Publication number | USRE41445 E1 |

Publication type | Grant |

Application number | US 10/875,091 |

Publication date | Jul 20, 2010 |

Filing date | Jun 22, 2004 |

Priority date | May 31, 1996 |

Fee status | Paid |

Also published as | CN1166160C, CN1198283A, DE69738288D1, DE69738288T2, EP0843934A1, EP0843934B1, US6546099, US20020159585, WO1997045995A1 |

Publication number | 10875091, 875091, US RE41445 E1, US RE41445E1, US-E1-RE41445, USRE41445 E1, USRE41445E1 |

Inventors | Cornelis P. Janse |

Original Assignee | Koninklijke Philips Electronics, N.V. |

Export Citation | BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan |

Patent Citations (27), Non-Patent Citations (1), Referenced by (2), Classifications (13), Legal Events (2) | |

External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet | |

US RE41445 E1

Abstract

In an acoustic echocanceller (**6**), an estimate of an echo signal is determined by an adaptive filter (**10**) and is subtracted from the input signal by a subtracter (**14**). The spectrum estimator (**12**) determines the frequency spectrum of the estimate of the echo signal, and the filter (**16**) filters the output signal of the subtracter (**14**) with a filter having a transfer function dependent on the spectrum determined by the estimator (**12**). The use of this combination results in a substantial improvement of the suppression of the echo signal.

Claims(11)

1. An arrangement for suppressing an interfering component in an input signal, said arrangement comprising:

a selection from singular and plural means for deriving ana summed estimate of the interfering component,;

subtraction means for determining a difference signal from the input signal and an interfering estimate selected from the summed estimate of the interfering component and a sum estimate of at least two interfering components, ;

means for determining an estimate of the frequency spectrum of the summed estimate of the interfering component and an estimate of the frequency spectrum of the sununed interfering components, ;

a filter having an input for receiving said difference signal and an output for an output signal being an estimate of said input signal substantially free of said interfering component, and having a selectable transfer function relating said output to said input of the filter, which transfer function is reduced in value for at least one frequency range for suppressing spectral components of the output signal having a strong contribution from the interfering component, ; and

means for setting the transfer function of the filter in dependence on the estimate of the frequency spectrum of the summed estimate of the interfering component and the estimate of the frequency spectrum of the summed interfering components to thereby define the at least one frequency range.

2. The arrangement according to claim 1 , wherein the means for determining an estimate of the frequency spectrum of the interfering component is arranged for deriving the estimate of the frequency spectrum of the interfering component from the estimate of the interfering component.

3. The arrangement according to claim 2 , wherein the filter has a transfer function having an absolute value dependent on the difference of the amplitude of the frequency of the frequency spectrum of the estimate of the interfering component.

4. The arrangement according to claim 3 ,

wherein the means for determining an estimate of the frequency spectrum of the interfering component is arranged for determining the frequency of at least one peak in the frequency spectrum, and

wherein the filter is arranged for attentuationattenuating spectral components in a frequency range around the frequency of the at least one peak.

5. The arrangement according to one of the claim 2 ,

wherein the means for determining an estimate of the frequency spectrum of the interfering component is arranged for determining the frequency of at least one peak in the frequency spectrum, and

wherein the filter is arranged for attenuating spectral components in a frequency range around the frequency of the at least one peak.

6. The arrangement according to claim 1 , wherein the filter has a transfer function having an absolute value dependent on the difference of the amplitude of the frequency of the frequency spectrum of the estimate of the interfering component.

7. The arrangement according to claim 6 ,

wherein the means for determining an estimate of the frequency spectrum of the interfering component is arranged for determining the frequency of at least one peak in the frequency spectrum, and

wherein the filter is arranged for attentuatingattenuating spectral components in a frequency range around the frequency of the at least one peak.

8. The arrangement according to claim 1 ,
wherein the means for determining an estimate of the frequency spectrum of the interfering component is arranged for determining the frequency of at least one peak in the frequency spectrum, and

wherein the filter is arranged for attentuatingattenuating spectral components in a frequency range around the frequency of the at least one peak.

