|Publication number||USRE40500 E1|
|Application number||US 11/498,913|
|Publication date||Sep 16, 2008|
|Filing date||Aug 3, 2006|
|Priority date||Jul 25, 2000|
|Publication number||11498913, 498913, US RE40500 E1, US RE40500E1, US-E1-RE40500, USRE40500 E1, USRE40500E1|
|Inventors||Douglas A. Doers, Dean P. Bergman|
|Original Assignee||Deltahawk Engines, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (63), Referenced by (1), Classifications (11), Legal Events (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This Application is a continuation-in-part of PCT Application No. PCT/US01/20832, filed Jun. 29, 2001, which claims priority to U.S. application Ser. No. 09/663,838, filed Sep. 15, 2000, and U.S. Application No. 60/220,787, filed Jul. 25, 2000. The entire contents of these applications are hereby incorporated by reference.
The present invention relates generally to internal combustion engines. More particularly, the present invention relates to two-stroke, diesel aircraft engines.
Internal combustion engines generally include an engine block defining a cylinder which includes a reciprocally operating piston. A cylinder head is generally mounted to the engine block over the cylinder. As generally known, the overall operation, reliability and durability of internal combustion engines depends on a number of design characteristics. One such design characteristic involves the piston pin or wrist pin/connecting rod connection. Uneven wear, excessive deflection or other structural deformities of the wrist pin will adversely affect the performance of an engine. Another design characteristic involves providing adequate cooling for fuel injectors. Generally, fuel injectors are in close proximity to the high heat regions of the combustion chambers. Without proper cooling, a fuel injector can malfunction and, in some cases, completely fail. Another design characteristic involves sufficiently cooling the cylinder heads. Thermal failure or cracking of a cylinder head results in costly repairs to the engine. Yet another design characteristic involves providing coolant to cooling jackets in multiple cylinder engines having a plurality of cylinder banks. Inadequate flow or obstructed flow of the coolant through the cooling jacket can result in engine failure.
A heat conducting fireplate or deck is typically provided beneath the cylinder head, and a combustion chamber is defined between the piston and the fireplate. Many internal combustion engines utilize a plurality of head bolts to secure the cylinder head to the engine block so as to provide a clamping force that seals the cylinder head to the engine block to prevent the undesirable escape of by products created by combustion within the combustion chamber.
The present invention provides an internal combustion engine having many advantages over prior art engines. In particular, the present invention provides certain improvements that are particularly well suited for use in two-stroke, diesel aircraft engines. The invention includes a new wrist pin/connecting rod connection, a new cooling system for fuel injectors, a new cylinder head cooling arrangement, a new cooling jacket cross-feed arrangement, and a new combustion seal arrangement.
The wrist pin, especially in two-stroke diesel engines, is nearly continuously under load. It is not uncommon for wrist pins to deflect under heavy or continuous loads. A heavy or thick walled wrist pin reduces the deflection, but at the cost of a substantial increase in weight. Thus, there is a need for a new wrist pin/connecting rod assembly which makes it less likely that the wrist pin will deflect under heavy or continuous loads, yet which does not appreciably add to the overall weight of the engine.
Providing a wrist pin/connecting rod assembly in which the wear on the bearing surface of the wrist pin is evenly distributed is difficult at best. Uneven wear of the wrist pin bearing surface can result in poor engine performance. Thus, there is a need for a wrist pin/connecting rod assembly which minimizes uneven wear on the wrist pin bearing surface.
Accordingly, the invention provides a connecting rod with a cradle-like upper end. In other words, the upper end of the connecting rod has an arcuate portion and does not encircle the wrist pin. The wrist pin has an outer surface in engagement with the arcuate portion of the connecting rod, and a plurality of fasteners (e.g., screws) secure the wrist pin to the arcuate portion of the connecting rod by extending through the wall of the wrist pin and into an insert within the wrist pin. Because the arcuate portion of the connecting rod does not completely encircle the wrist pin, the entire “top” of the wrist pin (the side of the wrist pin farthest from the crank-shaft and nearest the piston crown) can bear against the piston. In other words, a longitudinal portion of the wrist pin that does not engage the arcuate portion of the connecting rod can bear against the piston. This results in the load and the wear being more evenly distributed across substantially the entire longitudinal length of the wrist pin and, therefore, a lighter wrist pin than would otherwise be necessary can be used. Moreover, the wrist pin insert stiffens the wrist pin, also allowing the use of a thinner wrist pin. In addition, because the wrist pin cannot pivot relative to the connecting rod, the forced movement or rocking of the wrist pin as the connecting rod pivots during operation of the engine aids in oiling and minimizes uneven wear on the wrist pin bearing surface.
