|Publication number||USRE40425 E1|
|Application number||US 11/258,588|
|Publication date||Jul 8, 2008|
|Filing date||Oct 24, 2005|
|Priority date||Sep 27, 2002|
|Also published as||US6912339, US20040062474, WO2004030243A1|
|Publication number||11258588, 258588, US RE40425 E1, US RE40425E1, US-E1-RE40425, USRE40425 E1, USRE40425E1|
|Inventors||G. Allan Whittaker, Wilber A. Williams|
|Original Assignee||Lockheed Martin Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (99), Non-Patent Citations (49), Classifications (6), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application claims priority to, and incorporates by reference, provisional application Ser. No. 60/414,746 entitled “Optical Interface Devices Having Balanced Amplification,” filed on Sep. 27, 2002.
The invention relates generally to systems and methods for providing an optical interface and, more particularly, to systems, methods, and devices for routing optical signals and for compensating for optical losses.
Optical communication has many benefits over transmission of signals in an electrical domain. For one, the losses in an optical medium are much less than those incurred in an electrical medium. As a result, signals can travel greater distances through an optical fiber before any necessary regeneration. Another advantage is that optical signals are much less susceptible to electromagnetic radiation. An electrical medium, such as a coaxial cable, generates electromagnetic fields as the signals travel down the cable. These electromagnetic fields can induce noise in neighboring cables and cause interference with the signals traveling on such cables. In addition, noise can be induced upon the coaxial cable signals from the electromagnetic fields generated by the neighboring cables. For these and many other reasons, optical communication is often the preferred mode of communication.
In optical communication networks, as with electrical communication networks, the network needs some manner of adding and dropping signals at points throughout the network. One approach to adding and dropping signals onto an optical medium involves the use of regeneration devices. These regeneration devices convert the optical signals traveling along the optical medium into the electrical domain and route these electrical signals to terminal equipment. Any electrical signals that need to be added and forwarded on to the optical medium are added to the electrical signals that had been detected. A combination of these signals is then converted into optical signals and passed along the optical medium. Some drawbacks to this approach include the loss of signal quality in needing to convert the optical signals into electrical signals and then back to optical signals at each node or station throughout the network, the accompanying loss of speed and increase in latency, and the limitations in bandwidth associated with the electrical medium.
Rather than coupling signals in the electrical domain, a preferred device for coupling signals operates purely in the optical domain. By maintaining the signals in the optical domain, the coupling device can maintain signal quality, operate at higher speeds and at an increased bandwidth. U.S. Pat. No. 5,901,260, which is incorporated by reference, is an example of an optical interface device operating solely in the optical domain. This optical interface device is useful in routing optical signals traveling along either direction on an optical bus to a node and for directing signals from that node onto the bus in both directions. With such an optical interface device, signals that originate at any node within a network can be transmitted to every other node and, conversely, signals from all of the nodes are received at each node. This type of optical interface device is useful in an optical transport system described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,898,801, which is incorporated by reference.
While optical interface devices have many advantages over electrical interface devices, optical interface devices can still limit the performance of the network. For example, each time optical signals are diverted off of an optical bus to a node, the optical interface device necessarily reduces the optical signal level. Consequently, after a certain number of nodes, the remaining signal has such a low optical signal to noise level that the signal is underneath the noise floor and can no longer be detected. In addition to those losses due to splitting of the signal at each node, the optical interface device also introduces losses resulting from the imperfect coupling of light from an input optical fiber to the optical interface device, from the optical interface device to an exit optical fiber, and from the optical interface device to the terminal equipment. The optical interface device therefore introduces losses at each node, which causes the signal to vary at points throughout the network.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,898,801 describes a network having a number of optical interface devices that bi-directionally amplifies the optical signals. By amplifying the optical signals traveling along the optical bus, the number of nodes along the network can be greatly increased. The optical amplifier may comprise a fiber amplifier and, more particularly a rare earth doped fiber amplifier. The doped fiber amplifier is energized with an excitation light, typically at 980 nanometers. This fiber amplifier may be located between nodes along the bus and/or between the terminal equipment and the optical interface device.
