US RE41606 E1 Abstract The present invention proposes a method for generating synchronization bursts for OFDM transmission systems. The symbols of a predefined symbol sequence are mapped according to a predefined mapping scheme on subcarriers of the OFDM systems by a mapping unit (2), wherein the symbols of the predefined symbol sequence represent sub-carriers of the OFDM system with nonzero amplitudes. A synchronization burst is generated by a inverse fast Fourier transforming unit (3) transforming the subcarriers of the OFDM system mapped to said predefined symbol sequence. The mapping (2) of the symbols of the predefined symbol sequence is set such that the resulting time domain signal of the synchronization burst represents a periodic nature. According to the invention the predefined symbol sequence is set such that the envelope fluctuation of the time domain signal of the synchronization burst is minimized. Therefore advantageous symbol sequences reducing said the envelope fluctuation of the time domain signal are proposed.
Claims(23) 1. A method for generating synchronization bursts for OFDM transmission systems, comprising the following steps:
mapping the symbols of a predefined symbol sequence according to a predefined mapping scheme on subcarriers S of the OFDM system, wherein the symbols of the predefined symbol sequence represent subcarriers of the OFDM system with non-zero-amplitude, and generating a synchronization burst by Inverse Fourier Transforming the subcarriers S of the OFDM system mapped with the symbols of said predefined symbol sequence, characterized in that
the predefined symbol sequence is set such that the envelope fluctuation of the time domain signal of the synchronization burst is minimized and the symbols of the predefined symbols sequence can be expressed as
A −A A −A −A A −A −A A A A A A being a complex value.
2. A method for synchronizing wireless OFDM systems, characterized by the steps of
generating a synchronization burst according to a method according to transmitting the synchronization burst. 3. A method according to
the time domain signal of the synchronization burst is precomputed and stored in a memory. 4. An OFDM transmitter, comprising:
a unit for mapping the symbols of a predefined symbol sequence according to a predefined mapping scheme on subcarriers of the OFDM system, wherein the symbols of the predefined symbol sequence represent subcarriers of the OFDM system with non-zero-amplitude, and a unit for generating a synchronization burst by Inverse Fourier Transforming the subcarriers of the OFDM system mapped with the symbols of said predefined symbol sequence, characterized in that
the mapping unit is designed to modulate the subcarriers such that the envelope fluctuation of the time domain signal of the synchronization burst is minimized by using the following predefined symbol sequence:
A −A A −A −A A −A −A A A A A A being a complex value.
5. An OFDM transmitter according to
a time extension unit copying the burst part to achieve a periodic nature of the time domain signal. 6. An OFDM transmitter according to
a processing unit for precomputing the time domain signal of the synchronization burst and a memory for storing the precomputed time domain signal of the synchronization burst. 7. A mobile communications device, comprising a transmitter according to
8. A synchronization burst signal for synchronizing OFDM systems generated by a method according to
9. A method for generating a signal for frequency synchronization of OFDM systems, the method comprising the steps of:
mapping symbols of a predefined symbol sequence in the frequency domain according to a defined mapping scheme on a plurality of subcarriers of the OFDM system, wherein the symbols of the symbol sequence define the subcarriers of the OFDM system with non-zero amplitude, where n is an integer, and generating a time-domain synchronization signal in a time extension unit by Inverse Fourier Transforming the subcarriers of the OFDM system mapped with the symbols of the symbol sequence, wherein the symbol sequence comprises 12 symbols C _{0} , . . . C _{11 } wherein C _{0} , C _{1} , C _{2} , . . . C _{11 } has the value 10. The method of
wherein the following equation is met for all symbols C _{0} , . . . C _{11}:
C _{i−1} =±C _{n−i } where i is an integer from 1 to 6 and n is the number of symbols of the predefined symbol sequence. 11. The method of
12. A method for generating a synchronization signal for frequency synchronization of OFDM systems, comprising the steps of:
generating a predefined symbol sequence having twelve symbols C _{0} , . . . C _{11 } corresponding to respective pre-selected ones of a plurality of subcarriers of the OFDM system, and generating a time domain synchronization signal by a time extension unit performing Inverse Fourier Transformation on said pre-selected ones of said plurality of subcarriers, wherein said twelve symbols are set to non-zero having complex values and others of said symbols are set to zero, such that said twelve symbols are arranged periodically in said predefined symbol sequence in the frequency domain and wherein C _{0} , C _{1} , C _{2} , . . . C _{11 } of the symbol sequence has the value, 13. The method of
