|Publication number||USRE40458 E1|
|Application number||US 10/342,435|
|Publication date||Aug 12, 2008|
|Filing date||Jan 13, 2003|
|Priority date||Jun 18, 1996|
|Also published as||US5845238, US6178397|
|Publication number||10342435, 342435, US RE40458 E1, US RE40458E1, US-E1-RE40458, USRE40458 E1, USRE40458E1|
|Original Assignee||Apple Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (18), Non-Patent Citations (3), Referenced by (4), Classifications (12), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This is a continuation of application Ser. No. 08/665,404, filed on Jun. 18, 1996 now U.S. Pat. No. 5,845,238.
1. Field of the Invention
This invention relates generally to data compression, and more particularity to a system and method using correspondence techniques to compress a pronunciation guide.
2. Description of the Background Art
Computer Random Access Memory (RAM) and disk space are becoming more available and affordable in desktop computer systems. A typical desktop computer system currently provides on the order of sixteen megabytes of RAM and one gigabyte of hard disk memory. This increasing availability allows programmers the freedom to create application programs and data files which occupy several megabytes of computer memory. However, minimizing the size of data files remains important for optimizing system performance and use of memory resources.
To minimize storage requirements, programmers compress large data files. One type of large file is a pronunciation dictionary, which includes dictionary words for a language such as American English and dictionary phonemes (phonetic sounds) representing the pronunciation of each of the dictionary words. A typical uncompressed pronunciation dictionary occupies up to about ten megabytes of memory.
Information such as a pronunciation dictionary can be compressed using certain symbols to replace redundant data. For example, a typical compression technique assigns symbols to represent particular patterns of redundant data such as multiple zeros or one. Multiple compression techniques may be performed successively to eliminate more redundancies and compress data further. Accordingly, a pronunciation dictionary may be compressed to around thirty percent or less of its original size.
Previous techniques for compressing pronunciation dictionaries do not take into account redundancies inherent in dictionary words and dictionary phonemes. Therefore, as an addition to other techniques for compressing a pronunciation dictionary, it is desirable to have a system and method for taking advantage of redundancies in pronunciation.
The present invention overcomes limitations and deficiencies of previous systems by providing a new system and method for compressing a pronunciation guide such as a pronunciation dictionary. The system substitutes a single symbol for some text and its pronunciation, and includes a central processing unit (CPU) and memory. The memory stores a compression system including parsing routines, a correspondence table, a matching system, a decoder table and a decoder system. The parsing routines extract a dictionary entry, which comprises a dictionary word and corresponding dictionary phonemes representing the pronunciation of the dictionary word, from an uncompressed pronunciation dictionary also stored in the memory. The correspondence table is made up of correspondence sets, each of which has a text entry, a phoneme entry representing the pronunciation of the text entry, and a set-identifying symbol (i.e., a number). The matching system attempts to find all correspondence sets that match text and phoneme combinations of the dictionary entry.
If matches are found, then the matching engine selects the best matches and adds the representative correspondence symbol set to a compressed pronunciation dictionary. If a match is not found, then the matching system considers characters silent and/or phonemes unmatched, and assigns special symbols to be added to the compressed pronunciation dictionary. The matching system adds decoder code sets to a decoder table for translating the special symbols back to characters or phonemes.
The decoder system uses the compressed pronunciation dictionary and decoder code sets to generate corresponding phonemes for selected text. These phonemes can be used in processes such as speech recognition, speech synthesis, language translation, foreign language learning, spell checking, etc.
The present invention provides a method for compressing a pronunciation dictionary. The method creates a correspondence table comprised of correspondence sets, determines which correspondence sets match a dictionary word and its corresponding dictionary phonemes, and adds the correspondence symbols as compressed data entries to a compressed pronunciation dictionary. The invention also provides a method for using the compressed dictionary and decoder code sets to generate phonemes from input text.
Operating system 170 is a program that controls processing by CPU 110, and is typically stored in data storage 160 and loaded into RAM 150 during computer system initialization. CPU 110 has access to RAM 150 for storing intermediate results and miscellaneous data.
Compression system 180 includes a dictionary compressing program 215 for compressing a pronunciation dictionary, and a decoder system program 420 for subsequently processing text and using the compressed pronunciation dictionary to retrieve phonemes representing the pronunciation of the text. Compression system 180 is also typically stored in data storage 160 and loaded into RAM 150 prior to execution by CPU 110.