As described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,898,801, the length of the rare earth doped fiber influences the amount of amplification provided by the fiber amplifier. By placing the fiber amplifiers between each node, the fiber amplifiers can compensate for losses incurred by splitting the signals at each node. Thus, a signal that originates at one end of the bus can travel along the bus, have a fraction of the signal diverted at each node, and then be amplified after incurring those losses. This approach to amplification, as mentioned above, greatly increases the number of nodes that may be in a network. This approach to amplification, however, is more challenging when the network topology is dynamic. For example, a network may have different amplification needs with an initial set of nodes than it would need later when nodes are added at other points within the network, are removed from the network, or are placed at different points within the network. The placement of fiber amplifiers at certain points may therefore not be optimal for a different configuration of nodes on the network. As a result, the signal level and quality of the signal may vary throughout the network. For certain types of signals, these variations may not affect performance of the network overall. On the other hand, for other types of signals, such as radio frequency (RF) signals and other analog signals, maintaining a consistent signal dynamic range and waveform quality throughout the network is imperative.
The invention addresses the problems above by providing systems, networks, and devices for coupling and routing optical signals. An optical interface device according to a preferred embodiment of the invention has three ports with the signals entering any one of the ports being split and routed to each of the other two ports. The optical interface device maintains the optical signal level so that the level of the signal entering one of the three ports is the same level at which the signal exits the other two ports.
The optical interface device is very beneficial in the use of networks carrying radio frequency (RF) and other analog signals as it provides the least interference with the preservation of the quality of the dynamic range and waveform of these signals. The optical interface device may be used in many different network topologies, such as but not limited to, a bus, ring, star, or tree-like topology. In the preferred embodiment, the optical interface device has a balanced set of fiber amplifiers providing the necessary amplification of these signals. These fiber amplifiers are pumped with an excitation light, such as at 980 nanometers.
Other advantages and features of the invention will be apparent from the description below, and from the accompanying papers forming this application.
The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in and form a part of the specification, illustrate preferred embodiments of the present invention and, together with the description, disclose the principles of the invention. In the drawings:
FIGS. 2(A) and 2(B) are exemplary networks having the optical interface device of
An optical interface device (OID) 10 according to a preferred embodiment of the invention will now be described with reference to FIG. 1. The OID 10 has a number of ports, in this example three ports A, B, and C, and operates such that the output to any one of its ports is split and routed to each of the other ports. For example, a signal entering port A is split and directed to each of the ports B and C. Similarly, signals entering port B are split and routed to ports A and C and signals entering port C are split and routed to ports A and B.
The OID 10 operates solely in the optical domain and thus does not require any electrical regeneration of the optical signals. Because the optical signals are not converted into electrical signals and then regenerated as optical signals, the OID 10 is able to operate at higher speeds and have a lower latency than electrical interface devices. The OID 10 is also able to preserve signal quality by avoiding the deterioration that often occurs when converting signals between the electrical and optical domains.
The OID 10 furthermore provides balanced amplification of the signals entering each of the ports. This balanced amplification operates such that the power level of the signals entering any of the ports is equal to the power level of the corresponding signals that exit the other two ports. For example, a 10 dBm optical signal entering port A is split into two components, routed to ports B and C, and each of the signals at ports B and C is a 10 dB optical signal.
The OID 10 may operate in a number of different environments, including a variety of different network topologies. One such network is the simple interconnection of two or more devices coupled to the ports A, B, and/or C. Thus, the OID 10 may interconnect a first device coupled to port A with a second device on port B. Additionally, the OID 10 may couple each of the first and second devices on ports A and B, respectively, with a third device on port C. As mentioned above, the routing of signals between each of the ports A, B, and C is performed passively without any conversion into the electrical domain.
FIGS. 2(A) and 2(B) illustrate two other network topologies within which the OID 10 may operate. With reference to FIG. 2(A), the network has a bus 12, such as a bi-directional bus, which interconnects a number of OIDs 10A. In the example shown in FIG. 2(A), each OID 10A has a first port receiving signals from a preceding OID 10A and a second port passing signals to the next OID 10A. Each OID 10A also has a line 14 for providing and/or receiving signals from terminal equipment. Each OID 10A can be associated with a node or point within the network, such as a workstation on a Local Area Network (LAN). The OID 10A is not limited to such a use and FIG. 2(A) illustrates the ability of the OID 10A to operate in a bus network. As will be apparent from this bus topology example, the OIDs 10A can also operate in a ring, broken ring, or point to point network topology.
