequence (W
_{M,I}+jPW_{M,Q})×SC, wherein W_{M,I}, W_{M,Q }are predetermined orthogonal sequences, P is a predetermined sequence and SC is a spreading sequence. 54. The apparatus of
a first adder for outputting
by summing output signals from the first sequence multiplier; and
a second adder for outputting
by summing output signals from the second sequence multiplier.
55. The apparatus of
_{n1}, of each channel of the first group by gain α_{n1}, and the second sequence multiplier comprises at least one second gain multiplier for multiplying the data X_{n2 }of each channel of the second group by gain α_{n2}.56. The apparatus of
_{M,n1}=W_{0}, W_{M,n2}W_{2p}, and W_{M,I}=W_{0}, W_{M,Q}=W_{1}, where p represents a predetermined integer in a range from 0 to (M/2)−1.57. The apparatus of
_{M,n1}, W_{M,n2}, W_{M,I}, and W_{M,Q }are orthogonal Hadamard sequences.58. The method of
the step of summing of output signals W _{M,n1} X _{n1 } and W _{M,n2} X _{n2 } includes adjusting values of the output signals W _{M,n1} X _{n1 } and W _{M,n2} X _{n2 } based on gains. 59. The method of
said step of complex-multiplying by (W _{M,I} +jPW _{M,O}) includes multiplying by (W _{M,1} +jPW _{M,O}) and by a spreading sequence, wherein W _{M,I} =W _{0 } and W _{M,O} =W _{1} . 60. The method of
P comprises a sequence, said sequence including pairs of consecutive sequence elements, respective sequence elements of any one of the pairs having a same value. 61. The apparatus of
the first multiplier block is configured to adjust the values of W _{M,n1} X _{n1 } based on first relative gains, and the second multiplier block is configured to adjust the values of W _{M,n2} X _{n2 } based on second relative gains. 62. The apparatus of
W _{M,n1 } and W _{M,n2 } comprise gain adjusted sequence elements. 63. The method of
W _{M,1} =W _{0 } and W _{M,O} =W _{1} . 64. The method of
adjusting the values of W _{M,n1} X _{n1 } based on first relative gains, and adjusting the values of W _{M,n2} X _{n2 } based on second relative gains. 65. The method of
W _{M,n1 } and W _{M,n2 } comprise gain adjusted sequence elements. 66. The method of
P is generated based on a spreading sequence. 67. The method of
the spreading sequence is generated based on a PN code. 68. The apparatus of
W _{M,1} =W _{0 } and W _{M,O} =W _{1} . 69. The method of
P is generated based on a spreading sequence. 70. The method of
the spreading sequence is generated based on a PN code. 71. A spreading method, comprising:
generating based on at least one or more first input signals X
_{11} , . . . , X
_{K1} , one or more first orthogonal code sequences OS
_{11} , . . . , OS
_{K1} , and one or more first gains α
_{11} , . . . , α
_{K1} , K being a positive integer;
generating
based on at least one or more second input signals X
_{12} , . . . , X
_{L2} , one or more second orthogonal code sequences OS
_{12} , . . . , OS
_{L2} , and one or more second gains α
_{12} , . . . , α
_{L2} , L being a positive integer; and
complex-multiplying by (W _{0} +jP·W _{1})×SC, wherein P is a third sequence and SC is a first sequence comprising at least a first element having a first value and a second element having a second value. 72. The method of
P comprises a second sequence, said second sequence including pairs of consecutive sequence elements, respective sequence elements of any one of the pairs having a same value. 73. The method of
74. The method of
75. The method of
76. The method of
1.77. A spreading apparatus comprising:
first multiplier mechanism for generating based on at least one or more first input signals X
_{11} , . . . , X
_{K1} , one or more first orthogonal code sequences OS
_{11} , . . . , OS
_{K1} , and one or more first gains α
_{11} , . . . , α
_{K1} , K being a positive integer;
second multiplier mechanism for generating
based on one or more second input signals X
_{12} , . . . , X
_{L2} , one or more second orthogonal code sequences OS
_{12} , . . . , OS
_{L2} , and one or more second gains α
_{12} , . . . , α
_{L2} , L being a positive integer;
a complex multiplier for multiplying
by (W _{0} +jP·W _{1})×SC, wherein P is a third sequence and SC is a first sequence comprising at least a first element having a first value and a second element having a second value. 78. The apparatus of
79. The apparatus of
80. The apparatus of
P comprises a second sequence, said sequence including pairs of consecutive sequence elements, respective sequence elements of any one of the pairs having a same value. 81. The apparatus of
82. The apparatus of
83. The apparatus of
1.84. A spreading apparatus, comprising:
a first multiplier mechanism configured to generate based on at least one or more first input signals X
_{11} , . . . , X
_{K1} , one or more first orthogonal code sequences OS
_{11} , . . . , OS
_{K1} , and one or more first gains α
_{11} , . . . , α
_{K1} , K being a positive integer;
a second multiplier mechanism configured to generate
based on at least one or more second input signals X
_{12} , . . . , X
_{L2} , one or more second orthogonal code sequences OS
_{12} , . . . , OS
_{L2} , and one or more second gains α
_{12} , . . . , α
_{L2} , L being a positive integer; and
a complex multiplier configured to multiply
by (W _{0} +jP·W _{1})×SC, wherein P is a third sequence and SC is a spreading sequence. 85. The apparatus of
86. The apparatus of
87. The apparatus of
88. The apparatus of
89. The apparatus of
1.90. A spreading method, comprising:
