|Publication number||USRE41466 E1|
|Application number||US 12/316,364|
|Publication date||Aug 3, 2010|
|Filing date||Dec 11, 2008|
|Priority date||Sep 20, 2001|
|Also published as||CA2435321A1, CA2435321C, EP1498742A1, US7148698, US20040017203|
|Publication number||12316364, 316364, US RE41466 E1, US RE41466E1, US-E1-RE41466, USRE41466 E1, USRE41466E1|
|Inventors||Thomas P. Becker, Daniel D. Lionberg, Matthew M. Crass, William G. Bruno|
|Original Assignee||Snap-On Incorporated|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (52), Classifications (11), Legal Events (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application claims the benefit of the filing date of copending U.S. Provisional Application Nos. 60/382,934, filed May 24, 2002 and 60/323,384, filed Sep. 20, 2001, the disclosures of which are both incorporated herein by reference.
This application relates to testers and, in particular, to testers for testing fused circuits, such as short circuit or grounded circuit detectors and indicators.
Many electrical systems include a plurality of fused circuits, the fuses of which are disposed in a central fuse panel or box. It is often convenient to test the circuits at the fuse panel, if it is at a relatively easily-accessible location. When testing circuits at the fuse panel, the tester is often applied to the circuit being tested, in parallel with the fuse. When testing for short circuits, however, this procedure may result in blowing the fuse.
It is known to provide circuit testers with a built-in circuit breaker, which can be connected to a fuse panel in place of a fuse for testing the fused circuit. One such device is sold by Snap-on Tools Company under the designation YA809, which is a short circuit locator. YA809 has a breaker with a single high-current rating and, when YA809 is connected to circuits having a lower current rating, this permits the flow of potentially damaging currents in the circuit being tested. Furthermore, YA809 requires the technician to be at the location of the fuse panel in order to view the provided visual indicator. This may be inconvenient, the technician may need to be elsewhere along the tested circuit while the testing is being conducted. Another diagnostic technique for locating a short or current flow path carrying a current excess is to repeatedly replace the blown fuse until the fault is located. This can waste a large number of fuses before testing is successfully completed. A more practical method of testing is to momentarily provide current flow by a resettable breaker and attempting to locate the short.
One tester model has a 30-A self-resetting thermal breaker that is installed across the blown fuse and repetitively allows current flow to the short circuit in the form of current pulses. The breaker opens after a short thermal delay and then automatically resets after cooling down. A magnetic field surrounding the shorted wiring is generated during the momentary high current pulses as a result of the repetitive breaker action. The tester includes a needle magnetic detector that deflects in response to magnetic field. By moving the magnetic detector along the wiring harness, the user is able to locate the short when the meter stops deflecting.
The tester can be difficult to use because the detector must be in close proximity to the wiring to work. Additionally, the repetition rate of the thermal breaker is on the order of tens of seconds, which causes the technician to wait a long time at a location for the thermal breaker to close in order to see if the short is in that location. Such waiting period creates difficulties when the location of short is difficult to reach. The longer duration of current pulse also causes exposure of the electrical system to a potentially damaging high level of current for a longer period during each pulse. Thermal breakers are prone to premature failure and instability in that their shut-off current depends on temperature, age and other external elements.
Another circuit tester, instead of allowing high current flow, uses high frequency AC signals transmitted into a short circuit and an associated receiver that is moved along the wiring. The tester works while power to the electrical system is either on or off. The short is located when the signal drops to zero. Thus the time taken to insure proper connection slows down locating the short. The cost of such systems is relatively high making it a less desirable tool.
Accordingly, there exists a need for a tester for electrical systems that reacts to a short circuit condition more quickly, locating electrical faults faster without subjecting the system to damaging high current flow for long periods. There is further need for a tester that can test electrical systems independent of the polarity of contacts in the circuit under test. There also exists a need for a tester that is operated by setting the breaker current limit in order to quickly find the level of current the circuit is drawing.
This application discloses an improved tester for electrical circuits, which avoids the disadvantages of prior testers, while affording additional structural and operating advantages.
There is disclosed a tester which can be plugged directly into a fuse panel in substitution for a fuse of a fused circuit.
There is further disclosed a tester which can be used for testing circuits of different current ratings without danger of exceeding the current rating of any circuit.