FIG. 2(B) provides an example of a tree-like network having a number of OIDs 10B. The network has a first OID 10B that couples the signals on a first line 16A with signals traveling along branch lines 16B. These branch lines 16B may feed into additional OIDs 10B along that branch and/or into OIDs B along different branches. For instance, the upper branch 16B is coupled to an OID 10B that is connected to lines 16C. In addition to this tree-like topology, the OIDs 10B may also operate in a star network as well as those having hubs and/or switches.
For the networks shown and suggested by both FIGS. 2(A) and 2(B), the OIDs 10 enable signals generated anywhere in the network to be routed to any other OID 10 with minimal loss in signal quality or signal power level. This ability to maintain the signal waveform is of utmost importance in the transmission of analog signals, especially Radio Frequency (RF) signals. RF and other analog signals contain a great deal of information within the waveform itself and within the signal level. As a result, when an analog signal is transmitted at one point within a network, all other nodes within the network must receive the same exact signal in order to provide consistency and integrity throughout the network.
The OID 10 may be fabricated with any technology.
For example, a signal entering port A is divided into two components A1 and A2 by the 50/50 coupler 21 with component A1 traveling to port B and component A2 traveling to port C. Similarly, a signal B at port B is divided into components B1 and B2 by the 50/50 coupler 21 at port B and a signal C at port C is divided into components C1 and C2 by the 50/50 coupler 21 at port C. The 50/50 coupler 21 at port A combines the signals B1 and C1 and route them so they exit port A. Similarly, the 50/50 coupler 21 at port B combines the signals A1 and C2 and route them so they exit port B and the 50/50 coupler 21 at port C combines the signals A2 and B2 and route them so they exit port C.
Each leg provides for bi-directional amplification of the optical signals. The OID 10 has fiber amplifiers 20 and, more preferably rare earth doped fiber amplifiers, such as erbium doped fiber amplifiers. The amplifiers 20 preferably amplify the optical signals to compensate for optical splitting and coupling loss, which in the Figure are shown by 7.8 dB. This amplification compensates for the 6 dB splitting loss resulting from the 50/50 coupler 21 as well as an additional 1.8 dB loss from losses associated with coupling of the rare earth doped fiber, optional connectors, lengths of fiber and manufacturing component variations. Because the coupling losses associated with the OID 10 will vary with the precise couplers used and the optical medium to which the OID is coupled, the precise amount of amplification provided by the fiber amplifiers 20 may vary.
The fiber amplifiers 20 receive an excitation light from a pump P which is divided into the three essentially equal components and provided to each leg through a 68/32 coupler 25 and a 50/50 coupler 26. The excitation light is coupled to each leg of the OID 10 through couplers 22, which are preferably wavelength division multiplexers 22. The excitation light in this example is at 980 nm while the optical signals have wavelengths of light within the 1550 nm window.
According to another embodiment shown in
The OIDs 10 shown in
The foregoing description of the preferred embodiments of the invention has been presented only for the purpose of illustration and description and is not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the invention to the precise forms disclosed. Many modifications and variations are possible in light of the above teaching.