generating a first signal, a, based on at least a first input, a first code, and a first gain; generating a second signal, b, based on at least a second input, a second code, and a second gain; generating a third signal, d, based on at least a first sequence of sequence elements, the sequence elements in the first sequence systematically alternating between a first value and a second value, the first value being different from the second value; systematically generating SC·a−SC·b·d; and systematically generating SC·b+SC·a·d, wherein SC is a first PN code. 91. The method of
_{1} . 92. The method of
93. The method of
94. The method of
95. The method of
)2N−1 th element, the value of the ( )2N−1 th element is the same as the value of a ( )2Nth element, where N is a positive integer. 96. The method of
97. The method of
1 and the second value is −1.98. The method of
99. The method of
100. The method of
101. The method of
numbered Walsh codes. 102. A spreading method, comprising:
generating a first signal, a, based on at least a first input, a first Walsh code, and a first gain; generating a second signal, b, based on at least a second input, a second Walsh code, and a second gain; receiving a first sequence, SC, comprising a first element having a first value and a second element having a second value, the first value being different from the second value; generating a third signal, d, based on at least a third Walsh code, the third Walsh code being a second sequence of sequence elements and the sequence elements in the second sequence systematically alternating between the first value and the second value; systematically generating SC·a−SC·b·d; and systematically generating SC·b+SC·a·d. 103. The method of
_{1} . 104. The method of
105. The method of
106. The method of
107. The method of
108. The method of
109. The method of
)2N−1 th element, the value of the ( )2N−1 th element is the same as the value of a ( )2Nth element, where N is a positive integer. 110. The method of
111. The method of
112. The method of
113. The method of
1 and the second value is −1.114. The method of
115. The method of
116. The method of
numbered Walsh codes. 117. The method of
118. An apparatus for wireless communications, comprising:
a first multiplier mechanism configured to generate a first signal, a, the first multiplier mechanism having at least a first set of multipliers and a first adder; a second multiplier mechanism configured to generate a second signal, b, the second multiplier mechanism having at least a second set of multipliers and a second adder; an input generator configured to generate an input, d, based on at least a first sequence of sequence elements, the sequence elements in the first sequence systematically alternating between a first value and a second value, the first value being different from the second value; a third multiplier mechanism configured to receive at least the first signal, a, the second signal, b, a second sequence, SC, and the input, d, and to systematically generate SC·a−SC·b·d and SC·b+SC·a·d, the third multiplier mechanism having at least a third set of multipliers and a set of adders, wherein the second sequence comprises at least a first element having the first value and a second element having the second value. 119. The apparatus of
_{1} . 120. The apparatus of
121. The apparatus of
122. The apparatus of
123. The apparatus of
124. The apparatus of
125. The apparatus of
)2N−1 th element, the value of the ( )2N−1 th element is the same as the value of a ( )2Nth element, where N is a positive integer. 126. The method of
127. The apparatus of
128. The apparatus of
129. The apparatus of
1 and the second value is −1.130. The apparatus of
131. The apparatus of
132. The apparatus of
133. The apparatus of
134. A system for wireless communications, comprising:
a sequence mechanism configured to provide a first sequence, SC, the first sequence comprising at least a first element having a first value and a second element having a second value; a first input generator configured to generate at least a first input, a, and a second input, b; a second input generator configured to generate at least a third input, d, based on at least a second sequence of sequence elements, the sequence elements in the second sequence systematically alternating between the first value and the second value; a multiplier mechanism configured to receive at least a, b, SC, and d and to systematically generate SC·a−SC·b·d and SC·b+SC·a·d. 135. The system of
_{1} . 136. The system of
137. The system of
138. The system of
139. The system of
140. The system of
141. The system of
142. The system of
)2N−1 th element, the value of the ( )2N−1 th element is the same as the value of a ( )2Nth element, where N is a positive integer. 143. The system of
144. The system of
145. The system of
146. The system of
1 and the second value is −1.147. The system of
148. The system of
149. The system of
150. An apparatus for wireless communications, comprising:
means for generating a first signal, a, based on at least a first input signal, a first code, and a first relative gain; means for generating a second signal, b, based on at least a second input signal, a second code, and a second relative gain; an input generator configured to generate an input, d, based on at least a second sequence of sequence elements, the sequence elements in the second sequence systematically alternating between the first value and the second value; and means for receiving at least the first signal, a, the second signal, b, the first sequence, SC, and the input, d, and for systematically generating SC·a−SC·b·d and SC·b+SC·a·d. 151. The apparatus of