9. A loudspeaking telephone comprising an arrangement according to claim 1 .

10. An arrangement for suppressing an interfering component in an input signal, said arrangement comprising:
*a first filter configured to output an estimate of the interfering component; * *a subtractor configured to subtract the estimate of the interfering component from the input signal to output a difference signal; * *a second filter configured to receive the difference signal and output an output signal, said output signal being an estimate of said input signal substantially free of said interfering component; * *wherein said second filter has a selectable transfer function configured to suppress spectral components associated with the interfering component; and * *an analyzer configured to receive the estimate of the interfering component and output a control signal for setting the transfer function of the second filter, said control signal being related to a frequency spectrum of the estimate of the interfering component.*

11. The arrangement of claim 10 , further comprising:
*a third filter configured to receive an interfering signal having a second interfering component and to output a further estimate of the second interfering component; and * *an adder configured to add the estimate of the interfering component and the further estimate to form an overall estimate of interfering components for input to said second filter and to said analyzer.*

Description

1. Field of the Invention

The present invention is related to an arrangement for suppressing an interfering component in an input signal, said arrangement comprises means for deriving an estimate of the interfering component, subtraction means for determining a difference signal from the input signal and the estimate of the interfering component.

The present invention is also related to a loudspeaking telephone.

2. Description of the Related Art

An arrangement according to the preamble is known from U.S. Pat. No. 5,390,250.

This arrangement has widespread applications such as acoustic echo cancellers and noise cancellers. In these application there is an input signal in which an interfering component is present.

This interfering component can e.g. be a signal received from the far end in a loudspeaking telephone system. This far end signal is reproduced by a loudspeaker and is received by a microphone together with the near end signal e.g. from a local speaker. The input signal is now a signal derived from the output signal of the microphone. Because amplifiers are included in the transmit path, the loop gain for a specific frequency may be greater than 1, resulting in oscillations. If the acoustic feedback is smaller than 1, oscillation will not occur, but after a certain delay an echo of the signal applied to the input of the send path will appear at the output of the receive path via the far-end echo path. In telephony this means that a speaker hears his own voice delayed by a specific period of time. This phenomenon is experienced as extremely annoying especially in case of long delays.

To prevent this undesired feedback, in an acoustic echo canceller a replica of the undesired component is derived from the far end signal by means of an adaptive filter. Said replica is subtracted from the input signal, in order to eliminate the undesired component signal.

In case of a noise cancelling system the undesired component is a noise signal coming from a noise source, e.g. the noise of a running engine in a car. To eliminate the noise signal, a replica of the noise signal is derived from a reference noise signal received from a reference transducer by means of an adaptive filter. Again, this replica is subtracted from the input signal.

A problem with adaptive filters is the limited ability to track fast changes of the transfer function to be reproduced. Such a fast change can occur due to the movement of a person in the room in which the echo canceller or noise canceller is used. This can result into a reduced amount of suppression of the undesired component, a problem that is not satisfactorily solved up to now.

The object of the present invention is to provide an arrangement according to the preamble in which the ability to cope with changes in the transfer function to be reproduced by the adaptive filter has been drastically been improved.

Therefore the arrangement according to the invention is characterised in that the arrangement comprises means for determining an estimate for the frequency spectrum of the interfering component, and in that the arrangement comprises a filter having a reduced transfer function for at least one frequency range in dependence on the frequency spectrum of the interfering component.

By determining the frequency spectrum of the interfering component and by the use of a filter for selectively attenuating the frequency ranges corresponding to the frequency determined, an additional suppression of the interfering component is obtained. Experiments have shown surprisingly that the use of the above mentioned filter has almost no perceptual effect on the desired component of the input signal. Also these experiments revealed that the additional suppression of the undesired component, allows very rapid changes in the transfer function to be reproduced without hardly any perceptual effect.

An embodiment of the invention is characterised in that the filter is arranged for deriving an output signal from the difference signal.

If the filter is arranged for deriving the output signal in dependence on the difference signal, the operation of the means for deriving the replica of the undesired component is fully decoupled from the filtering operation. This has as advantage that the convergence properties of the means for deriving the replica of the undesired component are independent of the additional filtering.

