US RE41594 E1
Disclosed are methods and apparatus for improving the resiliency and airflow through a honeycomb air vent filter while providing EMI shielding. In one embodiment, the honeycomb can be manufactured from a dielectric (e.g., plastic) substrate to provide improved resistance to deformation as compared to conventional aluminum honeycomb. The dielectric honeycomb substrate is metallized to provide EMI shielding capability. The metallized honeycomb substrate is cut slightly oversize to fit an opening in an electronic enclosure, which results in elastic deformation of resilient perimeter spring fingers that are used to hold the metallized dielectric honeycomb in place and provide electrical conductivity between the metallized dielectric substrate and the enclosure, thereby eliminating the use of a frame. In another embodiment, additional conductive layers can be added to the metallized dielectric honeycomb. In yet another embodiment, the metallized dielectric honeycomb substrate can be utilized in a framed configuration to provide improved durability.
1. A frameless vent panel adapted to shield against electromagnetic interference (EMI) comprising:
a dielectric panel having a thickness defined by a first side and a second side, and defining a plurality of apertures, said dielectric panel further having a perimeter;
a first electrically conductive layer applied to the dielectric panepanel, wherein the conductively coated dielectric panel attenuates a transfer of electromagnetic energy from the first side to the second side of the substrate ; and
a strip of compressible conductive foam material, said strip having a width substantially equal to the thickness of said dielectric panel and being wrapped around the outer perimeter thereof and substantially covering said thickness between said first side and said second side, whereby the frameless vent panel is configured to be mounted within an opening in a manner such that the strip of compressible conductive foam material around the outer perimeter of the dielectric panel is compressed.
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More than one reissue application has been filed for the reissue of U.S. Pat. No. 6,870,092. The reissue applications are application Ser. No. 11/516,803 (the present reissue application, filed Sep. 5, 2006) and application Ser. No. 12/268,250 (a divisional reissue application filed Nov. 10, 2008). This application Ser. No. 11/516,803 is a reissue of U.S. Pat. No. 6,870,092, which issued from U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/310,107 filed on Dec. 4, 2002, which, in turn, claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/336,609, filed on Dec. 4, 2001, and U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/378,886, filed on May 8, 2002, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties.
This invention relates to methods of manufacturing electromagnetic interference (“EMI”) shields and the EMI shields produced thereby.
As used herein, the term EMI should be considered to refer generally to both EMI and radio frequency interference (“RFI”) emissions, and the term electromagnetic should be considered to refer generally to electromagnetic and radio frequency.
During normal operation, electronic equipment generates undesirable electromagnetic energy that can interfere with the operation of proximately located electronic equipment due to EMI transmission by radiation and conduction. The electromagnetic energy can be of a wide range of wavelengths and frequencies. To minimize the problems associated with EMI, sources of undesirable electromagnetic energy may be shielded and electrically grounded. Shielding is designed to prevent both ingress and egress of electromagnetic energy relative to a housing or other enclosure in which the electronic equipment is disposed. Since such enclosures often include vent openings and gaps or seams between adjacent access panels and around doors, effective shielding is difficult to attain because the gaps in the enclosure permit transference of EMI therethrough. Further, in the case of electrically conductive metal enclosures, these gaps can inhibit the beneficial Faraday Case Effect by forming discontinuities in the conductivity of the enclosure which compromise the efficiency of the ground conduction path through the enclosure. Moreover, by presenting an electrical conductivity level at the gaps that is significantly different from that of the enclosure generally, the gaps can act as slot antennae, resulting in the enclosure itself becoming a secondary source of EMI.
Specialized EMI gaskets have been developed for use in shielding small gaps in electronic enclosures. These include, but are not limited to, metal spring fingers, wire mesh, fabric-over-foam, and conductive elastomers. To shield EMI effectively, the gasket should be capable of absorbing or reflecting EMI as well as establishing a continuous electrically conductive path across the gap in which the gasket is disposed.
One particularly challenging shielding issue on electronic enclosures is the ventilation opening. In many enclosures, openings that are much larger than gaps along seams and I/O ports are intentionally placed in the enclosures to facilitate the removal of heat. Without EMI shielding, the openings represent huge EMI leakage points. One common approach to shielding these areas is to use ventilation panels, also known as vent panels. Traditional vent panels consist of a metallic honeycomb material mechanically assembled into a stiff metallic frame. This assembly is then fastened to the enclosure with some type of EMI gasketing installed along the enclosure/vent panel interface. The vent panels can be used in the as-manufactured state or they can be plated. Lower cost vent panels, which are usually made of aluminum honeycomb, provide lower levels of shielding effectiveness and are not structurally robust. In applications that require a very robust vent panel, which also provides very high level of shielding effectiveness, steel or brass honeycomb is often used. These products, however, are much more expensive.