The embodiments were chosen and described in order to explain the principles of the invention and their practical applications so as to enable others skilled in the art to utilize the invention and various embodiments and with various modifications as are suited to the particular use contemplated.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3883217||Jul 5, 1973||May 13, 1975||Corning Glass Works||Optical communication system|
|US3887876||Sep 21, 1973||Jun 3, 1975||Siemens Ag||Optical intermediate amplifier for a communication system|
|US3936141||Nov 29, 1974||Feb 3, 1976||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy||Multiple optical connector|
|US3943358||Jul 23, 1974||Mar 9, 1976||Thomson-Csf||Terminal and repeater stations for telecommunication system using optical fibers|
|US4054366||Jul 12, 1976||Oct 18, 1977||Hughes Aircraft Company||Fiber optics access coupler|
|US4166946||Jun 8, 1977||Sep 4, 1979||International Standard Electric Corporation||Data transmission system|
|US4234969||Sep 5, 1978||Nov 18, 1980||Ncr Corporation||Bidirectional optical coupler for a data processing system|
|US4249266||Nov 6, 1979||Feb 3, 1981||Perkins Research & Mfg. Co., Inc.||Fiber optics communication system|
|US4301543||Feb 20, 1980||Nov 17, 1981||General Dynamics Corporation, Pomona Division||Fiber optic transceiver and full duplex point-to-point data link|
|US4307933||Feb 20, 1980||Dec 29, 1981||General Dynamics, Pomona Division||Optical fiber launch coupler|
|US4317614||Feb 20, 1980||Mar 2, 1982||General Dynamics, Pomona Division||Fiber optic bus manifold|
|US4366565||Jul 29, 1980||Dec 28, 1982||Herskowitz Gerald J||Local area network optical fiber data communication|
|US4367460||Oct 17, 1979||Jan 4, 1983||Henri Hodara||Intrusion sensor using optic fiber|
|US4400054||Jan 22, 1982||Aug 23, 1983||Spectronics, Inc.||Passive optical coupler|
|US4423922||Dec 18, 1978||Jan 3, 1984||The Boeing Company||Directional coupler for optical communications system|
|US4435849||Feb 27, 1981||Mar 6, 1984||Hartmann & Braun Ag||Optical transmission system|
|US4446515||Dec 31, 1980||May 1, 1984||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft||Passive bus system for decentrally organized multi-computer systems|
|US4457581||Oct 27, 1981||Jul 3, 1984||Her Majesty The Queen In Right Of Canada, As Represented By The Minister Of National Defence Of Her Majesty's Canadian Government||Passive fiber optic data bus configurations|
|US4482980||May 3, 1982||Nov 13, 1984||General Signal Corporation||Hybrid optical/electrical data highway|
|US4506153||Apr 20, 1982||Mar 19, 1985||Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha||Process signal collecting apparatus|
|US4543574||Sep 27, 1982||Sep 24, 1985||Nippon Telegraph & Telephone Public Corporation||System for resolving collision in local network|
|US4545074||Oct 22, 1982||Oct 1, 1985||International Business Machines Corporation||Fiber optic loop system with bypass mode|
|US4554511||Sep 29, 1982||Nov 19, 1985||Tetra Tech, Inc.||Offset voltage correction network for instantaneous floating point amplifier|
|US4577184||May 23, 1983||Mar 18, 1986||Tetra-Tech, Inc.||Security system with randomly modulated probe signal|
|US4595839||May 15, 1985||Jun 17, 1986||Tetra-Tech, Inc.||Bidirectional optical electronic converting connector with integral preamplification|
|US4630256||Apr 19, 1985||Dec 16, 1986||At&T Bell Laboratories||Bidirectional dual network|
|US4654890||Sep 4, 1985||Mar 31, 1987||Hitachi, Ltd.||Multiplex communication system|
|US4671608||Nov 27, 1984||Jun 9, 1987||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Optical coupling unit|
|US4674830||Nov 25, 1983||Jun 23, 1987||The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University||Fiber optic amplifier|
|US4705350||Sep 19, 1985||Nov 10, 1987||Bell Communications Research, Inc.||Optical transmission network|
|US4715012||Oct 15, 1980||Dec 22, 1987||Massey-Ferguson Services N.V.||Electronic tractor control|
|US4717229||Sep 20, 1985||Jan 5, 1988||Communications Patents Limited||Bi-directional optical fiber coupler|
