|Publication number||USRE40777 E1|
|Application number||US 11/150,605|
|Publication date||Jun 23, 2009|
|Filing date||Jun 30, 1999|
|Priority date||Jun 30, 1998|
|Also published as||CA2336275A1, CA2336275C, CN1308799A, CN1829135A, CN1829135B, DE59909478D1, DE59911509D1, EP1092296A2, EP1092296B1, EP1422860A1, EP1422860B1, US6816507, WO2000002401A2, WO2000002401A3|
|Publication number||11150605, 150605, PCT/1999/1909, PCT/DE/1999/001909, PCT/DE/1999/01909, PCT/DE/99/001909, PCT/DE/99/01909, PCT/DE1999/001909, PCT/DE1999/01909, PCT/DE1999001909, PCT/DE199901909, PCT/DE99/001909, PCT/DE99/01909, PCT/DE99001909, PCT/DE9901909, US RE40777 E1, US RE40777E1, US-E1-RE40777, USRE40777 E1, USRE40777E1|
|Inventors||Lutz Jarbot, Holger Landenberger, Albrecht Kunz, Markus Nasshan|
|Original Assignee||Nokia Siemens Networks Gmbh & Co. Kg|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (11), Non-Patent Citations (18), Referenced by (4), Classifications (22), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention pertains to wireless telecommunication systems and in particular to an air interface for telecommunications systems using wireless telecommunication between mobile and/or stationary transmitting/receiving units.
2. Description of the Related Art
Telecommunications systems using wireless telecommunication between mobile and/or stationary transmitting/receiving units (appliances) are specific message systems using a message transmission path between a message source and a message sink, and in which, for example, base transceiver stations and mobile units are used as transmitting and receiving appliances for message processing and transmission and in which,
“Message” is a generic term, which covers both the information and the physical representation (signal). Despite a message having the same information, different signal forms may occur. Thus, for example, a message relating to a subject may be transmitted
(1) in the form of a picture,
(2) as a spoken word,
(3) as a written word,
(4) as an encrypted word or picture
The types of transmission in categories (1) through (3) are in this case normally characterized by continuous (analog) signals, while the type of transmission in category (4) normally comprises discontinuous signals (for example pulses, digital signals).
According, for example, to the document Funkschau [Radio Show] 6/98: R. Sietmann “Ringen um die UMTS-Schnittstelle” [Ring around the UMTS interface], pages 76 to 81 there are two scenario elements in the UMTS scenario (3rd mobile radio generation or IMT-2000). In a first scenario element, the licensed coordinated mobile radio is based on a WCDMA technology (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) and, as in the case of GSM, is operated using the FDD mode (Frequency Division Duplex), while, in a second scenario element, the unlicensed uncoordinated mobile radio is based on a TD-CDMA technology (Time Division-Code Division Multiple Access) and, as in the case of DECT, is operated using the TDD mode (Frequency Division Duplex).
For WCDMA/FDD operation of the universal mobile telecommunications system, the air interface of the telecommunications system in each case contains a number of physical channels in the uplink and downlink telecommunications directions in accordance with the document ETSI STC SMG2 UMTS-L1, Tdoc SMG2 UMTS-L1 163/98: “UTRA Physical Layer Description FDD Parts” Vers. 0.3, May 29, 1998 of which a first physical channel, the so-called Dedicated Physical Control CHannel DPCCH and a second physical channel, the so-called Dedicated Physical Data CHannel DPDCH, [lacuna] with respect to a “three-layer structure” composed of 720 ms long (TMZR=720 ms) super frames MZR, 10 ms long (TFZR=10 ms) time frames (radio frames) ZR and 0.625 ms long (TZS=0.625 ms) time slots ZS, which are illustrated in
In the “downlink” (downward telecommunications direction; radio link from the base transceiver station to the mobile station) in the WCDMA/FDD system from ESTI and ARIB—FIG. 1—the first physical channel [“Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH)] and the second physical channel [“Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH)] are time-division multiplexed while, in the “uplink” (upward telecommunications direction; radio link from the mobile station to the base transceiver station)—FIG. 2—I/Q multiplexing is used, in which the second physical channel DPDCH is transmitted in the I channel, and the first physical channel DPCCH is transmitted in the Q channel.