Dictionary compressing program 215 includes parsing routines 220, a data buffer 230, a correspondence table 240, a matching system 250 and a tuning function 260. Parsing routines 220 extract a dictionary entry, which includes a dictionary word and at least one dictionary phoneme representing the pronunciation of the word, from pronunciation dictionary 210. For the example word “enough”, the extracted dictionary entry includes the dictionary word “enough” and the corresponding phonemes “IH n UX f”. Parsing routines 220 store the extracted dictionary entry in data buffer 230, which may be a portion of RAM 150 (FIG. 1).
Correspondence table 240 lists phoneme entries and text entries, for example, as shown for American English in
Correspondence table 240 preferably includes correspondence sets for most practical combinations of correspondence text and phonemes in a given language. A correspondence table 240 which included every conceivable correspondence set would be inefficient because increasing the number of code sets degrades compression by subsequent compression techniques. Therefore, a tuning function 260 facilities eliminating the less useful correspondence sets from, and adding more useful correspondence sets to, correspondence table 240. The utility or productivity of a correspondence set is determined by the number of dictionary entries it helps to compress. A pronunciation dictionary may be compressed a first time, and the compressed dictionary examined to determine if any correspondence sets are used less than, say, five times. If so, the less used and thus unproductive correspondence sets can be eliminated or modified. Further, since phonemes typically have corresponding text, cases where a phoneme does not match any text may indicate a need to add a correspondence set.
Matching system 250 is a program which reads the extracted dictionary entry from buffer 230, retrieves correspondence sets from correspondence table 240, and compares the dictionary entry with the correspondence sets. More particularly, matching system 250 attempts to match the correspondence sets with combinations of phonemes and characters from the dictionary entry. If matches are made, matching system 250 assigns the correspondence symbol associated with the “best” matching correspondence set as a compressed data entry, as described below with reference to FIG. 6. If a match cannot be made for a particular dictionary character or phoneme, matching system 250 assigns, as compressed data entries, special symbols to represent silent characters or unmatched phonemes. The one or more compressed data entries representing an entire dictionary entry forms a “symbol set.” The symbol sets for an entire pronunciation dictionary collectively form the “compressed pronunciation dictionary” 270.
Matching system 250 further generates decoder code sets for de-compressing compressed pronunciation dictionary 270, and adds the code sets to a “decoder table” 280. Each decoder code set includes a decoder text entry, a corresponding decoder phoneme entry, and a decoder set-identifying symbol equivalent to a correspondence symbol of correspondence table 240. Decoder table 280 is like correspondence table 240 except that decoder table 280 also includes decoder sets for the silent text characters and the unmatched phonemes. The decoder sets are described in more detail with reference to
The correspondence sets may be organized into groups of rows of like phonemes. Grouping rows based on phonemes facilitates comparisons with dictionary combinations if creating table 240 by hand. In the first row of table 240, correspondence phoneme “AE” represents one of the possible pronunciations of correspondence text entry “ai”, and this correspondence set is represented by the symbol “(1)”. In the second row, the same correspondence phoneme “AE” represents one of the possible pronunciations of a different correspondence text entry, “a”, and this correspondence set is represented by the symbol “(2)”. In the third row, correspondence phoneme “EY” represents another pronunciation of the same correspondence text entry “ai” in the first row, and this correspondence set is represented by symbol “(3)”. These three rows illustrated how the same text entry may have different pronunciations, and different text entries may have the same pronunciation.
Correspondence table 240 may be generated manually, i.e. by typing the table into a computer file, or generated electronically, i.e. by computer analysis of productive phoneme-text combinations. It will be appreciated that each language, such as American English or French, would use a different correspondence table 240.
Decoder system 420 uses the decoder table 280 codes to translate symbol sets of compressed pronunciation dictionary 270 in searching for the compressed dictionary word whose text matches the received word, and then in producing phonemes for the received word. If the dictionary compressing method compressed pronunciation dictionary 210 entries in the original alphabetical order of the dictionary words, then the symbol sets are entered in the same alphabetical order in compressed pronunciation dictionary 270. Thus, decoder system 420 could approximate the location of the dictionary word which matches the input text word. Another embodiment of the dictionary compressing method provides an index to compressed pronunciation dictionary 270. Further, any technique for searching a compressed file, such as a hashing function, may be used.