_{1} . 152. The apparatus of
153. The apparatus of
154. The apparatus of
155. The apparatus of
156. The apparatus of
157. The apparatus of
)2N−1 th element, the value of the ( )2N−1 th element is the same as the value of a ( )2Nth element, where N is a positive integer. 158. The apparatus of
159. The apparatus of
160. The apparatus of
161. The apparatus of
1 and the second value is −1.162. The apparatus of
the first orthogonal code and the second orthogonal code are even numbered Walsh codes. 163. The apparatus of
164. The apparatus of
165. The apparatus of
166. A spreading method comprising:
receiving a complex input signal comprising in-phase data and quadrature-phase data; receiving a first sequence of sequence elements, the sequence elements in the first sequence systematically alternating between a first value and a second value; receiving a complex code comprising an in-phase component and a quadrature-phase component, the quadrature-phase component systematically comprising the in-phase component multiplied by at least the first sequence of sequence elements; and complex multiplying the complex input signal by the complex code. 167. The method of
phase component only comprises a spreading sequence. 168. The method of
169. The method of
170. The method of
phase component comprises the in-phase component multiplied by at least the first sequence of sequence elements and a second sequence. 171. The method of
172. The method of
173. The method of
)2N−1 th element, the value of the ( )2N−1 th element is the same as the value of a ( )2Nth element, where N is a positive integer. 174. The method of
175. The method of
1 and the second value is −1.176. The method of
_{1} . 177. A spreading unit comprising:
a first input unit configured to receive a complex input signal comprising in-phase data and quadrature-phase data; a second input unit configured to receive a first sequence of sequence elements, the sequence elements in the first sequence systematically alternating between a first value and a second value; a third input unit configured to receive a complex code comprising an in-phase component and a quadrature-phase component, the quadrature-phase component systematically comprising the in-phase component multiplied by at least the first sequence of sequence elements; and a complex multiplier configured to complex multiply the complex input signal by a complex code. 178. The unit of
phase component only comprises a spreading sequence. 179. The unit of
180. The unit of
_{1} . 181. The unit of
182. The unit of
phase component comprises the in-phase component multiplied by at least the first sequence of sequence elements and a second sequence, wherein the second sequence is generated based on a PN code. 183. The unit of
184. The unit of
)2N−1 th element, the value of the ( )2N−1 th element is the same as the value of a ( )2Nth element, where N is a positive integer. 185. The unit of
1 and the second value is −1.186. The unit of
_{1} . 187. A spreading unit comprising:
a first input unit configured to receive a complex input signal comprising in-phase data and quadrature-phase data, a third input unit configured to receive a complex code comprising an in-phase component and a quadrature-phase component, the quadrature-phase component systematically comprising the in-phase component multiplied by at least the first sequence of sequence elements; and means for complex multiplying the complex input signal by the complex code. 188. The unit of
phase component only comprises a spreading sequence. 189. The unit of
190. The unit of
191. The unit of
phase component comprises the in-phase component multiplied by at least the first sequence of sequence elements and a second sequence. 192. The unit of
)2N−1 th element, the value of the ( )2N−1 th element is the same as the value of a ( )2Nth element, where N is a positive integer. 193. The unit of
194. The unit of
1 and the second value is −1.195. The unit of
196. The unit of
197. A spreading method comprising:
generating a complex signal comprising an in-phase data signal and a quadrature-phase data signal; receiving a first sequence of sequence elements, each ( )2N−1 th sequence element in the first sequence having a first value and each ( )2Nth sequence element in the first sequence having a second value, N being a positive integer; receiving a complex code comprising an in-phase component and a quadrature-phase component, the quadrature-phase component systematically comprises the in-phase component multiplied by the first sequence of sequence elements; and complex multiplying the complex signal by the complex code. 198. The method of
phase component comprises only a spreading sequence. 199. The method of
200. The method of
201. The method of
1 and the second value is −1.202. The method of
phase component comprises the in-phase component multiplied by at least the first sequence of sequence elements and a second sequence. 203. The method of
204. The method of
205. The method of
)2N−1 th element, the value of the ( )2N−1 th element is the same as the value of a ( )2Nth element, where N is a positive integer. 206. The method of
207. The method of
_{1} . 208. A spreading unit comprising:
an output unit configured to generate a complex signal comprising an in-phase data signal and a quadrature-phase data signal, the output unit including a first adder configured to add one or more first signals to generate the in-phase data signal and a second adder configured to add one or more second signals to generate the quadrature-phase data signal; a first input unit configured to receive a first sequence of sequence elements, each ( )2N−1 th sequence element in the first sequence systematically having a first value and each ( )2Nth sequence element in the first sequence systematically having a second value, wherein N is a positive integer; a second input unit configured to receive a complex code comprising an in-phase component and a quadrature-phase component, quadrature-phase component systematically comprising the in-phase component multiplied by at least the first sequence of sequence elements; and a complex multiplier configured to multiply the complex signal by the complex code. 209. The unit of
phase component comprises only a spreading sequence. 210. The unit of
211. The unit of
212. The unit of
1 and the second value is −1.213. The unit of
phase component comprises the in-214. The unit of
215. The unit of
216. The unit of
)2N−1 th element, the value of the ( )2N−1 th element is the same as the value of a ( )2Nth element, where N is a positive integer. 217. The unit of
218. The unit of
_{1} . 219. A spreading unit comprising:
means for generating a complex data signal comprising an in-phase data signal and a quadrature-phase data signal; an input unit configured to receive a first sequence of sequence elements, each ( )2N−1 th sequence element in the first sequence systematically having a first value and each ( )2Nth sequence element in the first sequence systematically having a second value, wherein N is a positive integer; means for receiving a complex code comprising an in-phase component and a quadrature-phase component, the quadrature-phase component systematically comprising the in-phase component multiplied by at least the first sequence of sequence elements; and means for complex multiplying the complex data signal by the complex code. 220. The unit of
phase component comprises only a spreading sequence. 221. The unit of
222. The unit of
223. The unit of
1 and the second value is −1.224. The unit of
phase component comprises the in-225. The unit of
226. The method of
)2N−1 th sequence element in the second sequence has a first value and each ( )2Nth sequence element in the second sequence has a second value, wherein N is a positive integer. 227. The unit of
)2N−1 th element, the value of the ( )2N−1 th element is the same as the value of a ( )2Nth element, where N is a positive integer. 228. The unit of
229. The unit of
_{1} . 230. A spreading method, comprising:
receiving a complex input signal comprising in-phase data and quadrature-phase data; receiving a first sequence of sequence elements, each ( )2N−1 th sequence element in the first sequence systematically having a first value and each ( )2Nth sequence element in the first sequence systematically having a second value, N being a positive integer; receiving a complex sequence comprising an in-phase component and a quadrature-phase component, the quadrature-phase component systematically comprising the in-phase component multiplied by the first sequence of sequence elements; and complex multiplying the complex input signal by the complex sequence. 231. The method of
_{1} . 232. The method of
phase component comprises the in-233. The method of
the second sequence consists of a sequence of groups, wherein each of the groups consists of either two elements both having the first value or two elements both having the second value. 234. The method of
235. The method of
236. The method of
)2N−1 th element, the value of the ( )2N−1 th element is the same as the value of a ( )2Nth element, where N is a positive integer. 237. The method of
238. The method of
1 and the second value is −1.239. The method of
phase component comprises a spreading sequence. 240. The method of
241. The method of
242. A spreading apparatus comprising:
a first input unit configured to receive a complex input signal comprising in-phase data and quadrature-phase data; a second input unit configured to receive a first sequence of sequence elements, each ( )2N−1 th sequence element in the first sequence symmetrically having a first value and each ( )2Nth sequence element in the first sequence systematically having a second value, wherein N is a positive integer and the first value is different from the second value; a third input unit configured to receive a complex sequence comprising an in-phase component and a quadrature-phase component, the quadrature-phase component systematically comprising the in-phase component multiplied by at least the first sequence of sequence elements; and a complex multiplier for complex multiplying the complex input signal by the complex sequence. 243. The apparatus of
_{1} . 244. The apparatus of
phase component comprises the in-245. The apparatus of
246. The apparatus of
247. The apparatus of
)2N−1 th element, the value of the ( )2N−1 th element is the same as the value of a ( )2Nth element, where N is a positive integer. 248. The apparatus of
249. The apparatus of
1 and the second value is −1.250. The apparatus of
phase component comprises a spreading sequence. 251. The apparatus of