|US4731784||Feb 26, 1986||Mar 15, 1988||International Business Machines Corp.||Communication system comprising overlayed multiple-access transmission networks|
|US4739183||Jul 24, 1986||Apr 19, 1988||Nippon Soken, Inc.||Local area network for vehicle|
|US4756595||Apr 21, 1986||Jul 12, 1988||Honeywell Inc.||Optical fiber connector for high pressure environments|
|US4759011||Mar 3, 1986||Jul 19, 1988||Polaroid Corporation||Intranetwork and internetwork optical communications system and method|
|US4761833||Oct 14, 1986||Aug 2, 1988||Stc Plc||Optical fibre network|
|US4786130||May 19, 1986||Nov 22, 1988||The General Electric Company, P.L.C.||Fibre optic coupler|
|US4810052||Jan 7, 1986||Mar 7, 1989||Litton Systems, Inc||Fiber optic bidirectional data bus tap|
|US4829593||Mar 18, 1987||May 9, 1989||Nec Corporation||Automatic gain control apparatus|
|US4845483||Feb 16, 1988||Jul 4, 1989||Asahi Kogaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha||Malfunction communicating device for optical unit of laser printer|
|US4850047||Aug 19, 1987||Jul 18, 1989||Fujitsu Limited||Optical bus communication system utilizing frame format signals|
|US4883335||Jan 20, 1988||Nov 28, 1989||American Telephone And Telegraph Company||Single-mode optical fiber tap|
|US4898565||Nov 5, 1984||Feb 6, 1990||Honeywell Inc.||Direction sensing apparatus for data transmission cable connections|
|US4932004||Dec 23, 1987||Jun 5, 1990||Honeywell Inc.||Fiber optic seismic system|
|US4946244||Mar 13, 1989||Aug 7, 1990||Pacific Bell||Fiber optic distribution system and method of using same|
|US4947134||Oct 30, 1987||Aug 7, 1990||American Telephone And Telegraph Company||Lightwave systems using optical amplifiers|
|US4948218||Jul 12, 1989||Aug 14, 1990||Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha||Optoelectronic device for an optical communication system|
|US4958354||May 8, 1989||Sep 18, 1990||Hamamatsu Photonics Kabushiki Kaisha||Apparatus for stabilizing the intensity of light|
|US4959837||Nov 13, 1989||Sep 25, 1990||Societe Anonyme Dite: Compagnie Generale D'electricite||Doped optical fiber laser amplifier|
|US5029306||Aug 10, 1989||Jul 2, 1991||The Boeing Company||Optically fed module for phased-array antennas|
|US5046137||Jan 23, 1990||Sep 3, 1991||Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.||Optical communication system|
|US5055827||Feb 20, 1990||Oct 8, 1991||Harald Philipp||Fiber optic security system|
|US5058101||Jan 16, 1991||Oct 15, 1991||Bell Communications Research, Inc.||Coherent detection loop distribution system|
|US5058974||Oct 6, 1989||Oct 22, 1991||At&T Bell Laboratories||Distributed amplification for lightwave transmission system|
|US5080505||Dec 31, 1990||Jan 14, 1992||Stc Plc||Optical transmission system|
|US5083874||Apr 10, 1990||Jan 28, 1992||Nippon Telegraph And Telephone Corporation||Optical repeater and optical network using the same|
|US5117196||Apr 23, 1990||May 26, 1992||Stc Plc||Optical amplifier gain control|
|US5117303||Aug 23, 1990||May 26, 1992||At&T Bell Laboratories||Method of operating concatenated optical amplifiers|
|US5129019||Sep 10, 1990||Jul 7, 1992||Alcatel N.V.||Method of manufacturing a fused-fiber optical coupler|
|US5133031||Jul 12, 1989||Jul 21, 1992||Du Pont Opto Electronics Kabushiki Kaisha||Optical shunt device|
|US5179603||Mar 18, 1991||Jan 12, 1993||Corning Incorporated||Optical fiber amplifier and coupler|
|US5181134||Mar 15, 1991||Jan 19, 1993||At&T Bell Laboratories||Photonic cross-connect switch|
|US5185735||Jul 10, 1991||Feb 9, 1993||Hewlett Packard Company||Lan noise monitor|
|US5187605||Sep 4, 1991||Feb 16, 1993||Fujitsu Limited||Optical transceiver|
|US5189541||Aug 12, 1991||Feb 23, 1993||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Method and apparatus for connecting branch networks with a trunk network in optical transmission system|
|US5212577||Aug 4, 1992||May 18, 1993||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Optical communication equipment and optical communication method|