Upon matching a compressed dictionary word to the input text word, decoder system 420 uses the decoder table 280 codes to retrieve dictionary phonemes 430 from the matching symbol set. Alternatively, as it searches the compressed dictionary and converts symbol sets to find a dictionary word which matches the received text, decoder system 420 may also convert the symbol sets to produce phonemes at the same time.
For example, decoder system 420 receives the word “enough” from selected text 410. Decoder system 420 uses decoder table 280 to decode symbol sets from compressed pronunciation dictionary 270 until decoding a symbol set to match the dictionary word “enough”. Upon finding a match, decoder system 420 uses decoder table 280 to translate the symbol set into the output data phonemes “IH n UX f” representing the pronunciation of the received text.
The step 510 preferably further includes tuning function 260 (
Program 215 in step 520 uses the optimized correspondence table 240 to compress pronunciation dictionary 210. More particularly, parsing routines 220 extract a dictionary entry including a dictionary word and corresponding dictionary phonemes from pronunciation dictionary 210, and store the dictionary entry in data buffer 230.
Matching system 250 selects a first phoneme from the dictionary entry, and retrieves all correspondence sets from correspondence table 240 which start with the selected dictionary phoneme to determine if a match can be made. Multiple dictionary characters which together constitute a correspondence text entry in correspondence table 240 are “related.” Divisions between related dictionary characters are typically harder to determine than divisions between dictionary phonemes. Also, there are fewer dictionary phonemes without corresponding dictionary characters (e.g., as in abbreviations such as “Mrs.” or “etc.”) than there are “silent” dictionary characters without phonemes. Therefore, matching system 250 preferably selects a dictionary phoneme, and attempts to match correspondence sets based on the dictionary phoneme.
Matching system 250 compares the correspondence sets retrieved from correspondence table 240 with the dictionary entry to determine if any matches can be made. If only one match is made, matching system 250 selects the correspondence symbol associated with the matching correspondence set as the compressed data entry for compressed pronunciation dictionary 270. If more than one match can be made, matching system 250 selects as the compressed data entry for compressed pronunciation dictionary 270 the symbol for the correspondence set corresponding to the best match. If no match can be made, matching system 250 generates special symbols to represent “silent” characters, or conversely generates special symbols to represent phonemes unmatched to dictionary text. Generation of special symbols is described in greater detail with reference to FIG. 6. If a special symbols is generated, a decoder code set representing the association of the special. symbol to the silent character or alternatively to the unmatched phoneme is added to decoder table 280 for subsequently decoding the special symbol.
Matching system 250 then selects the next unprocessed phoneme, and repeats step 520. until the compressed data entries have been generated for the entire dictionary entry. Examples of this process are described with reference to Examples 1-3. After all the pronunciation dictionary 210 entries have been compressed, the symbol set, which possibly includes special symbols, is added to compressed pronunciation dictionary 270. It will be appreciated that step 510 and step 520 are typically performed by a product developer.
Decoder system 420 in step 530 uses compressed pronunciation dictionary 270 and decoder table 280 to generate phonemes for selected text 410. Decoder system 420 receives a selected word from text 410, and then uses decoder table 280 to decode symbol sets from compressed pronunciation dictionary 270 until one of the decoded dictionary words matches the first input word. Decoder system 420 next uses decoder table 280 to retrieve the dictionary phonemes from the matching symbol set, and then method 500 ends for the first input word. Step 530 repeats for subsequently received words. It will be appreciated that step 530 is typically performed by a customer.
If both remain, matching system 250 in step 630 searches correspondence table 240 for all correspondence sets that match dictionary phoneme-character combinations of the remaining portions of the dictionary entry. More particularly, selecting the next currently-unmatched phoneme, matching system 250 retrieves all correspondence sets which begin with the selected dictionary phoneme. Matching system 250 then compares these correspondence sets against the unmatched portions of the dictionary entry.
If matching system 250 in step 640 finds at least one match, then matching system 250 in step 650 selects the best match, assigns and stores symbols for any pending silent dictionary characters, and stores the correspondence symbol for the selected matching correspondence set. Method 600 then returns to step 610.
