US RE41433 E1 Abstract A signal scrambling method is provided for peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction of STBC MIMO-OFDM signals in a MIMO-OFDM system having Y transmit antenna. In general terms the OFDM sequence of symbols in said signal for each transmit antenna is divided into M sub-blocks of equal size and subclockwisesubblockwise rotation and inversions are performed across all transmit antennas to generate [2Y]
^{M }permuted sequence sets from the original OFDM sequence. Based on a predetermined criteria, there is then selected from the resulting sets of OFDM sequences the one with the best PAPR properties for transmission. The predetermined criteria preferably comprises identifying maximums for all [2Y]^{M }sequence sets, by calculating the largest PAPR value of Y sequences in each set and selecting a set with the minimum maximum for transmission.Claims(6) 1. A signal scrambling method for peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction of STBCmultiple-
input multiple-output orthogonal frequency divisional multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) signals in a MIMO-OFDM system having Y transmit antennas, comprising:
dividing the OFDM sequence of symbols in said signal for each transmit antenna into M sub-blocks of equal size and performing subclockwisesubblockwise rotation and inversions across all transmit antennas to generate [2Y]
^{M }permuted sequence sets from the original OFDM sequence; and based on aat least one predetermined criteriacriterion, selecting from the resulting said sets of OFDM sequences the one with the best PAPR property for transmission.
2. A method in accordance with
^{M }sequence sets, by calculating the largest PAPR value of Y sequences in each set and selecting a set with the minimum maximum for transmission.3. A method in accordance with
antenna rotation and inversion (CARI) is performed on the first subblock for each antenna to obtain a first set of transmit sequences, the PAPR being calculated for all sequences in said first set and the set with the smallest maximum PAPR being retained; and successively performing the same procedure for successive of said sub-blocks across all transmit antennas, whereby the number of permutations considered is reduced, the PAPR is gradually reduced, and wherein the final resulting sequence is selected for transmission.4. A method in accordance with
5. A method in accordance with
6. A method in accordance with
OFDM signals are space-time block-coded (STBC) MIMO-OFDM signals. Description This application claims priority from U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/634,236, filed Dec. 8, 2004. The United States government may hold license and/or other rights in this invention as a result of financial support provided by governmental agencies in the development of aspects of the invention. This invention relates generally to multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) for high performance 4G broadband wireless communications, and more specifically relates to large peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction by a scheme of cross-antenna rotation and inversion (CARI), which thus utilizes additional degrees of freedom by employing multiple antennas, while requiring a limited amount of side information. One main disadvantage of MIMO-OFDM is that the signals transmitted on different antennas might exhibit a prohibitively large peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). Peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction schemes have been proposed for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. Among them, signal scrambling methods are attractive since OFDM signals are modified without distortion to present better PAPR properties with a relatively low complexity. In MIMO-OFDM systems it would appear that a straightforward way for PAPR reduction would be to apply existing schemes proposed for OFDM systems separately on each transmit antenna. In accordance with the present invention a method is applied to a MIMO-OFDM system based on cross-antenna rotation and inversion (CARI). While requiring only a small amount of side information, this scheme fully utilizes additional degrees of freedom provided by employing multiple transmit antennas. Based on two of the coinventors' previous work [M. Tan and Y. Bar-Ness, “OFDM Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction by Combined Symbol Rotation and Inversion with Limited Complexity” Proc IEEE GLOBECOM, pp. 605-610, Dec. 2003] two suboptimal schemes termed successive suboptimal CARI (SS-CARI) and random suboptimal (RS-CARI) are also disclosed. These schemes provide a good compromise between performance and complexity. Compared with the concurrent SLM scheme proposed in [Yung-Lyul Lee et al., “Pea-to-Average Power Ratio in MIMO-OFDM Systems using Selective Mapping.” IEEE Commun. Lett. vol. 7, pp 575-577, December 2003], the new schemes provide significant performance advantage, particularly with small number of subblocks. In the drawings appended hereto: By means of the invention a signal scrambling method is provided for peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction of STBC MIMO-OFDM signals in a MIMO-OFDM system having Y transmit antenna. In general terms the OFDM sequence of symbols in said signal for each transmit antenna is divided into M sub-blocks of equal size and subclockwisesubblockwise rotation and inversions are performed across all transmit antennas to generate [2Y] For simplicity, a MIMO-OFDM system with two transmit antennas and orthogonal space-time block coding (STBC) is considered here. With