There is further disclosed a tester, which provides both audible and visual indications of test results.
There is further disclosed a tester which is of simple, compact and economical construction.
There is further disclosed a method of testing fused circuits without risk of blown fuses.
A switch is applied across the terminals of a fuse in a circuit under test, in which the switch is momentarily and repetitively closed to produce a short duration current pulse in the circuit, and in which the magnitude of the current pulse is compared with that of a prescribed reference current.
A method of testing an electrical system for current flow exceeding a prescribed value includes connecting a pair of contacts across a fuse holder for a fuse having a predetermined rating momentarily closing a circuit between the contacts to produce a current pulse through the electrical system, comparing the magnitude of the current pulse with a prescribed reference current value, and producing a perceptible signal when the magnitude of the current pulse exceeds that of the prescribed reference current value.
A diagnostic tester for electrical systems includes a pair of contacts for connection across a fuse holder for a fuse having a predetermined rating. A switch is controlled for momentarily closing between the contacts to produce a current pulse through the electrical system. A comparator compares the magnitude of the current pulse with a prescribed reference current value. An output device is connected for producing a perceptible signal that indicates when the magnitude of the current pulse exceeds that of the prescribed reference current value.
In one form, the current pulse is repeated until an operator identifies the location of circuit fault. The pulse duration is short enough so as not to damage the system during the current pulse. Seating test contacts in the fuse receptacle connects the pair of contacts. The tester input voltage is independent of the polarity of the connection to the pair of contacts. A potentiometer indicates and adjusts the prescribed current setting to provide a threshold proportional to the current rating of corresponding fuse.
A tester for testing an electrical system for excessive current flow includes a pair of contacts for connection across a fuse holder for a fuse having a predetermined rating. A switch is provided to momentarily close between the contacts to produce a control pulse through the electrical system. A microprocessor is programmed to momentarily close the switch to generate a current pulse through the circuit under test, compare the pulse with a prescribed reference current value and produce a perceptible signal when the magnitude of the current pulse exceeds that of the prescribed reference current value.
Momentarily closing a circuit between a pair of contacts produces a current pulse through the system. Subsequently, the electrical system is tested for current flow exceeding a prescribed value by comparing the magnitude of the current pulse with the prescribed value.
In one form, the current pulse is controlled to have a width within the range of 10-20 ms. The repetition rate of the pulse can be on the order of one pulse per second.
For the purpose of facilitating an understanding of the subject matter sought to be protected, there are illustrated in the accompanying drawings embodiments thereof, from an inspection of which, when considered in connection with the following description, the subject matter sought to be protected, its construction and operation, and many of its advantages should be readily understood and appreciated.
FIGS. 16(A) and 16(B) demonstrate the waveform of pulses generated across the fuse holder and the response generated by the circuit under test; and.
In use, the housing 21 is plugged directly into the associated fuse panel in substitution for a fuse of a circuit to be tested, in the same manner as was described above for the tester 10 of FIG. 1. It will be appreciated that the tester assembly 20 may include a plurality of breaker modules 27, respectively having different current ratings corresponding, respectively, to the different current ratings of the various fuses in a particular fuse panel or the like. Thus, for example, if the tester assembly 20 were to be used to test a circuit fused at 10 amps, a 10-amp breaker module 27 would be plugged into the socket 22. This arrangement has the advantage of being able to test circuits having a variety of different current ratings, while requiring only a single test and indicator circuit.
Referring now to
The tester assembly 40 also includes a plurality of plug adapters, three of which are illustrated and are respectively designated 51A, 51 and 51C. The adapters 51A-C are respectively provided with spade terminals 53A, 53B and 53C of different sizes for respectively plugging into different-sized fuse sockets in a fuse panel. While three of the adapters 51A-C are illustrated, it will be appreciated that any number could be provided, depending upon the number of different types of fuse panel connector terminals with which the tester assembly 40 is intended to be used. Each of the plug adapters 51A-C is also provided at the opposite end thereof with a pair of terminals 54 adapted to be plugged into the socket 50.