A further embodiment of the invention is characterised in that the means for determining an estimate for the frequency spectrum of the interfering component are arranged for deriving the estimate for the frequency spectrum of the interfering component from the estimate of the interfering component.

At the output of the means for estimating the interfering component generally a good estimate of said interfering component is present. Using this signal for the determination of the frequency spectrum, results in a reliable estimation of said frequency spectrum.

A further embodiment of the invention is characterised in that the filter has a transfer function having an absolute value dependent on the difference of the amplitude of the frequency of the frequency spectrum of the input signal and the amplitude of the frequency spectrum of the estimate of the interfering component.

An easy way of deriving the transfer function of the filter is the subtraction of the estimate of the amplitude spectrum of the undesired component from the amplitude spectrum of the input signal. This subtraction operation is normally performed in the frequency domain, but the present invention is not limited thereto.

A very simple embodiment of the invention is characterised in that the means for determining an estimate for the frequency spectrum of the interfering component are arranged for determining the frequency of at least one peak in the frequency spectrum, and in that the filter is arranged for attenuating components in a frequency range around the frequency of the at least one peak.

The frequency peak or peaks can e.g. be determined by calculation of linear prediction parameters. The filter can have a transfer function being dependent on the prediction parameters.

The invention will now be explained with reference to the drawings. Herein shows:

In the echo canceller according to **6**. In the arrangement **6**, the signal x[k] is applied to an input of an amplifier **2** and to an input of the means for deriving an estimate of the interfering component, said means being here an adaptive filter **10**. The output of the amplifier **2** is connected to an input of a loudspeaker **4**.

The output of a microphone, carrying the input signal z[k] of the arrangement, is coupled to a first input of a subtracter **14**. The output of the adaptive filter **10** is connected to a second input of the subtracter **14**, and to an input of the means for determining an estimate of the frequency spectrum of the interfering signal, further to be referred to as spectrum determining means **12**. The output of the subtracter **14** is coupled to an input of a filter **16**. The output of the spectrum determination means **12** is connected to a control input of the filter **16**. At the output of the filter **16** an estimate r′[k] of the signal s[k] is available.

In the echo canceller according to **4**. The adaptive filter **10** is arranged for deriving a replica ê[k] of the signal e[k]. This is in general done by choosing the coefficients of the adaptive filter for minimising the correlation between the signal r[k] and the signal x[k]. There exist several well known time domain algorithms for adjusting the coefficients of the adaptive filter, such as the LMS (Least Mean Square) algorithm, the NLMS (Normalised Least Mean Square) algorithm and the RLS (Recursive Least Square) algorithm. It is also possible that the adaptive filter operates in the frequency domain.

The spectrum determining means **12** determine the frequency spectrum of the output signal of the adaptive filter **10**. From this frequency spectrum, the setting for the filter **16** is determined. The filter **16** is arranged for suppressing the spectral components of the output signal of the subtracter having a strong contribution from the interfering signal. It is conceivable that the input of the spectrum determining means is connected to the input of the adaptive filter **10** instead to its output, because the signal x[k] is also a reasonable estimate for the interfering component in the input signal. It is also possible that the estimate for the interfering component is made during the absence of the signal s[k]. In this case a speech activity detector has to be added to the arrangement. With respect to the position of the filter **16** it is observed that it is possible that the filter **16** is present between the microphone **8** and the subtracter **14**.

In the noise canceller according to **20**, carrying output signal z[k], is connected to a first input of a signal processing arrangement **28**. The signal z[k] is the input signal of the arrangement. In the arrangement **28** the signal z[k] is applied to a first input of a subtracter **38**.

An output of a microphone **22**, carrying output signal x_{1}[k] is connected to an input of an adaptive filter **30**. The output of the adaptive filter **30** is connected to a first input of an adder **36**. An output of a microphone **24**, carrying output signal x_{2}[k] is connected to an input of an adaptive filter **32**. The output of the adaptive filter **32** is connected to a second input of the adder **36**. An output of a microphone **26**, carrying output signal x_{3}[k] is connected to an input of an adaptive filter **34**. The output of the adaptive filter **34** is connected to a third input of the adder **36**.