A key attribute of any vent panel is the ease of airflow through the honeycomb, because cooling capability is directly related to volume of airflow per unit of time. Also, in traditional vent panels, electrical contact is made by mechanically crimping the metal frame against the honeycomb material, such that the metal frame causes an indentation of the honeycomb material along the edge of the frame. This insures good electrical contact as long as the frame is not subjected to severe bending or torque.
Enclosures for electronic equipment use airflow to remove heat from the enclosures. Honeycomb filters can be installed in an opening on the enclosure to serve as ventilation panels. In addition, honeycomb filters also provide EMI shielding. Examples of commercially available honeycomb filters are designated “Commercial Honeycomb Ventilation Panels” and “BE 11 ALU-HONEYCOMB FILTERS” air ventilation panels manufactured by Laird Technologies, Inc. (f/k/a Instrument Specialties Co. and Advanced Performance Materials). Another example of commercially available honeycomb filters are designated RF CORE honeycomb cores manufactured by R & F Products, located in San Marcos, Calif. Other similar commercially available ventilation panels are manufactured by Tecknit located in Cranford, N.J., and Chomerics located in Woburn, Mass.
As shown in
As shown in partial cross-section in
As shown in
The vent panel 10 allows air to flow through the honeycomb substrate 12 to ventilate and cool the electronic equipment inside the enclosure 20. As electronic applications achieve higher clock speeds, and as electronic components are more compactly packed in the enclosure 20, the heat generated within the enclosure 20 increases, necessitating higher airflow. However, airflow through the vent panel 10 is limited by the pressure of the frame 14. Depending on the design of the vent panel 10, the presence of the frame 14 can reduce airflow through the opening 18 by about 5% to 15% or more. Traditional frames, with the pincher finger feature, greatly limit the ability to increase vent panel airflow due to the minimum width requirements of the frame material.
Another problem with commercially available vent panels 10 is that they are typically made of aluminum, which is not very resilient and therefore subject to damage. The lack of resiliency results in plastic deformation of the honeycomb filter due to impacts that can be encountered during assembly and field use. To ensure proper airflow after damage, cells of the honeycomb have to be reworked. The rework process is time consuming, requiring the deformed aluminum strips to be bent to open the cells. Even with rework, there is typically degradation of flow through the vent panel 10. In addition, the rework often results in an aesthetically undesirable appearance. There is a need for a honeycomb filter with improved airflow capability and improved durability.
One purpose of this invention is to provide improved durability to EMI shielding honeycomb filters. Another purpose of this invention is to provide improved airflow through EMI shielding honeycomb filters.
In one aspect, the invention relates to a vent panel adapted to shield against EMI, the vent panel including a dielectric panel having a thickness defined by a first side and a second side. The dielectric panel defines a number of apertures. The vent panel also includes a first electrically conductive layer applied to the dielectric panel. The resulting conductively coated, or metallized, dielectric panel attenuates a transfer of electromagnetic energy from a first side of the panel to a second side of the panel.
In one embodiment, the dielectric panel is formulated from a polymer, such as acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), polycarbonates, polysulfones, polyamides, and polypropylenes. In another embodiment, the dielectric panel includes a plurality of tubes or other shapes fastened together. In another embodiment, the dielectric panel includes a plurality of tubes or other shapes co-extruded together. In yet another embodiment, the dielectric panel is manufactured by injection molding.
In one embodiment, the electrically conductive layer includes a first layer selected from the group consisting of copper, nickel, tin, aluminum, silver, graphite, bronze, gold, lead, palladium, cadmium, zinc and combinations thereof. In another embodiment, the electrically conductive layer includes a second electrically conductive layer, which may consist of the same or different conductive material in electrical communication with the first electrically conductive layer.
In one embodiment, the plurality of apertures are configured as a two-dimensional array of like apertures, each aperture having a cross-sectional shape, such as a circle, a hexagon, a rectangle, etc. The vent panel includes a conductive edge extending substantially about the perimeter, being adapted for placing the vent panel into electrical communication with the chassis in which the vent panel is mounted. In some embodiments, the conductive edge also mechanically secures the vent panel within an aperture in the chassis. For example, the conductive edge can include resilient spring fingers, dimples, and combinations of these provided along a band extending about the perimeter. The resilient spring fingers and dimples compress against an opposing mating surface of the chassis upon installation, thereby providing electrical contact.