Fuel injectors are subject to intense thermal conditions because of their general proximity to the cylinder heads. One way to cool fuel injectors is to install the fuel injectors through cooling jackets which are adjacent the cylinder heads. The cooling jackets can cool both the cylinder heads and the fuel injectors. However, cooling jackets are not always sufficient to cool the fuel injectors. Moreover, in some engine designs, cooling jackets are not located in positions which allow them to be used to cool the fuel injectors. Thus, there is a need for a new fuel injector cooling system which enhances operation of or operates independent from a cooling jacket.
Fuel pumps generally deliver more fuel than the fuel injection system and engine can utilize at any given moment. As a result, the excess fuel is typically returned to a fuel supply tank for further use. Rather than returning the overflow fuel from the fuel pump directly to the fuel supply tank, the present invention utilizes the overflow fuel to cool the fuel injectors. Circulating the overflow or bypass fuel from the fuel pump through the fuel injectors for the purpose of cooling the fuel injectors makes use of an existing liquid flow not previously used to cool the fuel injectors. The overflow fuel flows into each fuel injector via a newly-provided inlet port and flows out through the known leak-off port. It is not uncommon for engine coolant in a cooling jacket to reach temperatures in excess of 240° F. The overflow fuel is significantly cooler than the engine coolant running through the cooling jacket, thereby providing an improved method of cooling the fuel injector to increase fuel injector life. In those engines which do not use a cooling jacket, the fuel injector cooling system of the present invention provides a new way of cooling the fuel injectors.
Accordingly, the invention also provides a fuel injection system having a fuel injector for injecting fuel into a combustion chamber. The fuel injector includes a fuel inlet port, a fuel outlet port and a fuel passage communicating between the fuel inlet port and the fuel outlet port. The fuel injector further includes a cooling fuel inlet port, a leak-off fuel outlet port and a cooling fuel passage communicating between the cooling fuel inlet port and leak-off fuel outlet port. The fuel injection system includes a bypass fuel line which communicates between a fuel pump and the cooling fuel inlet port of the fuel injector. Overflow fuel from the fuel pump flows through the bypass fuel line and through the fuel injector to cool the fuel injector. Using the excess fuel from the fuel pump to cool the fuel injector simplifies or supplants the cooling jacket.
A problem particularly prevalent with aircraft engines concerns ice build-up on the fuel filter due to cold outside temperatures. The overflow fuel which cools the fuel injectors is warmed as it flows through the fuel injectors. The warmed overflow fuel is recirculated through the fuel injection system to travel through the fuel filter so as to provide the additional benefit of resisting ice build-up on the fuel filter in cold weather.
Radiant and conductive heating of a cylinder head can raise the temperature of the cylinder head above its metallurgical and structural limits. Traditionally, cylinder heads are bolted or otherwise secured to the cylinder block or engine block with a suitable head gasket therebetween to effectively seal the cylinder heads and provide the cooling means for the cylinder head. According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cylinder head threads into the engine block. Because of this, cooling passages normally provided between the engine block and the cylinder head cannot be utilized. Thus, there is a need for a cylinder head cooling arrangement which is not dependent on the location of the cylinder head with respect to the engine block, as is the case with prior engine designs.
Accordingly, in another aspect of the present invention, a cooling cap is mounted on the cylinder head. The cooling cap and the cylinder head combine to define a substantially annular cooling passageway. The cooling cap further includes inlet and outlet ports which communicate with the cooling passageway, so that cooling fluid can flow through the cooling passageway to cool the cylinder head. According to one aspect of the present invention, the inlet and outlet ports of the cooling cap communicate with the cooling passageway, so that the cooling fluid is caused to flow from the inlet port, substantially all the way around the cooling passageway, and then out the outlet port to provide enhanced cooling effectiveness. The cooling cap is adjustably positionable on the cylinder head, such that the inlet and outlet ports of the cooling cap can be properly aligned with ports in the engine block. In other words, the cooling cap is connectable to a cooling jacket in the engine block regardless of the position of the cylinder head with respect to the cylinder block or engine block. Because the cylinder head threads into the engine block, it is not known exactly where the cylinder head will be positioned in terms of the engine block. Thus, the adjustable cooling cap of the present invention is especially advantageous in an engine in which the cylinder head threads into the engine block.