The tester assembly 40 also includes a plurality of breaker modules 60 (one illustrated), which are similar to the breaker modules 27 described above in connection with
The electrical system tester shown in
A perceptible alert adjustable to turn on at or above a selected current level is produced, thus indicating excessive current draw in the circuit. If the alert is not turned on, the fuse may have blown prematurely, or the short may have been intermittent or non-recurring. If a short exists, the alert pulses on and off which indicates that the circuit is drawing more current than the fuse can carry. A magnetic field is generated surrounding the shorted wiring during the momentary high current pulses. The operator moves a magnetic sensor along the wire to scan and locate the short where the sensor stops indicating current flow. Alternatively, the operator can “jiggle” the wires until the alert stops pulsing.
A potentiometer or other reference adjustment device is manually operated to adjust the amplitude of current pulses according to the current rating of the blown or removed fuse. By adjusting the potentiometer upward until the alert stops, the amount of current drawn by the circuit is indicated.
An example of a circuit diagram of the electrical system tester is shown in FIG. 14. The tester includes a pair of input terminals 220 for use across fuse holder 120, shown in FIG. 11. Resistor R1 is wired in series with a normally open contact of electromechanical relay 200. The contact momentarily and repeatedly closes to produce a short duration current pulse from an electricity source through the input terminals and the fuse holder in the electrical circuit. An input voltage develops across R1 determined by the current flow through the resistor according to Ohm's law.
The input voltage is applied to the tester circuit through full-bridge rectifier 202 comprised of diodes D1-D4 to provide a positive voltage signal through current limiting resistor R2. This input voltage is independent of direction of connection of the pair of contacts across the input terminals. That is, the use of the full-bridge rectifier allows the connection of contacts across the fuse holder be made without the need for complying with the polarity, thus speeding up the testing process. In a full-bridge rectifier, current flows through two diodes in any one direction. In case of germanium diodes, for example, the total voltage drop is approximately 0.6 volt, which is twice the 0.3-volt drop across each diode.
Capacitor C1 is connected across the rectifier terminals and is charged by the input voltage pulses through resistor R1. The network of C1-R1 provides a low-pass filter function and stores the input voltage momentarily. The stored voltage across capacitor C1 is presented to a differential amplifier circuit comprising first operational amplifier 204 and resistors R3-R6. Resistor values are chosen to provide a stage gain of −1. The operational amplifier may be a discrete component or a part of an integrated circuit with multiple amplifiers IC1 on one single chip, such as LM324. The output of this amplifier is referenced to common bus in the circuit and pulses toward the negative power supply rail, −V, synchronized with the voltage across C1.
The output from the differential amplifier is coupled through resistor R7 to a voltage comparator circuit, comprised of a second operational amplifier 206. A trip point reference, for indicating the amperage rating of the blown or removed fuse, is provided by a voltage divider circuit comprised of resistors R8-R10 and connected between circuit common and the negative power supply rail, −V. Resistor R9 is an adjustable resistor or potentiometer mounted on the front panel of the housing, for selecting the comparator trip point. As shown in
The output from the comparator is used to switch an alarm 208 when the comparator output is high. The switching is achieved by coupling the comparator output through resistor R12 to drive transistor Q1, energizing alarm 208. The alarm generates an audible alert sound to be outputted from audio alarm 186, as shown in FIG. 13. The alarm may be a lighted indicator or a device generating any humanly perceptible signal. As an example, an alarm sounder MSR-320 may be used to generate the audible alarm signal. The alarm stays on during the period that the voltage across capacitor C1 remains larger than the set-point voltage of the comparator. This time period is substantially longer than the relay contact closure to allow audible perception by the operator. A typical on-time period for the alarm may be approximately 100 milliseconds.
Further referring to
As shown in FIG. 14. the output of the oscillator drives transistor Q2 through resistor R17. The transistor is on when the output of the oscillator is low for approximately 10 milliseconds. In its ON-state, transistor Q2 energizes the coil of relay 200, thus closing the contacts arranged across a fuse holder as described above with respect to the electrical system tester. Resistor R18, shunting transistor Q2, insures that transistor Q2 is switched off as the high output of the operational amplifier falls approximately 1.5 volts below the positive supply rail, +V. Thus, contacts 220 may be momentarily and repeatedly closed as transistor Q2 switches on and off and energizes the coil of relay 200 during its ON state. Additionally, diode D7 is positioned across switch 200 and shunts inductively generated noise spikes across relay coil 200 as the current pulses are generated.