252. The apparatus of
253. The apparatus of
_{1} . 254. The apparatus of
phase component comprises the in-255. The apparatus of
256. The apparatus of
257. The apparatus of
258. The apparatus of
)2N−1 th sequence element, the value of the ( )2N−1 th sequence element is the same value of a ( )2Nth sequence element, where N is a positive integer. 259. The apparatus of
260. The apparatus of
1 and the second value is −1.261. The apparatus of
phase component comprises a spreading sequence. 262. The apparatus of
263. The apparatus of
264. A spreading apparatus comprising:
a first input unit configured to receive a complex input signal comprising in-phase data and quadrature-phase data; a second input unit configured to receive a first sequence of sequence elements, with each ( )2N−1 th sequence element in the first sequence systematically having a first value and each ( )2Nth sequence element in the first sequence systematically having a second value, wherein N is a positive integer and the first value is different from the second value; means for receiving a complex sequence comprising an in-phase component and a quadrature-phase component, the quadrature-phase component systematically comprising the in-phase component multiplied by at least the first sequence of sequence elements; and means for complex multiplying the complex input signal by the complex sequence. 265. A spreading method, comprising:
generating a first output, a, based on at least one or more first inputs, one or more first orthogonal codes, and one or more first gains; generating a second output, b, based on at least one or more second inputs, one or more second orthogonal codes, and one or more second gains; receiving a first sequence, SC, comprising at least a first element having a first value and a second element having a second value, the first value being different from the second value; receiving a second sequence of sequence elements, W; receiving a third sequence, P; and complex-multiplying a+jb by ( )1+jP·W×SC. 266. The apparatus of
267. The method of
the third sequence consists of a sequence of groups, wherein each of the groups consists of either two elements both having the first value or two elements both having the second value. 268. The method of
269. The method of
270. The method of
271. The method of
272. A spreading apparatus comprising:
a first input unit configured to receive a complex input signal comprising in-phase data, a, and quadrature-phase data, b; a second input unit configured to receive a first sequence, SC, comprising at least a first element having a first value and a second element having a second value; a third input unit configured to receive a second sequence of sequence elements, W; a fourth input unit configured to receive a third sequence, P; and a complex multiplier for multiplying a+jb by ( )1+jP·W×SC. 273. The apparatus of
)2N−1 th sequence element in the second sequence has a first value and each ( )2Nth sequence element in the second sequence has a second value, wherein N is a positive integer. 274. The apparatus of
275. The method of
276. The apparatus of
277. The method of
278. The apparatus of
279. A spreading apparatus comprising:
a first input unit configured to receive a complex input signal comprising in-phase data, a, and quadrature-phase data, b; means for receiving a second sequence of sequence elements, W; means for receiving a third sequence, P; and means for multiplying a+jb by ( )1+jP·W×SC. 280. The apparatus of
)2N−1 th sequence element in the second sequence has a first value and each ( )2Nth sequence element in the second sequence has a second value, wherein N is a positive integer. 281. The apparatus of
282. The apparatus of
283. The apparatus of
284. The apparatus of
285. The apparatus of
286. The apparatus of
287. The unit of
Description Notice: More than one reissue application has been filed for the reissue of U.S. Pat. No. This application is a continuation of application Ser. No. 09/162,764, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,222,873. 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to an orthogonal complex spreading method for a multichannel and an apparatus thereof, and in particular, to an improved orthogonal complex spreading method for a multichannel and an apparatus thereof which are capable of decreasing a peak power-to-average power ratio by introducing an orthogonal complex spreading structure and spreading the same using a spreading code, implementing a structure capable of spreading complex output signals using a spreading code by adapting a permutated orthogonal complex spreading structure for a complex-type multichannel input signal with respect to the summed values, and decreasing a phase dependency of an interference based on a multipath component (when there is one chip difference) of a self signal, which is a problem that is not overcome by a permutated complex spreading modulation method, by a combination of an orthogonal Hadamard sequence. 