Threading the cylinder head into the engine block according to the present invention provides the added benefit of eliminating the bolt and head gasket system of prior engines. This eliminates a possible point of failure, while at the same time reducing the number of parts to assemble the engine. According to one aspect of the present invention, the engine block includes female threads concentric with the cylinder and the cylinder head includes male threads which engage the female threads on the engine block. Because the traditional bolt and head gasket assembly can be eliminated, in order to provide a proper combustion seal, the present invention provides, according to one aspect thereof, a biasing spring between a cylinder head and a fireplate. The spring provides a downward force against the fireplate to offset an upward force created by combustion within the combustion chamber, thereby substantially ensuring that a proper cylinder head combustion seal is maintained.
In V-type engines, a cooling jacket and an associated thermostat are typically provided for each cylinder bank. A problem with such prior arrangements is that if one thermostat fails, there is no mechanism to allow cooling fluid to flow through the associated cooling jacket. Another problem with such prior designs is that the temperature gradient between the hot cylinder heads and the cooler lower crankcase can be significant, thereby adding undesirable stress to the engine block and other engine components. Thus, there is a need for a new system which provides redundancy of thermostat operation and thermal coupling between the cylinder heads and the lower portion of the engine.
Accordingly, the invention also provides a cross-feed cooling passageway in the engine block of a V-type engine. The cooling passageway extends between a first cooling jacket adjacent a first cylinder bank and a second cooling jacket adjacent a second cylinder bank. The first thermostat communicates with the first cooling jacket and a second thermostat communicates with the second cooling jacket. The cooling passageway provides cooling fluid flow between the cooling jackets. This is particularly advantageous in the event that one of the thermostats fails. The cross-feed passageway will allow the cooling fluid to continue to flow if one thermostat fails, so as to reduce the possibility of damage to the engine from over-heating. Another advantage of the cooling passageway is that it reduces the temperature gradient between the cylinder heads and the lower crankcase.
The present invention addresses the above mentioned problems and other problems. In addition, other features and advantages of the invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art upon review of the following detailed description, claims and drawings in which like numerals are used to designate like features.
Before the embodiments of the invention are explained in detail, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to its application to the details of construction and the arrangements of the components set forth in the following description or illustrated in the drawings. The invention is capable of other embodiments and of being practiced or being carried out in various ways. Also, it is understood that the phraseology and terminology used herein are for the purpose of description and should not be regarded as limiting. The use of “including” and “comprising” and variations thereof herein is meant to encompass the items listed thereafter and equivalents thereof as well as additional items and equivalents thereof.
The connecting rod 30 includes a first end 34 which is connected to the crankshaft. The connecting rod 30 further includes a second end 38 which includes an arcuate portion 42 that does not completely encircle the wrist pin 46. Preferably, the arcuate portion 42 of the connecting rod 30 has an arcuate extent that is about or slightly less than 180°. The wrist pin 46 has an annular wall 50 including a cylindrical inner surface 54 (
As shown in
As shown schematically in
As can be appreciated, as the overflow fuel cools the fuel injectors, the overflow fuel is warmed. The overflow fuel is recirculated through the fuel injection system 122 by way of return fuel line 148. The warmed overflow fuel will flow through the fuel filter 130 on its way back to the fuel pump 132 to resist excessive build-up of ice on the fuel filter 130 during cold weather.
The engine block 14 includes a cooling jacket 178 with an outlet 182 and an inlet (not shown). The cooling cap 154 is placed on the cylinder head 78 with the inlet port 170 in alignment with the outlet port 182 of the cooling jacket 178 and the outlet port 174 in alignment with the inlet port of the cooling jacket 178. A first transfer tube 186 communicates between the inlet port 170 of the cooling cap 154 and the outlet port 182 of the cooling jacket 178, and a second transfer tube (not shown) communicates between the outlet port 174 of the cooling cap 154 and the inlet port of the cooling jacket 178.