The output of operational amplifier 210 further drives an indicator device to signal the operator of the tester of the time period during which the current pulse is on. An indicator device may be a light emitting diode (LED), audio alarm or any perceptible signal. For example, as shown in
A microprocessor in lieu of discrete circuitry may be used to control the momentarily closing of the contacts across a fuse holder to produce a current pulse from an electricity source through the electrical system. An example of such system is described in
The microprocessor compares the current pulse readings from the circuit under test with the threshold rating of the fuse. If the electrical system draws more current than the threshold level, signal 320 is generated to switch an alarm on, indicating the presence of current through the electrical system above the rating of its corresponding fuse. The microprocessor is further programmed to keep the alarm on long enough for the operator to perceive the signal. The signal may be an audible, a visible signal such as an LED or both. Other indicators, similar to those described in reference to
Referring to FIG. 16(A), control pulses 400 represent the pattern of momentarily and repeatedly closing of the contacts across the fuse holder of a blown or removed fuse. The repetition rate of the pulse may be on the order of one pulse per second. Pulses are controlled to have a width within the range of 10-20 ms. Both the microprocessor of FIG. 15 and the circuit of
FIG. 16(B) shows current pulses 450, having the same frequency as control pulses 400, representing the current drawn by the electrical circuit under test from the electricity source. Current level 470 denotes a prescribed reference current value or a threshold level representing the current rating of the blown or removed fuse as set by dial 190 on the front of housing 180 shown in FIG. 13. Current pulses 460 demonstrate current drawn by the electrical circuit from the electricity source which may be in excess of threshold level 470 in the event a short circuit exists or a part of the circuit draws excessive current. The comparator circuit or the programmed microprocessor-based system compares the amplitude of pulses 460 with threshold current level 470. The tester generates a perceptible alarm upon detection of current drawn by the electrical circuit in excess of the prescribed reference current.
A magnetic detector may be used to locate a short when excessive current drawn by the electrical circuit is detected. The detector indicates a magnetic field surrounding the shorted wiring during the momentary high current pulses as a result of the repetitive switching action. An example of such magnetic sensor is described in
The electrical system tester of
The power supply unit in the described electrical system testers can have various configurations depending on the specific application. For example, the power supply can be in the form of various types of batteries capable of supplying the requisite power supply. The batteries can be conventional alkaline batteries, high quality Lithium ion batteries, or customized power cells. The batteries may be rechargeable in order to provide convenient and repeated use. Such rechargeable batteries can be in the form of Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) or Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) batteries. It should be noted however, that any other type of rechargeable battery capable of providing the requisite power output could be used in the present electrical system testers.
It is apparent that the construction of the disclosed electrical system testers can be such that a compact, hand-held and simple version of the device is provided. The testers can be constructed from materials that provide impact protection so that the tester withstands repeated falls from various heights.
The embodiments described herein can include any appropriate voltage source, such as a battery, an alternator and the like, providing any appropriate voltage, such as about 13 Volts, about 43 Volts and the like.
The embodiments described herein can be used with any desired system or engine. Those systems or engines may comprises items utilizing fossil fuels, such as gasoline, natural gas, propane and the like, electricity, such as that generated by battery, magneto, solar cell and the like, wind and hybrids or combinations thereof Those systems or engines may be incorporated into another systems, such as an automobile, a truck, a boat or ship, a motorcycle, a generator, an airplane and the like.
The described tester of
From the foregoing, it can be seen that there has been provided an improved test apparatus for testing shorted or grounded circuits, which provides both visible and audible indications and can be plugged directly into a variety of different types of fuse panels in place of a fuse of a fused circuit to be tested, while affording effective overload protection during a test.
While particular embodiments have been shown and described, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that changes and modifications may be made without departing from the principles of the testing technique in its broader aspects. The matter set forth in the foregoing description and accompanying drawings is offered by way of illustration only and not as a limitation.
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|U.S. Classification||324/550, 324/555|
|International Classification||G01R31/07, G01R31/02, H01H31/02, H01H85/30|
|Cooperative Classification||G01R31/083, G01R31/07, G01R31/006, G01R31/025|