The output of the adder **36** is connected to a second input of the subtracter **38** and to an input of spectrum determining means **42**. The output of the subtracter **38**, carrying output signal r[k] is connected to an input of a filter **40**. an output of the spectrum determination means **24** is connected to a control input of the filter **40**. At the output of the filter the signal r′[k] substantially free from the interfering component is available.

The noise canceller according to **20**, **22**, **24** and **26**. The microphone **20** is the primary microphone intended for receiving signals from a desired speaker. The microphones **22**, **24** and **26** may be assigned to competing speakers whose speech is not to be passed to the output, but the microphones **22**, **24** and **26** may also be reference microphones for receiving the interfering signal at three different positions in space. It goes without saying that the present invention is not limited to the application of three microphones for receiving the interfering signal. One microphone for receiving the interfering signal can be sufficient, but adding more microphones can improve the performance of the noise canceller. Each of the microphones **22**, **24** and **26** is followed by an adaptive filter **30**, **32** and **34** respectively. The combined signal y[k] derived from the output signals from the three adaptive filters **30**, **32** and **34** is subtracted from the signal z[k] by the subtracter **38**. The adaptive filters **30**, **32** and **34** are individually adapted in order to minimise the correlation between the output signal of the subtracter **38** and its respective input signal. The same algorithms as in the adaptive filter **10** in **42** determine the frequency spectrum of the output signal of the adder **36**. The determined frequency spectrum is used to control the filter **40** for additional suppression of the interfering component in the output signal of the subtracter **38**.

**20**, **22**, **24** and **26** for use in an arrangement according to FIG. **2**. This arrangement is suitable for a plurality of speakers. Due to the directivity of each of the microphones, the microphones **22**, **24**, **26** only receive reflections of the signal s instead of the signal s itself. This already leads to a suppression of the interfering component in the output signal of the noise canceller. By using the adaptive filters **30**, **32** and **34** and the filter **40**, the interfering components from the other speakers is effectively suppressed as is explained above.

In the implementation of the adaptive filter according to _{i}[k] is applied to an input of a frequency domain adaptive filter **50**, and to an input of a time domain programmable filter. The input signal z[k] is applied to a first input of a subtracter **58** and to a first input of a subtracter **56**. The output of the time domain programmable filter **54** is connected to a second input of the subtracter **58**. At the output of the subtracter **58**, the output signal is available.

An output of the frequency domain adaptive filter **50** is connected to a second input of the subtracter **56**. The output of the subtracter **56** is connected to a second input of the frequency domain adaptive filter **50**. A second output of the frequency domain adaptive filter is connected to an input of an Inverse Fast Fourier Transformer **52**. Said output of the frequency domain adaptive filter **50** carries the parameters of said frequency domain adaptive filter **50**. The output of the Inverse Fast Fourier Transformer is connected to an input of the time domain programmable filter **54**.

The adaptive filter **50** is realised in the frequency domain because a time-domain adaptive filter for the necessary length of the impulse response is of much greater complexity than a frequency-domain adaptive filter. In addition, a time-domain adaptive filter has the disadvantage that adapting its impulse response of the echo path for signals having a strong auto correlation takes much longer than for a frequency-domain adaptive filter for which a decorrelation that is simple to implement is used, introducing such decorrelation into a time-domain adaptive filter would involve much greater complexity.

In the frequency domain filter **50**, blocks of samples of the signals x_{i}[k] and r″[k] are subjected to an orthogonal transform e.g. a Fast Fourier Transform to obtain the signals X_{i}[p,m] and R″[p;m], in which p is the normalised frequency, and m is the block number. In the frequency-domain filter **50** the correlation measure X_{i}*[p;m]·R″[p;m] is calculated. Subsequently the frequency-domain coefficients W[p;m] of the filter **50** are updated according to the LMS algorithm. For the frequency-domain coefficients can be written:

W[p;m]=W[p;m−1]+μ[p;m]·X_{i}*[p;m]·R″[p;m] (1)

In (1) μ is a gain factor which may be dependent on the power of X_{i}[p;m]. The actual filtering takes place by multiplying the signal X_{i}[p;m] by the coefficients W[p;m] Subsequently the filtered signal is subjected to an Inverse Fast fourier transform to obtain the time-domain filtered signal to be applied to the second input of the subtracter **56**. The frequency domain coefficients from the adaptive filter **50** are transformed into time-domain filter coefficients. These time domain filter coefficients are applied to the time-domain programmable filter **54**, which actually determines the replica of the interfering component. The filter **9** is realised in the time domain because the signal to be filtered is not subjected to an additional delay in contradistinction to a frequency domain adaptive filter in which a certain additional delay is unavoidable.