To select the best match, matching system 250 first selects from the matching sets as the tentative choice the correspondence set having the most phonemes. If there is more than one set having the most phonemes, then matching system 250 selects as the tentative choice the set that has the most phonemes and the most text characters. If there are more than one of these sets, matching system 250 just selects the first of them. The tentative choice is the best match unless matching system 250 determines one of the other sets satisfies selected criteria, suggesting that it is a better choice. The criteria include:
If in step 640 no matches are found, matching system 250 in step 685 determines whether a threshold number of dictionary characters are currently assumed silent. If not, matching system 250 in step 690 considers the next dictionary character as silent, and returns to step 610. If in step 685 a set threshold number of silent characters are pending, matching system 250 in step 695 assigns and stores a special symbol for the current phoneme and considers pending silent dictionary characters as no longer silent, i.e. re-labels the pending silent characters as unprocessed. Method 600 then returns to step 610.
If in step 620 matching system 250 determines that there are not both a dictionary character and a phoneme remaining in the dictionary entry, then matching system 250 in step 660 determines whether it is characters or phonemes that remain. If characters remain, matching system 250 in step 670 assigns and stores special symbols for all pending silent and all remaining dictionary characters. If only phonemes remain, system 250 proceeds to step 695 and continues as explained above.
“IH n UX f” and “enough”
Matching system 250 retrieves the dictionary word “enough” and the dictionary phonemes “IH n UX f” from data buffer 230. Matching system 250 then selects the first dictionary phoneme “IH,” retrieves from exemplary table 240 (
IH n UX f enough
Matching system 250 fins only one match (IH→e) and accordingly “remembers,” i.e. stores in memory, the symbol “(43)” representing the match.
Matching system 250 then selects the next unprocessed phoneme “n” and retrieves the correspondence sets (ny→gn, n→en, n→gn, n→kn, n→nn, n→n).
IH n UX f e nough
Matching system 250 finds only match (n→n), and remembers the symbol “(161)” representing the only match.
Matching system 250 selects the third phoneme “UX” and retrieves the correspondence sets (UXr→r, UX→a, UX→eu, UX→e, UX→i, UX→ou, UX→o, UX→u, UX→y).
IH n UX f en oough
Matching system 250 finds two matches (UX→o and UX→ou), and selects the better match. Since UX→ou has more text characters matching system 250 selects it as the tentative best match. Matching system 250 applies the three-criteria test as described with reference to
Matching system 250 selects the next unprocessed phoneme “f” and retrieves the correspondence sets (f→ff, f→f, f→gh, f→ph).
IH n UX f enou gh
Matching system 250 finds only one match (f→gh) and thus remembers “123” as representing the match. Accordingly, matching system 250 stores the symbol set “43 161 89 123” in compressed pronunciation dictionary 170 as the compressed data entry representing the dictionary word “enough” and its dictionary phonemes “IH n UX f”.
“AE n s UX r” and “answer”
Matching system 250 retrieves the dictionary word “answer” and the dictionary phonemes “AE n s UX r”. In a manner similar to that described in Example 1, matching system 250 matches the dictionary combination AE→a and represents it by correspondence symbol “2,” matches the dictionary combination n→n and represents it by symbol “161” and matches the dictionary combination s→s and represents it by symbol “173.” At this time, matching system 250 selects dictionary phoneme “UX” and retrieves the correspondence sets (UXr→r, UX→a, UX→eu, UX→e, UX→i, UX→ou, UX→o, UX→u, UX→y).
AE n s UX r ans wer
Matching system 250 finds no match. Thus, matching system 250 assumes that “w” is silent.
With the “w” silent, matching system 250 examines the correspondence sets with the remaining unprocessed dictionary entry.
AE n s UX r answ er
Matching system 250 finds a match (UX→e), and thus assigns and stores a special symbol such as “221” to represent the silent dictionary character “w” and remembers the symbol “(87).” Further, matching system 250 adds the decoder code set, for example “221” w φ” wherein the empty set represents no phoneme, to decoder table 280.
Lastly, matching stem 250 selects the dictionary phoneme “r” and retrieves the correspondence sets (r→rr, r→er, rr→r, r→r).
AE n s UX r answe r
Matching system 250 finds only one match (r→r), and selects the symbol “(155).” Matching system 250 adds “2 161 173 221 87 155” to compressed pronunciation dictionary 270 as a symbol set representing the word “answer” and the phonemes “AE n s UX r.”
“r IH D AX m” and “rhythm”
Matching, system 250 retrieves the dictionary word “rhythm” and the dictionary phonemes “r IH D AX m,” selects the first dictionary phoneme “r” and retrieves the correspondence sets (r→rr, r→er, rr→r, r→r).
r IH D AX m rhythm
Matching system 250 finds only one match (r→r), and remembers the symbol “169.”