|US5222166||May 19, 1992||Jun 22, 1993||Rockwell International Corporation||Aircraft fiber optic data distribution system|
|US5267071||Sep 3, 1991||Nov 30, 1993||Scientific-Atlanta, Inc.||Signal level control circuitry for a fiber communications system|
|US5283687||Oct 1, 1992||Feb 1, 1994||Hughes Aircraft Company||Amplifier for optical fiber communication link|
|US5296957||Sep 13, 1991||Mar 22, 1994||Fujitsu Limited||Optical repeater having loop-back function used in transmission system|
|US5307197||Aug 27, 1992||Apr 26, 1994||Nec Corporation||Optical circuit for a polarization diversity receiver|
|US5309564||Mar 19, 1992||May 3, 1994||Bradley Graham C||Apparatus for networking computers for multimedia applications|
|US5315424||Jun 30, 1992||May 24, 1994||Loral Aerospace Corp.||Computer fiber optic interface|
|US5317580||Jun 11, 1991||May 31, 1994||France Telecom Etablissement Autonome De Droit Public||Bidirectional transmission system with identical laser components|
|US5319642||Apr 24, 1992||Jun 7, 1994||Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.||Method of communication using a two-way bus with contention detection|
|US5345230||Apr 13, 1992||Sep 6, 1994||Dr. Johannes Heidenhain Gmbh||Method and apparatus for optical transceiver testing|
|US5347384||Jun 30, 1992||Sep 13, 1994||Loral Aerospace Corp.||Fiber optic distribution of image data|
|US5361262||Apr 16, 1993||Nov 1, 1994||Bell Communications Research, Inc.||Estimated-queue, expanded-bus communication network|
|US5363367||Aug 31, 1992||Nov 8, 1994||Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha||Data transmission system using an optical fiber loop|
|US5369516||Sep 7, 1993||Nov 29, 1994||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Optical communication network system and communication method using the same|
|US5392154||Mar 30, 1994||Feb 21, 1995||Bell Communications Research, Inc.||Self-regulating multiwavelength optical amplifier module for scalable lightwave communications systems|
|US5412746||Mar 22, 1994||May 2, 1995||Alcatel N.V.||Optical coupler and amplifier|
|US5414416||Sep 2, 1992||May 9, 1995||Nippondenso Co., Ltd.||Temperature dependent control module cluster unit for motor vehicle|
|US5424864||Aug 2, 1994||Jun 13, 1995||Nec Corporation||Microcellular mobile communication system|
|US5432874||Feb 16, 1994||Jul 11, 1995||Sony Corporation||Duplex optical fiber link|
|US5434861||Feb 4, 1994||Jul 18, 1995||Pritty; David||Deterministic timed bus access method|
|US5471342||Mar 30, 1994||Nov 28, 1995||Alcatel N.V.||Fiber optical amplifier having a detector for measuring scattered light at a splice|
|US5479082||Jul 6, 1994||Dec 26, 1995||Cselt-Centro Studi E Laboratorti Telecommunicazioni S.P.A.||Device for extraction and re-insertion of an optical carrier in optical communications networks|
|US5481478||Jun 3, 1994||Jan 2, 1996||Palmieri; Herman D.||Broadcast system for a facility|
|US5483233||Nov 12, 1993||Jan 9, 1996||Northern Telecom Limited||Analogue telemetry system and method for fault detection in optical transmission systems|
|US5500857||Nov 15, 1993||Mar 19, 1996||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Inter-nodal communication method and system using multiplexing|
|US5500867||Sep 13, 1994||Mar 19, 1996||At&T Corp.||Laser package having an impedance matching transformer|
|US5502589||Jun 5, 1995||Mar 26, 1996||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Optical communication systems and optical nodes for use therein|
|US5506709||Jul 29, 1994||Apr 9, 1996||The State Of Israel, Ministry Of Defence, Rafael Armament Development Authority||Electro-optical communication station with built-in test means|
|US5508689||Aug 18, 1994||Apr 16, 1996||Ford Motor Company||Control system and method utilizing generic modules|
|US5517622||Mar 9, 1994||May 14, 1996||Galileo International Partnership||Method and apparatus for pacing communications in a distributed heterogeneous network|
|US5533153||Apr 19, 1995||Jul 2, 1996||Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.||Optical relay amplifier with a bypass waveguide|