As shown, the inlet port 170 and the outlet port 174 of the cooling cap 154 are not diametrically opposed around the annular cooling passageway 166. Thus, a first portion of the annular cooling passageway 166 extends in one direction from the inlet port 170 to the outlet port 174 (representatively shown as arrow 190 in
The cooling cap 154 is adjustably positionable around the cylinder head 78, so that the inlet port 170 and the outlet port 174 are properly alignable with the associated inlet and outlet ports of the cooling jacket 178. This is especially advantageous for a preferred embodiment of the present invention in which the cylinder head 78 threads into the cylinder block or engine block 14. As shown, the engine block 14 includes female threads concentric with the cylinder 22, and the cylinder head 78 includes male threads which engage the female threads of the engine block 14. Because the cylinder head 78 threads into the engine block 14, it is not exactly known where the cylinder head 78 will be located with respect to the engine body 14. Once the adjustable cooling cap 154 is properly located on the cylinder head 78, a plurality of clamping members 198, preferably equally spaced apart, span across the top of the cooling cap 154 to secure the cooling cap 154 to the cylinder head 78. Each of the clamping members 198 has opposite ends 202 and 206, and is secured to the cylinder head 78 by a pair of fasteners 210. One fastener 210 is located adjacent end 202 and the other fastener 210 is located adjacent end 206. Preferably, the fasteners 210 thread into the top of the cylinder head 78. Preferably, the cylinder head 78 includes a plurality of sets of pre-drilled, threaded holes such that each fastener 210 can be located in a plurality of positions relative to the cylinder head 78. Preferably, end 202 of each clamping member 198 is received by an annular groove 214 in the fuel injector nut 86, thereby also securing the fuel injector 70 to the cylinder head 78.
In the embodiment illustrated in
Another embodiment of the cooling cap 154 is illustrated in
With reference to
As shown in
A cylindrical sleeve 322 is positioned within the cylinder 318. Preferably, the sleeve 322 is an aluminum sleeve that is shrink fitted into the cylinder 318 and bonded to the engine block 314 with an epoxy resin having an aluminum filler. The sleeve 322 includes a shoulder 326. A piston 330 reciprocates within the sleeve 322.
A gasket 334 is positioned on the shoulder 326 of the sleeve 322. The gasket 334 is preferably made of a compliant material which can form to the shape of mating components, and which is also made of a material which is highly conductive for rapid heat dissipation. In a highly preferred embodiment, the gasket 334 is a copper gasket. As will be further explained below, the, gasket 334 acts as both a sealing mechanism and a shimming device.
A fireplate 338 is positioned between a cylinder head 342 and the gasket 334. A bottom side 346 of the fireplate 338 cooperates with the piston 330 to define a combustion chamber 350. An annular ledge 354 on the fireplate 338 receives an O-ring 358 to provide a seal between the side wall 356 of the fireplate 338 and the cylinder 318. In a preferred design, the cylinder head 342 is made of aluminum and the fireplate 338 is made of stainless steel.
A head spring 362 is positioned between the cylinder head 342 and the fireplate 338. A bottom side 366 of the cylinder head 342 has an annular groove 370 which receives the head spring 362, and a top side 374 of the fireplate 338 has a recess 378 which also receives the head spring 362. The head spring 362 is preferably a belleville spring. The head spring 362 is also preferably made of stainless steel. As generally known in the art, belleville springs take the form of a shallow, conical disk with a hole through the center thereof. A very high spring rate or spring force can be developed in a very small axial space with these types of springs. Predetermined load-deflection characteristics can be obtained by varying the height of the cone to the thickness of the disk. The importance of being able to obtain a predetermined spring force in regards to the present invention will be made clear below.
As can be observed with reference to
The head spring 362 also acts to allow for the expansion and contraction of the relevant mating engine components during changing thermal conditions of the engine 310 without adversely affecting the combustion seal, much like traditional head bolts act. As noted above, head bolts can be used to provide a clamping force that seals a cylinder head to an engine block. Because the head bolts are allowed to expand and contract with the associated engine components as the temperature of the engine varies, the head bolts are capable of maintaining the clamping force during operation of the engine. However, in the case of the present invention, the threaded cylinder head 342 does not generally have the stretching capabilities of typical head bolts because of its relatively large diameter and short thread length. Thus, the head spring 362 provides the desired clamping force in lieu of traditional head bolts to create the proper combustion seal.
As suggested above, the load provided by the head spring 362 can be calculated based on the deflection of the spring 362. In this way, a guaranteed amount of downward force can be provided to ensure a proper combustion seal. To obtain the desired deflection for the head spring 362, the cylinder head 342 and associated components are assembled as follows.