2. Description of the Conventional Art Generally, in the mobile communication system, it is known that a linear distortion and non-linear distortion affect power amplifier. The statistical characteristic of a peak power-to-average power ratio has a predetermined interrelationship for a non-linear distortion. The third non-linear distortion which is one of the factors affecting the power amplifier causes an inter-modulation product problem in an adjacent frequency channel. The above-described inter-modulation product problem is generated due to a high peak amplitude for thereby increasing an adjacent channel power (ACP), so that there is a predetermined limit for selecting an amplifier. In particular, the CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) system requires a very strict condition with respect to a linearity of a power amplifier. Therefore, the above-described condition is a very important factor. In accordance with IS-97 and IS-98, the FCC stipulates a condition on the adjacent channel power (ACP). In order to satisfy the above-described condition, a bias of a RF power amplifier should be limited. According to the current IMT-2000 system standard recommendation, a plurality of CDMA channels are recommended. In the case that a plurality of channels are provided, the peak power-to-average power ratio is considered as an important factor for thereby increasing efficiency of the modulation method. The IMT-2000 which is known as the third generation mobile communication system has a great attention from people as the next generation communication system following the digital cellular system, personal communication system, etc. The IMT-2000 will be commercially available as one of the next generation wireless communication system which has a high capacity and better performance for thereby introducing various services and international loaming services, etc. Many countries propose various IMT-2000 systems which IC require high data transmission rates adapted for an internet service or an electronic commercial activity. This is directly related to the power efficiency of a RF amplifier. The CDMA based IMT-2000 system modulation method introduced by many countries is classified into a pilot channel method and a pilot symbol method. Of which, the former is directed to the ETRI 1.0 version introduced in Korea and is directed to CDMA ONE introduced in North America, and the latter is directed to the NTT-DOCOMO and ARIB introduced in Japan and is directed to the FMA2 proposal in a reverse direction introduced in Europe. Since the pilot symbol method has a single channel effect based on the power efficiency, it is superior compared to the pilot channel method which is a multichannel method. However since the accuracy of the channel estimation is determined by the power control, the above description does not have its logical ground. In a summing unit The thusly obtained in-phase information and quadrature-phase information are multiplied by a PN The CDMA ONE is implemented using a complex spreading method. The pilot channel and the fundamental channel spread to a Walsh code As shown therein, in the CDMA ONE, the left and right information, namely, the in-phase information (I channel) and the upper and lower information, namely, the quadrature-phase information (Q channel) pass through the actual phase shaping filter for thereby causing a peak power, and in the ETRI version 1.0 shown in In view of the crest factor and the statistical distribution of the power amplitude, in the CDMA ONE, the peak power is generated in vertical direction, so that the irregularity problem of the spreading code and an inter-interference problem occur. Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide an orthogonal complex spreading method for a multichannel and an apparatus thereof overcome the aforementioned problems encountered in the conventional art. The CDMA system requires a strict condition for a linearity of a power amplifier, so that the peak power-to-average power ratio is important. In particular, the characteristic of the IMT-2000 system is determined based on the efficiency of the modulation method since multiple channels are provided, and the peak power-to-average power ratio is adapted as an important factor. It is another object of the present invention to provide an orthogonal complex spreading method for a multichannel and an apparatus thereof which have an excellent power efficiency compared to the CDMA-ONE introduced in U.S.A. and the W-CDMA introduced in Japan and Europe and is capable of resolving a power unbalance problem of an in-phase channel and a quadrature-phase channel as well as the complex spreading method. It is still another object of the present invention to provide an orthogonal complex spreading method for a multichannel and an apparatus thereof which is capable of stably maintaining a low peak power-to-average power ratio. It is still another object of the present invention to provide an orthogonal complex spreading method for a multichannel and an apparatus thereof in which a spreading operation is implemented by multiplying a predetermined channel data among data of a multichannel by an orthogonal Hadamard sequence and a gain and, multiplying a data of another channel by an orthogonal Hadamard sequence and a gain, summing the information of two channels in complex type, multiplying the summed information of the complex type by the orthogonal Hadamard sequence of the orthogonal type, obtaining a complex type, summing a plurality of channel information of the complex type in the above-described manner and multiplying the information of the complex type of the multichannel by a spreading code sequence. It is still another object of the present invention to provide an orthogonal complex spreading method for a multichannel and an apparatus thereof which is capable of decreasing