|US5539558||May 15, 1995||Jul 23, 1996||Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.||System of detecting troubles of an optical communication line|
|1||"Performance Management-Management of SONET Networks-White Paper," Clear Communications, Sonet and Performance Management, Issuel, Apr. 1996 (pp. 1-21).|
|2||0034-P PCI 1-Gig Fibre Channel Optical Host Bus Adapter 1-4 available at http://solutions.sun.com/dbsearch/index.cgi?STATE=product&CMD=show&p_id=58181 (Sep. 9, 2000).|
|3||3.0 IEEE Acronyms, available at http://spacey.net/ldavis/Design_Ethernet_Note.html, no date.|
|4||AJ-Raweshidy and Komaki, Radio Over Fiber Technologies.|
|5||Architectural and Engineering Isues for Building an Optical Internet 1-55 (Sep. 9, 2000) available at http://www.canet3.net/papers/ArschandEngissues.html.|
|6||Baker, Monomode Fiber-Optic Design with Local-Area and Long-Haul Network Applications, pp. 370-371.|
|7||Bi-Directional Optical Backplane Bus for Board to Board Optoelectronic Interconnects, Gicheri Kim, Jinghuai Fa and Ray T. Chen, 1-4 (Sep. 9, 2000) available at http://ece.utexas.edu/projects/ece/mrc/profs/chen_projects/optbus/optbus.html.|
|8||Challenges in IP LANs on Higher-Dimensional Encoding (slide 4) (Sep. 9, 2000) available at http://thebusinessedge.com/reruns/cito/sargent/sld004.htm.|
|9||Chart and figures for optical fiber cable and baseband transmission, available at http://www.microsoft.com/technet/WFW/wfw31/1_ch1.asp.|
|10||Chinlon Lin, Systems Applications of WDM Technologies in Optical Communications, SPIE-International Society for Optical Engineering (Aug. 15-18, 1994).|
|11||Cisco Wavelength Router Manager-Data Sheet, www.cisco.com/warp/public/cc/so/neso/olso/cwrm_ds.htm (Apr. 25, 2001).|
|12||DeCotignie, J.D., et al., "Producer-Distributor-Consumer Model on Controller Area Network," Proceedings of the IFAC/IFIC Workshop, Real Time Programming, 1995, pp. 35-42, XP002074139, Oxford, Great Britain.|
|13||Ethernet FAST Ethernet Fiber Optic Media Converters, http://www.versitron.com/Ethernet.html, 2 pages (Nov. 5, 2002).|
|14||Fibre Channel Overview http://his.web.cem.ch/HIS/fcs/spec/overview.htm, pp. 1-10 (Nov. 15, 2002).|
|15||Fibre Channel, http://www.lol.unh.edu/training/fc/fc_tutorial.html, 22 pages (Nov. 5, 2002).|
|16||Fibre Channel-Overview of the Technology, Sep. 9, 2000, pp. 1-9 available at http://fibrechannel.org/technology.|
|17||Francesco Matera & Marina Settembre, Performance Evaluation of Optically Amplified Systems Operating in Optical Networks, Microwave & Optical Technology Letters (Nov. 1996).|
|18||Gallardo, et al., "Fast Simulation of Broadband Telecommunications Networks Carrying Long-Range Dependent Bursty Traffic," Preceedings of the 1999 Winter Simulation Conference, pp. 374-381 (Winter 1999).|
|19||H. Hodara, and E. Miles, "High-Speed Local Area Networks", Fiber and Integrated Optics: (1992) pp. 253-277.|
|20||HDR 7.0 2 73; 7.0 Fiber Optic Ethernet-Types FOIRL and 10 BASE-F available at http://www.uni-trier.de/infos/ether/ethernet-guide/ethernet-guide.html.|
|21||HomeNetHelp.com, http://www.homenethelp.com/web/explain.about-hubs-and-switches.asp, 5 pages (Nov. 5, 2002).|
|22||Iannone, et al., "A 160-km transparent metro WDM ring network featuring cascaded erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers," published by Optical Society of America (2000).|
|23||Integrated Explorations of the Spectral, Temporal and Spatial Degrees of Freedom 1 (Sep. 9, 2000) available at http://thebusinessedge.com/reruns/cito/sargent/sld001.htm.|
|24||*||International Search Report in related Application No. PCT/US03/03310.|
|25||*||International Search Report in related Application No. PCT/US03/03329.|
|26||*||International Search Report in related Application No. PCT/US03/10053.|
|27||*||International Search Report in related Application No. PCT/US03/29970.|
|28||*||International Search Report in related Application No. PCT/US03/30326.|