The piston 330 is located in its top dead center position. The gasket 334 is positioned on the shoulder 326 of the sleeve 322. The fireplate 338 is positioned on the gasket 334 to create a predetermined volume for the combustion chamber 350. The gasket 334 is appropriately sized to obtain the desired volume for the combustion chamber 350. The gasket 334 accommodates the assembly stack up tolerances associated with the engine block 314, the cylinder head 342, the sleeve 322, and the piston 330. After the fireplate 338 is positioned on the gasket 334, the cylinder head 342 is threaded into the engine block 314 until such time as the bottom side 366 of the cylinder head 342 contacts the top side 374 of the fireplate 338. Once contact is made between the cylinder head 342 and the fireplate 338, the final assembly position of the cylinder head 342 with respect to the engine block 314 is known. The final assembly position of the cylinder head 342 is then marked or otherwise recorded for future reference. Thereafter, the cylinder head 342 is unthreaded from the engine block 314 and the head spring 362 is positioned between the cylinder head 342 and the fireplate 338. The cylinder head 342 is then threaded a second time into the engine block 314 until the cylinder head 342 is located in the final assembly position. The threading of the cylinder head 342 into the engine block compresses the spring 362 between the cylinder head 342 and the fireplate 338. Knowing the desired deflection amount for the spring 362 and where the final assembly position will be for the cylinder head 342, ensures that a sufficient load will be applied against the fireplate 338 to offset the upward force generated by the combustion within the combustion chamber in order to provide the desired combustion seal.
Another feature of the present invention concerns providing a cooling system for the cylinder head 342. A cooling cap 382 is mounted on the cylinder head 342. The cooling cap 382 cooperates with an annular groove 390 of the cylinder head 342 to define a cooling passageway 394. The cooling cap 382 includes an inlet port 398 and an outlet port 402. The inlet port 398 is adapted to receive a cooling fluid flowing through the engine 310, and the outlet port 402 is adapted to send the cooling fluid on through the engine 310 after the cooling fluid has been used to cool the cylinder head 342. As best shown in
The manner of attaching the cooling cap 382 to the cylinder head 342 is substantially described above in relation to engine 10. Reference is also made to the description above in relation to engine 10 for the description and manner of operating the fuel injector 410. One difference worth noting between engine 10 and engine 310 is that the cylinder head 342 of the subject application includes nine sets of holes 414 for the associated clamping members 418, as compared to the six sets of holes as shown for engine 10. It was determined that nine sets of holes is preferred to enable the desired positioning of the cooling cap 382 with respect to the cylinder head 342.
The foregoing description of the present invention has been presented for purposes of illustration and description. Furthermore, the description is not intended to limit the invention in the form disclosed herein. Consequently, variations and modifications commensurate with the above teachings in skill or knowledge of the relevant art, are within the scope of the present invention. The embodiments described herein are further intended to explain the best modes known for practicing the invention and to enable others skilled in the art to utilize the invention as such, or other embodiments and with various modifications required by the particular applications or uses of the present invention. It is intended that the appended claims are to be construed to include alternative embodiments to the extent permitted by the prior art. It is understood that the invention disclosed and defined herein extends to all alternative combinations of two or more of the individual features mentioned or evident from the text and/or drawings. All of these different combinations constitute various alternative aspects of the present invention.
Various features of the invention are set forth in the following claims.
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|International Classification||F02B75/02, F01P3/02, F02F1/40, F02B75/32, F01P3/16|
|Cooperative Classification||F02B2075/025, F02F1/40, F01P3/16|
|European Classification||F02F1/40, F01P3/16|
|Sep 25, 2006||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: RACINE COUNTY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, WI
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:DELTAHAWK ENGINES, INC.;REEL/FRAME:018323/0759
Effective date: 20060915
Owner name: RACINE COUNTY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION,WIS
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:DELTAHAWK ENGINES, INC.;REEL/FRAME:018323/0759
Effective date: 20060915
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Owner name: DELTAHAWK ENGINES, INC., WISCONSIN
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:DELTAHAWK, INC.;REEL/FRAME:018303/0884
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Owner name: DELTAHAWK, INC., WISCONSIN
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:DOERS, DOUGLAS A.;BERGMAN, DEAN P.;REEL/FRAME:020595/0958
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|Mar 3, 2009||CC||Certificate of correction|
|Dec 14, 2009||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: JOHNSON BANK, WISCONSIN
Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:DELTAHAWK ENGINES, INC.;REEL/FRAME:023649/0330
Effective date: 20091214
|Jul 1, 2010||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: DELTAHAWK ENGINES,WISCONSIN
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Effective date: 20100525
|Oct 25, 2011||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: RCI FIRSTPATHWAY CITIZENSHIP INVESTMENT FUND LLC,
Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNORS:DELTAHAWK ENGINES, INC.;DELTAHAWK, INC.;REEL/FRAME:027240/0823
Effective date: 20110722
|Jan 25, 2012||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8