Matching system 250 selects the next unprocessed phoneme “IH” and retrieves the correspondence sets (IH→a, IH→e, IH→i, IH→o, IH→u, IH→y).
r IH D AX m r hythm
Matching system 250 finds no matches. Accordingly, matching system 250 assumes the “h” is silent. With the “h” silent, matching system 250 then examines the remaining portions of the dictionary entry.
r IH D AX m rh ythm
Matching system 250 finds a match (IH→y), assigns a special symbol such as “222” for silent “h” and remembers the symbol “47.”
Matching system 250 then selects the next unprocessed phoneme “D” and retrieves only correspondence set (D→th), since in this example matching system 250 is case sensitive.
r IH D AX m rhy thm
Matching system 250 finds a match and remembers the symbol “120.”
Matching system 250 then selects the next unprocessed phoneme “AX” and retrieves the correspondence sets (AXk→c, AXl→l, AXm→m, AX→a, AX→e, AX→ia, AX→i, AX→o, AX→u, AX→y, AXE→′).
r IH D AX m rhyth m
Matching system 250 finds only one match (AXm→m), and remembers symbol “(16).” Since no other characters exist, matching system 250 adds “169 222 47 120 16” to compressed pronunciation dictionary 270 as a symbol set representing the dictionary word “rhythm” and the corresponding phonemes “r IH D AX m.”
If for example the correspondence set AXm→m was not included in correspondence table 240, matching system 250 would find no match. Accordingly, matching system 250 would assume the text character “m” is silent. Since only characters would remain, matching system 250 would emit a special symbol such as “223” for current phoneme “AX” and would consider the text character “m” is no longer silent. Matching system 250 would then retrieve the correspondence sets (m→lm, m→mm, m→m) for phoneme “m”, would find the only match m→m, and would remember the symbol “155.” Since no other characters would exist, matching system 250 would add “169 222 47 120 223 155” to compressed pronunciation dictionary 270 as a symbol set representing the dictionary word “rhythm” and the corresponding phonemes “r IH D AX m.”
The present invention advantageouly provides a system and method for compressing a pronunciation dictionary. This is especially useful, for example, as a precursor to other compression techniques. The system and method take advantage of the natural redundancy between dictionary text and dictionary phonemes. Since compression system 180 substitutes symbols for sets of dictionary words and phonemes, memory required to store the information is reduced by approximately one-third to one-half.
For example, each character in a word may be represented by five bits (since there are twenty-six letters in the English alphabet), and each phoneme may be represented by six bits (since there are about thirty-nine phonemes for American English as illustrated in FIG. 7). Further, dictionary words and the set of phonemes for each dictionary word are divided by a terminator character. The word “enough” requires seven characters (including the terminator character) and thus occupies thirty-five bits. The corresponding phoneme set “IH n UX f” requires five characters (including the terminator character), and thus occupies thirty bits. Thus, the total memory for storing this dictionary entry is sixty-five bits.
A decoder table 280, as shown in
The foregoing description of the preferred embodiments of the invention is by way of example only, and other variations are provided by the present invention. For example, components of this invention may be implemented using a programmed general purpose digital computer, using application specific integrated circuits, or using a network of interconnected conventional components and circuits. Further, although the invention has been described with reference to a dictionary, any guide having text and phonemes can be compressed using the system and method of the present invention. Still further, although the invention has been described using phonemes, other alternative means for representing pronunciation of text are possible, such as allophones, syllables or symbols generated by an earlier compression system. The embodiments described herein are presented for purposes of illustration and are not intended to be exhaustive or limiting. Many variations and modifications are possible in light of the foregoing teaching. The system is limited only by the following claims.
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|U.S. Classification||704/1, 704/E15.02, 704/10|
|International Classification||G06F17/21, H03M7/30, G06F17/22, G10L15/18, G06F17/20|
|Cooperative Classification||G10L15/187, H03M7/3084|
|European Classification||G10L15/187, H03M7/30Z|
|Mar 7, 2008||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: APPLE INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:APPLE COMPUTER, INC.;REEL/FRAME:020638/0127
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Owner name: APPLE INC.,CALIFORNIA
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|Dec 23, 2008||CC||Certificate of correction|
|Jun 27, 2012||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 12