14. A wireless communication transmitting device for use in an OFDM system, comprising:
a mapping unit for mapping symbols of a predefined symbol sequence, in the frequency domain, according to a defined mapping scheme on a plurality of subcarriers of the OFDM system, wherein symbols C _{0} , C _{1} , C _{2} , . . . C _{11 } of the symbol sequence define subcarriers of the OFDM system with non-zero amplitude, and an Inverse Fourier Transformer (IFFT) for generating a time-domain synchronization signal by Inverse Fourier Transforming the subcarriers of the OFDM system mapped with the symbols of the symbol sequence, wherein the symbol sequence comprises twelve symbols C _{0} , . . . C _{11 } wherein C _{0} , . . . C _{11 } of said twelve symbols has the value 15. The device of
wherein the following equation is met for all symbols C _{0} , . . . C _{11}:
C _{i−1} =±C _{n−i } where i is an integer from 1 to 6 and n is the number of symbols of the predefined symbol sequence. 16. The device of
17. Apparatus for generating a synchronization signal for frequency synchronization of OFDM systems, comprising:
a unit for generating a predefined symbol sequence having twelve symbols C _{0} , C _{1} , C _{2} , . . . C _{11 } corresponding to respective pre-selected ones of a plurality of subcarriers of the OFDM system, and a unit for generating a time domain synchronization signal by performing Inverse Fourier Transformation on said pre-selected ones of said plurality of subcarriers, wherein said twelve symbols are set to non-zero having complex values and others of said symbols are set to zero, such that said twelve symbols are arranged periodically in said predefined symbol sequence in the frequency domain and wherein C _{0} , C _{1} , C _{2} , . . . C _{11 } of said twelve symbols has the value 18. A method for transmitting data signals in an OFDM transmission system, comprising the steps of:
receiving a plurality of subcarriers on which a predefined symbol sequence is mapped, said predefined symbol sequence having twelve symbols C _{0} , . . . C _{11 } set to non-zero values and other symbols set to zero values, wherein C _{0} , . . . C _{11 } of said twelve symbols has the value generating a time domain synchronization signal by a time extension unit performing Inverse Fourier Transformation on said plurality of subcarriers, and transmitting said synchronization and data signals. 19. A method for transmitting data signals in an OFDM transmission system, comprising the steps of:
receiving a plurality of subcarriers on which a predefined symbol sequence is mapped, generating a time domain synchronization signal by a time extension unit performing Inverse Fourier Transformation on said plurality of subcarriers, and transmitting said synchronization and data signals, wherein the symbol sequence comprises twelve symbols C _{0} , . . . C _{11 } and wherein C _{0} , . . . C _{11 } of said twelve symbols has the value and
wherein said twelve symbols are arranged periodically in said predefined symbol sequence in the frequency domain.
20. A method for transmitting data signals in an OFDM transmission system, comprising the steps of:
generating time domain synchronization signals by a time extension unit performing Inverse Fourier Transformation on a plurality of subcarriers in which a predefined symbol sequence is mapped in accordance with a predefined mapping scheme, and transmitting said synchronization signals and said data signals, wherein the symbol sequence includes twelve symbols C _{0} , . . . C _{11 } and wherein C _{0} , . . . C _{11 } of said twelve symbols has the value
and
wherein said twelve symbols are mapped on every fourth subcarrier of said plurality of subcarriers.
21. Apparatus for transmitting data signals in an OFDM transmission system, comprising:
a unit for receiving a plurality of subcarriers on which a predefined symbol sequence is mapped, said predefined symbol sequence having twelve symbols C _{0} , . . . C _{11 } set to non-zero values and other symbols set to zero values, wherein C _{0} , . . . C _{11 } of said twelve has the value a unit for generating a time domain synchronization signal by performing Inverse Fourier Transformation on said plurality of subcarriers, and a transmitter for transmitting said synchronization and data signals. 22. Apparatus for transmitting data signals in an OFDM transmission system, comprising:
a unit for receiving a plurality of subcarriers on which a predefined symbol sequence is mapped, a unit for generating a time domain synchronization signal by performing Inverse Fourier Transformation on said plurality of subcarriers, and a transmitter for transmitting said synchronization and data signals, wherein the symbol sequence includes twelve symbols C _{0} , . . . C _{11 } and wherein C _{0} , . . . C _{11 } of said twelve symbols has the value
and
wherein said twelve symbols are arranged periodically in said predefined symbol sequence in the frequency domain.