In another aspect, the invention relates to a method for manufacturing a vent panel adapted to shield against EMI. The suitably adapted vent panel is manufactured by providing a dielectric panel having a thickness defined by a first side and a second side, and defining an array of apertures. A first electrically conductive layer is applied to the dielectric panel.
In one embodiment, a first conductive layer is applied using one or more of electroless plating, radio-frequency sputtering, direct-current sputtering, or physical deposition. In some embodiments, a second electrically conductive layer is applied using the same or different plating method.
In one embodiment, the dielectric panel is provided by fastening a number of dielectric tubes together. In another embodiment, the dielectric panel is provided by co-extruding together a number of tubes. In another embodiment, the dielectric panel is provided by injection molding. And, in yet another embodiment, the dielectric panel is provided by machining.
In one embodiment, the conductively coated dielectric panel is tapered to provide a snug mechanical fit also having good electrical contact. In another embodiment, the dielectric panel is selectively cut along its edges to provide a “spring-finger” action that together with whole cells along its perimeter provides a snug fit by compressing the cells and/or portions of cells along its perimeter. In another embodiment, a conductive strap having compressible fingers and/or dimples is applied to the perimeter of the metallized dielectric vent panel such that the compressible fingers an/orand/or dimples make contact with an opposing surface, for example a chassis, thereby providing a snug mechanical fit and good electrical contact.
The above and further advantages of this invention may be better understood by referring to the following description, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:
According to the present invention, honeycomb filters used for airflow and EMI shielding can have improved airflow and durability through the use of a metallized dielectric honeycomb substrate and a frameless filter design. Metallized dielectric honeycomb substrate utilized in a reduced frame design can also be used to provide even greater durability along with increased airflow.
The dielectric honeycomb substrate 52 can be made out of any dielectric material, such as plastic. For example, some materials that can be used for the dielectric honeycomb substrate 52 are acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), polycarbonates, polysulfones, polyamides, polypropylenes, polyethylene, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Additionally, other dielectric materials may be used such as fiberglass and paper products, such as aramide (e.g., Kevlar®) sheets, and aramide fiber paper. Dielectric honeycomb substrates are commercially available. For example, Kevlar® honeycomb cores (e.g., Ultracor part no. PN UKF-85-1/4-1.5), carbon honeycomb cores (e.g., Ultracor part no. UCF-145-3/8-0.8) are commercially available from Ultracor Inc., located in Livemore, Calif., Aramid fiber honeycomb cores (e.g., Hexcel part no. PN HRH-10), fiberglass honeycomb cores (e.g., Hexacel part no. HRP) are commercially available from Hexacel Corp., located in Danbury, Conn., and polypropylene honeycomb cores (e.g., Plascore part no. PP30-5) are commercially available from Plascore, Inc., located in Zeeland, Mich.
The dielectric honeycomb substrate 52 can have cells 53 sized to meet a particular application. The substrate 52 can be described as having an overall length, L, and an overall width, W. The dimensional L and W are typically determined by a particular application, generally matching the dimensions of an aperture to be shielded. Each one of the cells 53 can be described as having a cross-section diameter, d, and a thickness, t. The dimensions (d, t) for a cell 53 are generally selected to provide a predetermined level of EMI performance, often referred to as shielding effectiveness. Each cell, in essence, represents a waveguide that will generally pass EMI having wavelengths, (λEMI), less than a cutoff wavelength, λe, (i.e., high frequencies) while rejecting EMI having wavelengths greater than λc (i.e., low frequencies).
A general relationship, presented in equation 1, can be defined for approximating the shielding effectiveness in terms of the above geometric parameters, for an individual cell, measured in decibels (dB). A geometry-dependent constant K is approximately 32 for circular cells, and 27 for rectangular cells.
Typically, the cell diameter, d, can range from about 0.06 inches to about 1.0 inch, while the cell thickness, t, can range from about 0.125 inch to 1.5 inches with common depths of 0.25 inch to 1 inch.