In the combination of the means **12** for estimating the frequency spectrum of the interfering component and the filter **16** according to **60**. The output of the window processor **60** is connected to an input of an Fast Fourier Transformer **62**. The combination of the window processor **60** and the Fast Fourier transformer **62** constitutes the means for determining an estimate of the frequency spectrum of the interfering component. The output of the Fast Fourier Transformer is connected to an amplitude detector **64**, the output of the amplitude detector **64** is connected to a first input of a calculator **78**.

The signal r[k] is applied to an input of a window processor **66**. The output of the window processor **66** is connected to an input of a Fast Fourier transformer **68**. The output of the Fast Fourier Transformer **68** is connected to an input of an amplitude detector **74** and to a second input of the calculator **78**. The output of the amplitude detector **74** is connected to a third output of the calculator **78**.

The signal z[k] is applied to a window processor **70**. The output of the window processor **70** is connected to an input of an Fast Fourier Transformer **72**. The output of the Fast Fourier Transformer **72** is connected to an amplitude detector **76**. The output of the amplitude detector **76** is connected to a fourth input of the calculator **78**.

The output of the calculator **78** is connected to an input of an Inverse Fast Fourier transformer **80**. At the output of the Inverse Fourier Transformer **80** the output signal r′[k] is available.

In the window processor **66**, the most recent block of 128 samples of the signal r[k] is placed together with the most recent block but one of 128 samples into a buffer memory of 256 samples. The content of the buffer memory is windowed with a so-called Hanning window. Subsequently the most recent block of 128 samples of the signal r[k] is stored for used in the next window operation, and the most recent block but one of 128 samples is discarded. The operation of the window processors **60** and **70** is the same as the operation of the window processor **66**.

The Fast Fourier Transformers **62**, **68** and **72** calculate a 256 points FFT from their respective input signals to obtain the signals Y(ω), R(ω) and Z(ω). The amplitude detectors **64**, **74** and **76** determine the amplitude of the frequency spectrum according to:

Y_{a}(ω)=|

R

Z

In (2), (3) and (4) {x} indicates the real part of x, and {x} indicates the imaginary part of x. The approximation of the amplitude of the frequency spectra according to (2), (3) and (4) is used to simplify the calculations.

The calculator **78** starts with calculating a first estimate of the amplitude of the frequency spectrum of the signal S. A possible expression for the amplitude spectrum S_{a }of S is:

S_{a}(ω)=MAX[0,(Z_{a}−γ(Y_{a}(ω))^{α})^{β}] (5)

In (5) α and β are constants normally having a value between 0.5 and 2. γ is a constant having a value around 1 or larger than 1. A suitable value is 1.5. The MAX function is introduced in (5) for preventing the amplitude spectrum to assume negative values. Experiments have shown that simplification of (5) by choosing α and β equal to 1 does not result in any audible degradation. Consequently (5) changes into:

S_{a}(ω)=Max[0,Z_{a}(ω)−γ·Y_{a}(ω)] (6)

In order to reduce the filtering action according to (6) in cases the adaptive filter **10** provides sufficient suppression of the interfering component, a spectral floor is introduced in (6) according to:

∀ω:S_{a}(ω)=MAX[S_{a}(ω),C·Z_{a}(ω)] (7)

In (7) C is a constant having a value around 0.003. Because the amplitude spectrum R′(ω)≈S(ω) of the filtered signal r′[k] is equal to H(ω)·R_{a}(ω), for H(ω) can be written: H(ω)=S_{a}(ω)/R_{a}(ω). In order to limit the maximum value of H(ω), H(ω) is made equal to MIN(1, S_{a}(ω)/R_{a}(ω)). Before H(ω) is used to filter the signal r[k], a smoothed version of H(ω) is derived according to: In (8) m is the block number and μ is a constant with value of 0.7.