OFDM modulation, a block of N In MIMO-OFDM systems, two basic signaling modes can be employed, namely spatial multiplexing, which aims at increasing the data rate by spatially multiplexing independent data streams and spatial diversity coding, which exploits the spatial degrees of freedom (at the cost of rate) to improve link reliability. For simplicity, we consider a STBC MIMO-OFDM system [K. F. Lee and D. B. Williams, “A Space-Time Coded Transmitter Diversity Technique for Frequency Selective Fading Channels” Proc. IEEE Sensor Array and Multichannel Signal Processing Workshop, pp. 149-152, 2000] that employs Alamouti scheme [S. M. Alamouti, “A Simple Transmit Diversity Technique for Wireless Communications,” IEEE J. Select Areas Commun., vol. 16, pp. 1451-1458, October 1998]. This scheme can easily be extended to STBC with more than 2 transmit antennas. During the first symbol period, two OFDM symbols X It is not difficult to prove that X After performing the PAPR reduction on X A straightforward way of reducing PAPR would be to apply the combined symbol rotation and inversion (CSRI) scheme, proposed for OFDM systems in [M. Tan and Y. Bar-Ness, “OFDM Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction by Combined Symbol Rotation and Inversion with Limited Complexity” Proc IEEE GLOBECOM, pp. 605-610, December 2003], on each antenna separately. CSRI was proved in that publication to be an effective signal scrambling algorithm for OFDM PAPR reduction, which performs symbol rotation (cyclic shift) and inversion (changing signal signs) on the original OFDM symbols. However, it is clear that the amount of side information, needed for sequence descrambling at the receiver, increases proportionally with the number of antennas causing spectral inefficiency. Furthermore, such an approach does not utilize all available degrees of freedom produced by additional transmit antennas. This motivates the method of the present invention that we term cross-antenna rotation and inversion (CARI) depicted in FIG. In [Yung-Lyul Lee et al., op. cit.] besides implementing permutation differently than rotation and inversion as in [M. Tan and Y. Bar-Ness, op. cit.], a criterion of minimum average (minaverage) was proposed, by which, out of all permutated sequence sets, the one with the smallest average PAPR is selected for transmission. Here, we use a minimum maximum (minimax) criterion instead. For each of 4 As was pointed out in [Yung-Lyul Lee et al., op. cit.], by transmitting the same side information on different antennas, spatial diversity can be obtained ensuring higher reliability of side information. Furthermore, operating rotation and inversion on the OFDM subblocks transmitted on all antennas produce higher degrees of freedom to offset the possibility of encountering poor sequences with high PAPR. However, to find the optimal sequences, the number of permutations is still large, which motivates a search of more practical suboptimal solutions. In the SS-CARI scheme, we first perform CARI on subblocks X With the RS-CARI scheme, we first produce a random matrix of dimension V×M, expressed as
By performing permutations on the M subblocks based on this randomly generated table, V different sequence sets can be produced and we choose the set {{tilde over (X)} In the results which follow, 10 There are several observations that can be made from these plots. Firstly, the proposed SS-CARI scheme for M=4 and minimax criterion achieves significantly better performance than the concurrent SLM scheme with the minaverage criterion proposed in [Yung-Lyul Lee et al., op. cit.]. To keep a similar complexity, in the concurrent SLM schemes, the OFDM sequences are also divided into M subblocks. Then for each subblock, instead of performing CARI, 4 phase weighting factors from the set {±1,±j} are employed to produce 4 different sets. The minimax criterion applied on the concurrent SLM scheme still performs worse than SS-CARI due to not utilizing additional degrees of freedom provided by multiple transmit antennas. Secondly, as anticipated, the minaverage criteria used in [Yung-Lyul Lee et al., op. cit.], is always outperformed by the proposed minimax criterion. Thirdly, it can be noticed from the figure that the performance of SS-CARI and concurrent SLM becomes similar for larger number of subblocks employed, e.g., M=16. However, the minimax criterion still retains significant advantage over the minaverage criterion. We also emphasize that with the CARI schemes, no complex multiplication is required for each permutation, hence, it has a lower complexity than the concurrent SLM scheme. In summary, the method of CARI as disclosed herein not only reduces the amount of side information, but also effectively utilizes the additional degrees of freedom provided by employing multiple antennas. Furthermore, by using a minimax criterion, it achieves significantly better performance than with the minaverage criterion. Compared with the concurrent SLM scheme [Yung-Lyul Lee et al., op. cit.], the presently disclosed methods present significant performance advantages with a lower computational complexity. While the present invention has been described in terms of specific embodiments thereof, it will be understood in view of the present disclosure, that numerous variations upon the invention are now enabled to those skilled in the art, which variations yet reside within the scope of the present teaching. Accordingly, the invention is to be broadly construed, and limited only by the scope and spirit of the claims now appended hereto. Patent Citations
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