|29||ITU-T Recommendation G.681, Series G: Transmission Systems and Media, Digital Systems and Networks; Functional characteristics of interoffice and long-haul systems using optical amplifiers, including optical multiplexing (Oct. 1996).|
|30||ITU-T Recommendation G.692, Series G: Transmission Systems and Media, Digital Systems and Networks; Optical Interfaces for multichannel systems with optical amplifiers (Oct. 1998).|
|31||Karim, Chapter 9: Electro-Optical Devices and Systems, Fiber-Optics-Based Devices and Systems, pp. 434-435.|
|32||Kempainen, "Optical Networking lightens carrier-backbone burden," EDN, pp. 63, 64, 65, 66, 68, 70, 72 (Oct. 8, 1998).|
|33||Keyserling, A. and R.C.L., "Chapter 2: Number, Dimensions, Manderibrot, Chaos, 4 Attractors, Music and Color," www.chanceandchoice.com/ChanceandChoice/chapter2.html.|
|34||Liew, "A Broad-Band Optical Network Based on Hierarchical Multiplexing of Wavelengths and RF Subcarariers," Journal of Lightwave Technology, 7(11):1825-1838 (1989).|
|35||Manuel Lopez-Amo, Loudon T Blair & Paul Urquhart, Wavelength-Division-Multiplexed distributed optical fiber amplifier bus network for data and sensors, Optics Letter 1159-61 (Jul. 15, 1993).|
|36||N.A. Olsson, Lightwave Systems With Optical Amplifiers, Journal of Lightwave Technology, Jul. 1989, pp. 1071-1082 (Jul. 1989).|
|37||Paper authored by Stewart, William L. and James G. Blaylock, Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, entitled 'The Challenge of Transmitting Super-High Frequency Radio Signals Over Short-Fiber-Optic Networks on Aerospace Platforms,', pp. 3-1 to 3-8 (Oct. 2002).|
|38||Personick, Stewart D., Optical Fiber Transmission Systems, 1981, pp. 1-3.|
|39||Philip J. Koopman, Jr., and Bhargav P. Upender., "Time Division Multiple Access Without a Bus Master," United Technologies Research Center, UTRC Technical Report RR-9500470 (Jun. 1995).|
|40||Press Release entitled "Lucent Technologies announces record-breaking 320-channel optical networking system," (pp. 1-2) (Apr. 17, 2000).|
|41||SOME Bus (Simultaneous Optical Multiprocessor Exchange Bus)(Sep. 9, 2000) available at http://eb.uah.edu/~cohen/some_bus/some_bus.html.|
|42||Spirit et al., 140-km 20-Gbit/s repeaterless transmission employing distributed erbium amplification, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (1992).|
|43||Stewart, William L., Senior Staff Specialist, and James Blaylock, Senior Staff Specialist, Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, presentation entitled 'The Challenge of Transmitting Super-High Frequency Radio Signals Over Short-Fiber-Optic Networks on Aerospace Platforms,', 21st DASC: Oct. 31, 2002 (Oct. 2002), 14 pages.|
|44||Technical Report CSRI-209 entitled "A New Binary Logarithmic Arbitration Method for Ethernet," by Mart L. Molle of Computer Systems Research Institute, pp. 1-57 (Apr. 1994).|
|45||Thomas, et al., "Physics in the Whirlwind of Optical Communications," Physics Today, pp. 30-36 (Sep. 2000).|
|46||*||Whittaker et al., "Optical Distribution Network . . . ", Pub. No.: 2004/0076434 A1, publication date: Apr. 22, 2004.*|
|47||Willinger, et al., "Self-Similarity Through High-Variability: Statistical Analysis of Ethernet LAN Traffic at the Source Level," pp. 1-31 (Apr. 15, 1997).|
|48||WRL Research Report 88/4 entitled "Measured Capacity of an Ethernet: Myths and Reality" by David R. Boggs, et al., printed by Digital Western Research Laboratory, Palo Alto, California (Sep. 1998) (pp. 1-31), originally published in Proceedings of the SIGCOMM '88 Symposium on Communications Architectures and Protocols, ACM SIGCOMM, Stanford, California, Aug. 1988.|
|49||Yamashita, et al., "Studies of a system gathering multi-channel visual signals using a single optical fiber and a bi-directional optical amplifier," T.IEE Japan, 119-C(12):1528-1534 (1999).|
|International Classification||H04B10/272, G02B6/28|
|Cooperative Classification||H04B10/27, G02B6/2804|
|Dec 29, 2008||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Jan 5, 2009||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Oct 2, 2012||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8