For TDCDMA/TDD operation of the universal mobile telecommunications system, the air interface of the telecommunications system in the uplink and downlink telecommunications directions is once again based, in accordance with the document TSG RAN WG1 (S1.21): “3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)” Vers. 0.0.1, 1999-01, on the “three-layer structure” consisting of the super frames MZR, the time frames ZR and the time slots ZS, for all the physical channels, which is illustrated in FIG. 3. Each super frame MZR in turn contains, for example, 72 time frames, while each time frame ZR in turn has, for example, the 16 time slots ZS1 . . . ZS16. The individual time slot ZS, ZS1 . . . ZS16 (burst) has either, in accordance with the ARIB proposal, a first time slot structure (burst structure) ZSS1 in the sequence comprising a first user data sequence NDS1 with NDATA1 bits, the pilot sequence PS with NPILOT bits for channel estimation, the TPC sequence TPCS with NTPC bits for power control, the TFCI sequence TFCIS with NTFC1 bits for traffic format channel indication, a second user data sequence NDS2 with NDATA2 bits and a guard period SZZ with NGUARD bits or, in accordance with the ETSI proposal, a second time slot structure (burst structure) ZSS2 in the sequence comprising the first user data sequence NDS1, a first TFCI sequence TFCIS1, a midamble sequence MIS for channel estimation, a second TFCI sequence TFCIS2, the second user data sequence NDS2 and the guard period SZZ.
A radio receiving device FEE (receiver) is used to filter the received carrier signal and to mix it down to an intermediate frequency which, for its part, is subsequently sampled and digitized. After analog/digital conversion, the signal, which has been subject to distortion by multipath propagation on the radio path, is fed to an equalizer EQL, which compensates for the majority of the distortion (keyword: synchronization).
A channel estimator KS then attempts to estimate the transmission characteristics of the transmission channel TRC on which the radio message FN has been transmitted. The transmission characteristics of the channel are in this case indicated by means of the channel impulse response in the time domain. To make it possible to estimate the channel impulse response, the radio message FN is allocated or assigned, at the transmitting end (in the present case by the mobile station MS1 through MS5 or the base transceiver station BTS1, BTS2), a specific additional information item, which is constructed as a training information sequence and is in the form of a so-called midamble.
A data detector DD, which is downstream from this and is common to all the received signals, is used to equalize and separate the individual mobile-station-specific signal elements contained in the common signal, in a known manner. After equalization and separation, the data symbols which have been present up to this point are converted in a symbol-to-data converter SDW into binary data. After this, a demodulator DMOD is used to obtain the original bit stream from the intermediate frequency before, in a demultiplexer DMUX, the individual time slots are allocated to the correct logical channels, and thus also to the various mobile stations.
The received bit sequence is decoded channel-by-channel in a channel codec KC. Depending on the channel, the bit information is assigned to the monitoring and signaling time slot or to a voice time slot and—in the case of the base transceiver station (FIG. 5)—the monitoring and signaling data and the voice data for transmission to the base transceiver station controller BSC are jointly transferred to an interface SS which is responsible for signaling and voice coding/decoding (voice codec), while—in the case of the mobile station (FIG. 6)—the monitoring and signaling data are transferred to a control and signaling unit STSE, which is preferably in the form of a microprocessor μP and is responsible for all the mobile station signaling and control, and the voice data are transferred to a voice codec SPC which is designed for voice inputting and outputting. The microprocessor μP contains a program module PGM which is designed on the basis of the ISO layer model [see: Unterrichtsblatter [Training sheets]—Deutsche Telekom, Year 48, 2/1995, pages 102 to 111] and in which the air interface protocol for the UMTS scenario is handled. Of the layers defined in the layer model, only the first four layers, which are essential for the mobile station, are shown; a first layer S1, a second layer S2, a third layer S3 and a fourth layer S4, with the first layer S1 containing, inter alia, the DPCCH channel and the DPDCH channel.
In the voice codec of the interface SS in the base transceiver station BTS1, BTS2, the voice data in a predetermined data stream become [lacuna] (for example 64 kbit/s stream in the network direction, and a 13 kbit/s stream from the network direction).
The base transceiver station BTS1, BTS2 is controlled entirely in a control unit STE, which is preferably in the form of a microprocessor μP. The microprocessor μP once again contains the program module PGM which is designed on the basis of the ISO layer model [see: Unterrichtsbl atter—Deutsche Telekom, Year 48, 2/1995, pages 102 to 111] and in which the air interface protocol for the UMTS scenario is handled. Of the layers defined in the layer model, once again only the first four layers, which are essential for the base transceiver station, are shown; the first layer S1, the second layer S2, the third layer S3 and the fourth layer S4, with the first layer S1 containing, inter alia, the DPCCH channel and the DPDCH channel.