The density of the dielectric honeycomb substrate 52 can range from about 2 lb/ft3 to about 20 lb/ft3. By selecting a lower density dielectric honeycomb substrate 52, the flexibility of the dielectric honeycomb substrate can be increased, which generally decreases spring force in the honeycomb substrate 52. Typical wall thickness range offrom 0.002 inch to 0.05 inch, but are not limited to this range. For applications where a more rugged dielectric honeycomb substrate 52 is required, a higher density dielectric honeycomb substrate 52 or a different honeycomb geometry can be selected.
To manufacture a vent panel according to the invention, in one embodiment referring now to
Next, the dielectric honeycomb substrate 52 can be shaped into any desired configuration (step 62). For example, a planar dielectric substrate 52 can be configured in any desired planar shape, such as a square, a rectangle, a circle, etc., having predetermined dimensions to conform to an intended aperture. Such overall shaping can be performed during the manufacturing stage of the substrate 52, for example by selectively altering the shape of a mold, or extruder. The shaping can also be performed post-manufacturing. For example, the substrate 52 can be cut using a knife, a saw, shears, a laser, or a die. Additionally, certain dielectric substrates, such as polymers, lend themselves to a variety of machining techniques. For example, a dielectric honeycomb substrate 52 can be machined to shape one or more of its edges along its perimeter to include a bevel, or a rabbet. Still further, the dielectric substrate 52 can be shaped to include a convex or concave surface or indentation over a portion of either or both of its planar surfaces. Such a planar surface deformation may be desired, to accommodate a mechanical fit.
In order to provide EMI shielding, a conductive layer 54 is applied to the dielectric honeycomb substrate 52, resulting in the metallized dielectric honeycomb filter 50. In one method, a first conductive layer is applied to the dielectric honeycomb substrate 52 (step 64). The first conductive layer can be applied using a variety of techniques known to those skilled in the art, such as electroless plating or physical vapor deposition. See, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 5,275,861 issued by Vaughn and U.S. Pat. No. 5,489,489 issued to Swirbel et al., the disclosures of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety. For example, a conductor, such as copper, can be applied using an electroless bath as taught by Vaughn.
The electroless bath method is particularly well suited for a class of polymers known as plateless plastics. This class of plastics includes acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and polycarbonates, along with other polymer compounds, such as polysulfones, polyamides, polypropylenes, polyethylene, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Generally, the dielectric honeycomb substrate 52 should be pretreated to remove any impurities (e.g., dirt, and oil). Depending on the type of material, the substrate 52 may be treated still further to enhance its adhesion properties with the initial conductive layer. For example, the surface can be abraded by mechanical means (e.g., sanding or sandblasting) or by a chemical means (e.g., by using a solvent for softening or an acid for etching). A chemical pretreatment can also be added to alter the chemistry of the surface, further enhancing its ability to chemically bond to the first layer.
Other methods of applying the first conductive layer include applying a conductive paint, such as a lacquer or shellac impregnated with particulate conductors, such as copper, silver, or bronze. Still other methods of applying the first conductive layer include physical deposition, such as evaporation, non-thermal vaporization process (e.g., sputtering), and chemical vapor deposition. Sputtering techniques include radio-frequency (RF) diode, direct-current (DC) diode, triode, and magnetron sputtering. Physical vapor deposition includes such techniques as vacuum deposition, reactive evaporation, and gas evaporation.
Depending on the desired thickness and/or coverage, the step of applying the first conductive layer can be optionally repeated (step 66a), such that one or more additional conductive layers, being made of substantially the same conductor, are applied to the previously-treated substrate 52, thereby increasing the thickness of the layer. In repeating the application of the conducting layer, generally the same method of plating can be used; however, a different method can also be used.
Generally, any conductive material can be used for the conductive layer 54. Some examples of metals that can be used for the conductive layer 54 are copper, nickel, tin, aluminum, silver, graphite, bronze, gold, lead, palladium, cadmium, zinc and combinations or alloys thereof, such as lead-tin and gold-palladium. The conductive layer 54 can also be applied directly as a conductive compound. For example, the substrate 52 can be treated with a single electroless bath having both copper and nickel. The resulting conductive layer 54 is a compound of both copper and nickel.
Optionally, more than one type of conductive layer can be applied to the honeycomb substrate 52 (step 68). For example, after the initial conductive layer 54 has been applied, one or more additional conductive layers of the same, or different material, can be applied using electroless plating, electrolytic plating, physical vapor deposition, or other methods known to those skilled in the art (step 70). Electrolytic plating wold generally be available for applying subsequent conducting layers, as the initial conducting layer would provide the requisite surface conductivity.