the probability that the power becomes a zero state by preventing the FIR filter input state from exceeding ±90° in an earlier sample state, increasing the power efficiency, decreasing the consumption of a bias power of a back-off of the power amplifier and saving the power of a battery. It is still another object of the present invention to provide an orthogonal complex spreading method for a multichannel and an apparatus thereof which is capable of implementing a POCQPSK (Permutated Orthogonal Complex QPSK) which is another modulation method and has a power efficiency similar with the OCQPSK (Orthogonal Complex QPSK). In order to achieve the above objects, there is provided an orthogonal complex spreading method for a multichannel which includes the steps of complex-summing α In order to achieve the above objects, there is provided an orthogonal complex spreading apparatus according to a first embodiment of the present invention which includes a plurality of complex multiplication blocks for distributing the data of the multichannel and complex-multiplying α In order to achieve the above objects, there is provided an orthogonal complex spreading apparatus according to a second embodiment of the present invention which includes first and second Hadamard sequence multipliers for allocating the multichannel to a predetermined number of channels, splitting the same into two groups and outputting α -
- a first adder for outputting
$\sum _{n=1}^{K}\text{\hspace{1em}}\left({\alpha}_{\mathrm{n1}}{W}_{M,\mathrm{n1}}{X}_{\mathrm{n1}}\right)$ - which is obtained by summing the output signals from the first Hadamard sequence multiplier;
- a second adder for outputting
$\sum _{n=1}^{K}\text{\hspace{1em}}\left({\alpha}_{\mathrm{n2}}{W}_{M,\mathrm{n2}}{X}_{\mathrm{n2}}\right)$ - which is obtained by summing the output signals from the second Hadamard sequence multiplier; a complex multiplier for receiving the output signal from the first adder and the output signal from the second adder in the complex form of
$\sum _{n=1}^{K}\text{\hspace{1em}}\left({\alpha}_{\mathrm{n1}}{W}_{M,\mathrm{n1}}{X}_{\mathrm{n1}}+{\mathrm{j\alpha}}_{\mathrm{n2}}{W}_{M,\mathrm{n2}}{X}_{\mathrm{n2}}\right)$ - and complex-multiplying W
_{M,j}+jPW_{M,Q }which n=1 consist of the orthogonal Hadamard code W_{M,j}, and the permutated orthogonal Hadamard code PW_{M,Q }that W_{M,Q }and a predetermined sequence P are complex-multiplied; a spreading unit for multiplying the output signal from the complex multiplier by the spreading code; a filter for filtering the output signal from the spreading unit; and a modulator for multiplying and modulating the modulation carrier wave, summing the in-phase signal and the quadrature-phase signal and outputting a modulation signal of the real number.
- a first adder for outputting
Additional advantages, objects and other features of the invention will be set forth in part in the description which follows and in part will become apparent to those having ordinary skill in the art upon examination of the following or may be learned from practice of the invention. The objects and advantages of the invention may be realized and attained as particularly pointed out in the appended claims. The present invention will become more fully understood from the detailed description given hereinbelow and the accompanying drawings which are given by way of illustration only, and thus are not limitative of the present invention, and wherein: The complex summing unit and complex multiplier according to the present invention will be explained with reference to the accompanying drawings. In the present invention, two complexes (a+jb) and (c+jd) are used, where a, b, c and d represent predetermined real numbers. A complex summing unit outputs (a+c)+j(b+d), and a complex multiplier outputs ((a×c)−(b×d))+j((b×c)+(a×d)). Here, a spreading code sequence is defined as SC, an information data is defined as X The data X As shown therein, there is provided a plurality of complex multipliers As shown in In addition, the n-th complex multiplier The complex multiplication data outputted from the n-number of the complex multipliers are summed by the summing unit The above-described function will be explained as follows:
Each of the complex multipliers As shown in Therefore, the first and-second multipliers In addition, As shown therein, the summing unit The spreading unit In addition, as shown in Namely, in the summing unit As shown in Here, the orthogonal Hadamard sequences may be used as a Walsh code or other orthogonal code. For example, from now on, the case that the orthogonal Hadamard sequence is used for the 8×8 Hadamard matrix shown in Therefore, in order to enhance the efficiency of the present invention, the orthogonal Hadamard sequence which multiplies each channel data is determined as follows. In the M×M Hadamard matrix, the sequence vector of the k-th column or row is set to W In the case that two complex multipliers shown in In addition, as shown in In order to achieve the objects of the present invention, the orthogonal Hadamard sequence directed to multiplying each channel data may be determined as follows. The combined orthogonal Hadamard sequence may be used instead of the orthogonal Hadamard sequence for removing a predetermined phase dependency based on the interference generated in the multiple path type of self-signal and the interference generated by other users. For