In the downlink direction (transmission path), the base transceiver station BTS1, BTS2 transmits (via the transmitting antenna SAN), for example, at least one radio message FN with a frequency/time/code component to at least one of the mobile station MS1 through MS5, while, in the uplink direction (transmission path), the mobile station MS1 through MS5 transmits (via the common antenna ANT), for example, at least one radio message FN with a frequency/time/code component to at least one base transceiver station BTS1, BTS2.
In the base transceiver station BTS1, BTS2 in
In the mobile station MS1 through MS5 in
The bit sequence obtained in the base transceiver on BTS1, BTS2 and in the mobile station MS1 through MS5 is converted into data symbols in in each case one data-to-symbol converter DSW. Subsequently, the data symbols are in each case spread in a spreading device SPE using a respectively subscriber-specific code. After this, in the burst generator BG which comprises a burst compiler BZS and a multiplexer MUX, a training information sequence in the form of a midamble is added to each of the spread data symbols in the burst compiler BZS, for channel estimation, and the burst information obtained in this way is placed in the correct time slot in the multiplexer MUX. Finally, the burst that has been obtained is in each case radio-frequency-modulated modulated in a modulator MOD and is digital/analog converted before the signal obtained in this way is transmitted as a radio message FN via a radio transmitting device FSE (transmitter) to the transmitting antenna SAN or to the joint antenna ANT.
TDD telecommunications systems (Time Division Duplex) are telecommunications systems in which the transmission time frame, comprising a number of time slots, is split—preferably in the center—for the downlink transmission direction and the uplink transmission direction.
One TDD telecommunications system which has such a transmission time frame is, for example, the known DECT system (Digital Enhanced (previously: European) Cordless [Information Technology Electronics] 42 (1992) Jan./Feb. No. 1, Berlin, DE; U. Pilger “Struktur des DECT-Standards” [Structure of the DECT Standard], pages 23 to 29 in conjunction with the ESTI publication ETS 300175-1 . . . 9, October 1992 and the DECT publication from the DECT Forum, February 1997, pages 1 to 16]. The DECT system has a DECT transmission time frame with a time duration of 10 ms, consisting of 12 downlink time slots and 12 uplink time slots. For any given bidirectional telecommunications link at a given frequency in the downlink transmission direction DL and in the uplink transmission direction UL, a free time slot pair with a downlink time slot and an uplink time slot is chosen, in accordance with the DECT Standard, in which the separation between the downlink time slot and the uplink time slot, likewise in accordance with the DECT Standard, is half the length (5 ms) of the DECT transmission time frame.
FDD telecommunications system (Frequency Division Duplex) are telecommunications systems in which the time frame, comprising a number of time slots, for the downlink transmission direction is transmitted in a first frequency band, and that for the uplink transmission direction is transmitted in a second frequency band.
One FDD telecommunications system which transmits the time frame in this way is, for example, the known GSM system [Groupe Spéciale Mobile or Global System for Mobile Communications; see Informatik Spektrum [Information Spectrum] 14 (1991) June, No. 3, Berlin, DE; A. Mann: “Der GSM-Standard—Grundlage für digitale europäische Mobilfunknetze” [The GSM Standard—basis for digital European mobile radio networks], pages 137 to 152 in conjunction with the publication telekom praxis [Telecom Practice] 4/1993, P. Smolka “GSM-Funkschnittstelle—Elemente und Funktionen” [GSM radio interface—elements and functions], pages 17 to 24].
The air interface for the GSM system knows a large number of logical channels, which are referred to as bearer services, for example an AGCH channel (Access Grant CHannel), a BCCH channel (BroadCast CHannel), an FACCH channel (Fast Associated Control CHannel), a PCH channel (Paging CHannel), an RACH channel (Random Access CHannel) and a TCH channel (Traffic CHannel), whose respective function in the air interface is described, for example, in the document Informatik Spektrum [Information Spectrum] 14 (1991) June, No. 3, Berlin DE; A. Mann: “Der GSM-Standard—Grundlage für digitale europäische Mobilfunknetze” [The GSM Standard—basis for digital European mobile radio networks], pages 137 to 152 in conjunction with the publication telekom praxis [Telecom Practice] 4/1993, P. Smolka “GSM-Funkschnittstelle—Elemente und Funktionen” [GSM radio interface—elements and functions], pages 17 to 24.
Since, in particular, WCDMA/FDD operation and TDCDMA/TDD operation are intended to be used jointly for the purposes of the UMTS scenario (3rd mobile radio generation or IMT-2000), good telecommunications system performance is desirable in both the downlink direction and the uplink direction, that is to say a good bit error rate as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio.