In one embodiment, a second conductive layer of nickel is applied over a first conductive layer of copper, the copper providing a relatively high electrical conductivity and the nickel providing a corrosion resistant top coat. As with the initial conductive layer 54, and for similar reasons, the second type of conductive coating can be optionally reapplied until a desired thickness is achieved.
Additional layers of coating or treatment of still other different types of conductive, or even non-conductive materials can be optionally applied to the metallized dielectric honeycomb filter 50 (step 72). For example a fire retardant, a mildew inhibitor, or an anti-corrosion treatment can be applied to the metallized dielectric honeycomb filter 50. These coatings can be selectively applied either covering the entire surface, or any portion thereof. For example, the metallized dielectric honeycomb filter 50 can be completely immersed in a fire retardant, or selectively treated with a corrosion inhibitor, using a masking technique such that a perimeter of the filter 50 remains untreated, thereby avoiding any reduction in the quality of the achievable electrical contact.
Further, the metallized, treated filter 50 can again be shaped, as required, by any of the previously disclosed techniques (step 74). Also, an edge treatment can be optionally applied to the perimeter or mounting surface of the filter 50 (step 76). Particular edge treatments include commercially available EMI gaskets, including metallized spring fingers, conductive fabrics, conductive elastomers, wire mesh, conductive foam, and conductive fabric coated elastomers.
In order to improve airflow, reduce costs, and simplify manufacture, the metallized dielectric substrate 50, referring again to
The cylindrical tubes 55 that make up the cells 53 of the metallized dielectric honeycomb filter 50, as shown in
The cells 53 can be cut along their diameter, leaving an approximately semicircular cell portion, as shown. Alternatively, the cells 53 can be cut leaving either a greater or lesser amount of the cell wall to form a spring.
In yet other embodiments, shown in
In other embodiments, shown in FIGS. 8A—8M, a band frame or slim profile frame 96′,96″,96′″,96″″, generally 96, is added to the metallized dielectric honeycomb filter 50. In the band frame configuration, as shown in
In yet another embodiment, in a slim frame configuration, shown in
In yet further embodiments, the band frame 96 may be constructed from any conductive material that maintains maximum air flow area through the dielectric honeycomb filter 50, but in addition to being electrically conductive, can also help to accommodate variations in dimensional tolerances during insertion of the dielectric honeycomb filter 50 onto the cabinet 20. Dimensional tolerances between the dielectric honeycomb filter 50 and the enclosure 20 can be accommodated, for example, by using conductive foam, conductive fabric, or conductive fabric wrapped foam from the band material. These band materials create good electrical contact just like a metal band, but unlike a metal band, these band materials have a much lower compression force and are more complaint allowing them to readily accommodate tolerance variations between the metallized dielectric honeycomb filter 50 and the cabinet 20. Conductive fabric wrapped foams and conductive foams can be obtained from Laird Technologies, Inc., located in Delaware Water Gap, Pa.
In one embodiment, illustrated in
As readily understood by those skilled in the art, many different configurations can be used to contain the metallized dielectric honeycomb filter 50 in the enclosure 20.
The metallized dielectric honeycomb filter 50 provides improved airflow while meeting stringent flammability standards. OnceOne such inflammability standard is the UL94 Vertical Flame Test, described in detail in Underwriter Laboratories Standard 94 entitled “Tests for Flammability of Plastic Materials for Parts in Devices and Appliances,” 5th Edition, 1996, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. The metallized dielectric vent panels 50 according to the invention are able to achieve V0 flame rating, as well as V1 and V2 vertical ratings described in the standard.
EMI shielding effectiveness and airflow test data for a metallized dielectric honeycomb filter in accordance with certain embodiments of the invention are shown respectively in
The filters tested for airflow effectiveness are the standard aluminum honeycomb and two different polycarbonate polymer honeycombs with a plating of nickel over copper in accordance with the invention. The test panels were about 0.5 inch thick with a cell size of about 0.125 inch. One of the dielectric honeycomb panels had a density of about 4 lb/ft3 and the other dielectric honeycomb panel had a density of about 10 lb/ft3.
Accordingly, vent panels produced in accordance with the invention can yield significantly improved shielding effectiveness for the same airflow characteristics as conventional metal vent panels.
Variations, modifications, and other implementations of what is described herein will occur to those of ordinary skill in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as claimed. The various features and configurations shown and equivalents thereof can be used in various combinations and permutations. Accordingly, the invention is to be defined not by the preceding illustrative descriptions, but instead by the following claims.