H_{m}(ω)=μH_{m-1}(ω)+(1−μ)H(ω) (8)

The frequency spectrum of the signal r′[k] is now determined from:

R′(ω)=R(ω)·H_{m}(ω) (9)

The output signal of the calculator **78** is transformed into the time domain by the 256 points Inverse Fourier transform **80**. The first 128 points of the Inverse FFT are added to the final 128 points of the Inverse FFT previously calculated. The final 128 points of the present Inverse FFT are stored for combination with the first 128 points of the next IFFT to be calculated.

In the arrangement **5**, the signal Y_{a}(ω) is determined directly from the output signal y[k] of the adaptive filter **10**. However it is possible to obtain an even better estimation of Y_{a}(ω) Normally the length of the impulse response of the adaptive filter will be limited. Consequently the echo signal present in the signal z[k] will show a tail being not reproduced by the adaptive filter. However, it is possible to include this tail in the estimation of Y_{a}(ω) as will be explained below.

For the amplitude spectrum Y_{a}(ω) of the echo signal can be written:

Y_{a}(ω)=Y_{af}(ω)+Y_{tail}(ω) (10)

In (10), Y_{af}(ω) is the amplitude spectrum of the output signal of the adaptive filter, and Y_{tail}(ω) is the amplitude spectrum of the residual echo. If it is assumed that the impulse response of the echo path decreases exponentially, the amplitude spectrum of the residual echo signal can be estimated from the output signal of the adaptive filter according to:

Y_{tail}[m](ω)=α·Y_{tail}[m−1](ω)+β·Y_{af}[m−p](ω) (11)

In (11) α and β are constants, m is an index indicating subsequently determined amplitude spectra Y_{af}(ω), and p is the length of the adaptive filter expressed in a number of update periods of Y_{af}(ω). In case the signal Y is stationary, (11) can be approximated by

Y_{tail}[m](ω)=α·Y_{tail}[m−1](ω)+β·Y_{af}[m](ω) (12)

For a filter having an impulse response of 1024 samples, and if an update period of 128 samples is used for Y_{af}(ω), suitable values for α and β are 0.79 and 0.04 respectively.

In the combination of the means **12** for estimating the frequency spectrum of the interfering component and the filter **16**, the signal y[k] is applied to a linear predictive analyser **84**. This linear predictive analyser determines a plurality of prediction coefficients a[i]. The transformer arrangement **86** performs a transformation to the prediction coefficient such as a bandwidth expansion according to a′[i]=a[i]·δ^{i }in which δ is a number smaller than 1. The transformed prediction coefficients are used to control the filter **16**, in order to suppress the frequency components for which the interfering component has a substantial amount of energy. A suitable filter could have the transfer function:

In (10) p, q and μ are constants smaller than 1 and p being smaller than q. (10) is based on the inverse transfer function of a post filter used in speech coding. The object of such a post filter is to enhance the part of the spectrum in which speech components are present, and to suppress noise components in the part of the spectrum in which no speech components are present. By taking a filter with an inverse transfer function, the part of the spectrum in which no interfering component is present is enhanced, and the part of the spectrum in which a strong interfering component is present is attenuated.

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Referenced by

Citing Patent | Filing date | Publication date | Applicant | Title |
---|---|---|---|---|

US8577159 * | Sep 14, 2011 | Nov 5, 2013 | Blackberry Limited | Methods and devices for data compression with adaptive filtering in the transform domain |

US20120063691 * | Sep 14, 2011 | Mar 15, 2012 | Research In Motion Limited | Methods and devices for data compression with adaptive filtering in the transform domain |

Classifications

U.S. Classification | 379/406.01, 379/406.03, 379/406.05, 379/406.12, 379/406.07 |

International Classification | H04B1/12, H04R3/02, H04M1/60, H04B1/10, H04B3/23, H04M9/08 |

Cooperative Classification | H04M9/082 |

European Classification | H04M9/08C |

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