The performance in the downlink and uplink directions is dependent, inter alia, on the channel estimation, rapid power control and detection of the format bits.
The quality of channel estimation, the functionality of rapid power control and the detection of the format bits are dependent on the numbers NPILOT, NTPC and NTFC1 and the energy in the respectively available bits.
The performance in the downlink and uplink directions may therefore be less than optimum for a chosen value triple NPILOT, NTPC and NTFC1.
If, for example, the number of NPILOT bits is too low, then too little energy is available for channel estimation. This causes “poor” channel estimation and/or a worse (higher) bit error rate in the receiver, that is to say the performance in the downlink and uplink directions is worse. A similar situation applies to NTPC bits for rapid power control and the NTFC1 bits for traffic format channel indication.
The optimum value triple is dependent on the channel bit rate, the environment (city area, rural area, hilly area, in-house), the distance between the mobile station and the base transceiver station, the load level on the WCDMA/FDD system (number of active links, disturbance by interference from adjacent cells, etc.).
Normally, the value triple NPILOT, NTPC and NTFC1 is fixed for a specific channel bit rate and cannot be varied during a link or during the handover to a different area.
According to the document ETSI STC SMG2 UMTS-L1, Tdoc SMG2 UMTS-L1 168/98: “Flexible Power Allocation for Downlink DPCCH Fields”, June 15-17, 1998, Turin, Italy, the pilot bits, the bits for rapid power control and the format bits are transmitted by the base transceiver station at a higher power level than the data bits in the DPDCH. A disadvantage in this case is that the AGC and the A/D converter for the data bits in the DPDCH channel are no longer operated at an optimum level in the receiving appliance. A further disadvantage is that the radio section in the transmitting appliance must be designed for a step-function increase/decrease in the transmitted power level. Advantageously, the number of data bits in the DPDCH channel does not change.
EP-0627827 A2 discloses a method for controlling the transmission of information streams at a variable rate in radio systems, in which available bits are allocated dynamically to the variable-rate information streams which originate from different sources in the system and which are transmitted on the same radio channel related to the same communication link, taking account of a number of system characteristics and system parameters.
In the following
The object on which the invention is based is to improve the performance of physical channels in 35 telecommunications systems using wire-free telecommunication between mobile and/or stationary transmitting/receiving appliances, as a function of the channel data transmission rate, the system environment, the system load level and the distance between the transmitting/receiving appliances, such that no circuitry changes are required to the transmitter and/or receiver in the transmitting/receiving appliances.
This object is in each case achieved by an air interface having a physical first layer (S1) of the air interface (PGM) that contains a first physical channel (DPCCH) and a second physical channel (DPDCH) in at least one time slot (ZS) of a time frame structure (ZR, MZR) of the telecommunications system for each telecommunications link which is allocated to the first layer (S1). The first channel (DPCCH) contains a first data field for channel estimation (PS)—using channel estimation data (NPILOT)—, a second data field for power control (TPCS)—using power control data (NTPC)—and a third data field for traffic format channel indication (TFCIS)—using traffic format channel indication data (NTFC1). Furthermore, the second channel (DPDCH) contains a user data field (NDS) with user data (NDATA, NDATA1, NDATA2) A second layer (S2) which is responsible for data security and/or a third layer (S3) which is responsible for switching, of the air interface (PGM) each contain control means (STM) which are designed to access the physical channels (DPCCH, DPDCH) such that the distribution of the data (NPILOT, NTPC/NTFC1) in the data fields (PS, TPCS, TFCIS) during the telecommunications link can be varied in the uplink and/or downlink telecommunications directions, by adaptation to characteristics of the telecommunications link. This is done while the amount of data in the user data field (NDS) and the total amount of data per time slot (ZS) remain constant.
The present invention proposes an air interface in which the number of NPILOT bits, NTPC bits and NTFC1 bits is in each case variable and in which, particularly while there is an active or passive telecommunications link between mobile and/or stationary transmitting/receiving appliances in the telecommunications system, the number of NPILOT bits, NTPC bits and NTFC1 bits can in each case be varied and optimized adaptively by control means, for example by suitable “layer 2” or “layer 3” signaling (“layer 2/3” signaling) which takes place, for example, via the DPDCH channel.