example, in the case of two channels, when the sequence vector of the k-th column or row is set to W In the case of three channels, the sequence vector of the k-th column or row is set to W In addition, in the case of two channels, when the sequence vector of the k-th column or row of the M×M (M=8) Hadamard vector matrix is set to W In addition, in the case of three channels, when the sequence vector of the k-th column or row of the M×M (M=8) Hadamard vector matrix is set to W Here, so far the cases of two channels and three channels were explained. The cases of two channels and three channels may be selectively used in accordance with the difference of the impulse response characteristic difference of the pulse shaping bandpass filter. In order to provide the identical conditions, the power level of the control or signal channel is controlled to be the same as the power level of the communication channel (Fundamental channel, supplemental channel or the In-phase channel and the Quadrature channel), and the power level of the pilot channel is controlled to be lower than the power level of the communication channel by 4 dB. In the above-described state, the statistical distributions of the peak power-to-average power are compared. In the case of OCQPSK according to the present invention, the comparison is implemented using the first complex multiplier In the case of OCQPSK, the probability that the instantaneous power exceeds the average power value (0 dB) by 4 dB is 0.03%, and in the case of CDMA ONE, the same is 0.9%, and in the case of the ETRI version 1.0, the same is 4%. Therefore, in the present invention, the system using the CDMA technique has very excellent characteristic in the peak to average power ratio sense, and the method according to the present invention is a new modulation method which eliminates the cross talk problem. As shown therein, one or a plurality of channels are combined and complex-multiplied by the permutated orthogonal Hadamard code and then are spread by the spreading code. As shown therein, there are provided first and second Hadamard sequence multipliers Here, the construction of the spreading unit The first orthogonal Hadamard sequence multiplier The second orthogonal Hadamard sequence multiplier The signal outputted from the first adder The spreading unit Namely, the following equation is obtained.
Here, the orthogonal Hadamard sequence multiplier includes a first multiplier The complex multiplier Therefore, the first and second multipliers The seventh and eighth multipliers In addition, the first adder The in-phase data and the quadrature phase data are spread by the spreading unit In the embodiment as shown in The orthogonal Hadamard sequence is allocated to each channel based on the above-described operation, and if there remain other channels which are not allocated the orthogonal Hadamard sequence by the above-described operation, and if there remain other channel which are not allocated the orthogonal Hadamard sequence by the above-described operation, then any row or column vector from the Hamard matrix can be selected. As shown in As shown therein, when comparing the embodiments of In order to provide the identical condition, the power level of the signal channel is controlled to be the same as the power level of the communication channel, and the power level of the pilot channel is controlled to be lower than the power level of the communication channel by 4 dB, and then the statistical distribution of the peak power-to-average power ratio is compared. In the case of the POCQPSK according to the present invention, in the first block For example, the probability that the instantaneous power exceeds the average power value (0 dB) by 4 dB is 0.1% based on POCQPSK, and the complex spreading method is 2%. Therefore, in view of the power efficiency, the method adapting the CDMA technique according to the present invention is a new modulation method having excellent characteristic. As described above, in the OCQPSK according to the present invention, the first data and the second data are multiplied by the gain and orthogonal code, and the resultant values are complex-summed, and the complex summed value is complex-multiplied by the complex type orthogonal code. The method that the information of the multichannel of the identical structure is summed and then spread is used. Therefore, this method statistically reduces the peak power-to-average power ratio to the desired range. In addition, in the POCQPSK according to the present invention, the data of the first block and the data of the second block are multiplied by the gain and the orthogonal code, respectively, and the permutated orthogonal spreading code of the complex type is complex-multiplied and then spread. Therefore, this method statistically reduces the peak power-to-average power ratio to the desired range, and it is possible to decrease the phase dependency based in the multichannel interference and the multiuser interference using the combined orthogonal Hadamard sequence. Although the preferred embodiments of the present invention have been disclosed for illustrative purposes, those skilled in the art will appreciate that various modifications, tat additions and substitutions are possible, without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention as recited in the accompanying claims. Patent Citations
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