The distribution of the data, of the NPILOT bits, NTPC bits and NTFC1 bits, in the DPCCH channel can be varied by adaptation to characteristics of the telecommunications link, during the telecommunications link in the uplink and/or downlink telecommunications directions, with the amount of data in the DPDCH channel remaining constant and the amount of data per time slot remaining constant. The variation can in this case also be carried out to such an extent that at least one bit type of said bits temporarily (for example for the duration of the corresponding telecommunications link) does not occur in the DPCCH channel, that is to say the number of corresponding bits in the DPCCH channel is equal to zero. In another embodiment of the present invention, the distribution of the data, of the NPILOT bits, NTPC bits and NTFC1 bits, in the DPCCH channel can be varied during the telecommunications link in the uplink and/or downlink telecommunications directions by increasing the total amount of data per time slot.
This increase can be achieved in an advantageous manner in that the total amount of data per time slot is increased by reducing the spread factor.
Furthermore, in another embodiment of the present invention, the distribution of the data, of the NPILOT bits, NTPC bits and NTFC1 bits, in the DPCCH channel can be varied during the telecommunications link in the downlink telecommunications direction with the total amount of data per time slot remaining constant, in that some of the NPILOT bits, NTPC bits and NTFC1 bits in the DPCCH channel are allocated to the DPDCH channel, or some of the user bits (user data) in the DPDCH channel are allocated to the DPCCH channel.
Accordingly it is possible to increase or to decrease the number of NPILOT bits, NTPC bits and NTFC1 bits by omitting or adding user bits or user data in the DPDCH channel.
Other embodiments of the present invention are based on the general fundamental idea, of making use of the fact and the circumstance that, in accordance with International Application PCT/DE98/02894, estimated channel impulse responses are correlated with one another, with the extent of correlation itself being correlated with the relative movement (slow or fast) of the mobile transmitting/receiving appliance or of the mobile station—(during slow movement, there is a strong correlation between the estimated channel impulse responses, while during fast movement there is a weak correlation between the estimated channel impulse responses)—and can be detected by the stationary and/or the mobile transmitting/receiving appliance, in that, for example, channel impulse responses from previous time slots are estimated by the stationary and/or the mobile transmitting/receiving appliance.
The present invention offers the advantage that—when a mobile transmitting/receiving appliance (a mobile station) is moving very slowly at a speed of less than 3 km/h (for example a data terminal with remote e-mail access) and when the channel estimation can be considerably improved on the basis of the above general basic considerations—the number of NPilot bits can be reduced without noticeably adversely affecting the quality of channel estimation. In this case, the number of NTFC1 bits for traffic format channel indication and/or the number of NTPC bits for rapid power control can be increased. Overall, this improves the performance of the telecommunications system both in the downlink direction and in the uplink direction.
This offers the advantage that—when, taking account of the above general basic considerations, a mobile transmitting/receiving appliance (a mobile station) is moving very fast at a speed of more than 150 km/h and when the rapid power control can no longer compensate for the Rayleigh fading (rapid fading, essentially caused by the movement of the mobile station) and, in consequence, only the log normal fading can still be controlled (slow fading, essentially caused by shadowing effects), in which case the log normal fading can be controlled using a considerably lower bit rate than that for rapid power control—the NTPC bits, for example, for rapid power control are now transmitted only in every tenth time slot. The NTPC bits for rapid power control are omitted in the other time slots. Additional NPILOT bits for channel estimation and/or NTFC1 bits for traffic format channel indication are then transmitted for this purpose.
Furthermore, the present invention offers the additional advantage that when a mobile transmitting/receiving appliance (a mobile station) is initially moving very slowly, the number of NPILOT bits, of NTFC1 bits and of NTPC bits used in this development is in each case used initially and that when—the mobile transmitting/receiving appliance (the mobile station) starts to move faster and faster, the number of NPilot bits, of NTFC1 bits and of NTPC bits used in this development is in each case used once a predetermined speed, for example 100 km/h, has been exceeded.
The inventions are explained using an exemplary embodiment and with reference to FIG. 7.
That shows a modified microprocessor μP′ with a modified program module PGM′, based on the microprocessor μP illustrated in
Furthermore, it is possible for the control means STM to be designed in such a way and to access the physical channels DPCCH, DPDCH in layer 1 in such a way that
Although various minor changes and modifications might be proposed by those skilled in the art, it will be understood that our wish is to include within the claims of the patent warranted hereon all such changes and modifications as reasonably come within our contribution to the art.
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|U.S. Classification||370/465, 370/342, 370/442, 370/522, 370/524, 370/498, 370/479, 370/468, 370/335, 370/469, 370/441, 370/538|
|International Classification||H04L1/00, H04J3/12, H04W92/06, H04J3/16, H04B7/216, H04B7/26|
|Cooperative Classification||H04L1/0025, H04L1/0007|
|European Classification||H04L1/00A3L, H04L1/00A9A|
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