23. Apparatus for transmitting data signals in an OFDM transmission system, comprising:
a unit for generating time domain synchronization signals by performing Inverse Fourier Transformation on a plurality of subcarriers on which a predefined symbol sequence is mapped in accordance with a predefined mapping scheme, and a transmitter for transmitting said synchronization and data signals, wherein the symbols of the symbol sequence comprise twelve symbols C _{0} , . . . C _{11 } and wherein C _{0} , . . . C _{11 } of said twelve symbols has the value
and
wherein said twelve symbols are mapped on every fourth subcarrier of said plurality of subcarriers.
Description Notice: More than one application has been filed for the reissue of U.S. Pat. No. 6,654,339. The reissue applications are 11/286,440, the instant application and applications 12/258,939, 12/258,984, 12/259,018, 12/258,799 and 12/259,063, all filed Oct. 27, 2008. The present invention relates to a method for generating synchronization bursts for OFDM transmission systems, a method for synchronizing wireless OFDM systems, an OFDM transmitter as well as to a mobile communications device comprising such a transmitter. The present invention relates generally to the technical field of synchronizing wireless OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) systems. Thereby it is known to use a synchronization burst constructed using especially designed OFDM symbols and time domain repetitions. Particularly from the document IEEE P802.11a/d2.0 “Draft supplement to a standard for telecommunications and information exchange between systems—LAN/MAN specific requirements—part 1: wireless medium access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) specifications: high-speed physical layer in the 5 GHz band” a synchronization scheme for OFDM systems is proposed. This document is herewith included by reference as far as it concerns the synchronization including the proposed implementation. Said known scheme will now be explained with reference to The symbols t1, t2, t3, t4 are generated by means of an OFDM modulation using selected subcarriers from the entire available subcarriers. The symbols used for the OFDM modulation as well as the mapping to the selected subcarriers will now be explained with reference to FIG. 6. Each of the short OFDM symbols t1, . . . t6 is generated by using 12 modulated subcarriers phase-modulated by the elements of the symbol alphabet: S= The full sequence used for the OFDM modulation can be written as follows:
The multiplication by a factor of √2 is in order to normalize the average power of the resulting OFDM symbol. The signal can be written as:
The fact that only spectral lines of S_{−24, 24 }with indices which are a multiple of 4 have nonzero amplitude results in a periodicity of T_{FFT}/4=0.8 μsec. The interval T_{TSHORT1 }is equal to nine 0.8 μsec periods, i.e. 7.2 μsec. Applying a 64-point IFFT to the vector S, where the remaining 15 values are set to zero, four short training symbols t1, t2, t3, t4 (in the time domain) can be generated. The IFFT output is cyclically extended to result in 6 short symbols t1, t2, t3, . . . t6. The mapping scheme is depicted in FIG. 7. The so called virtual subcarriers are left unmodulated. The way of implement the inverse Fourier transform is by an IFFT (Inverse Fast Fourier Transform) algorithm. If, for example, a 64 point IFFT is used, the coefficients 1 to 24 are mapped to same numbered IFFT inputs, while the coefficients −24 to −1 are copied into IFFT inputs 40 to 63. The rest of the inputs, 25 to 39 and the 0 (DC) input, are set to zero. This mapping is illustrated in FIG. 7. After performing an IFFT the output is cyclically extended to the desired length. With the proposed inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) mapping as shown in Though the known synchronization scheme is very effective, it provides for disadvantage regarding the time domain signal properties. For OFDM (or in general multicarrier signals) the signal envelope fluctuation (named Peak-to-Average-Power-Ratio=PAPR) is of great concern. A large PAPR results in poor transmission (due to nonlinear distortion effects of the power amplifier) and other signal limiting components in the transmission system (e.g. limited dynamic range of the AD converter). For synchronization sequences it is even more desirable to have signals with a low PAPR in order to accelerate the receiver AGC (automatic gain control) locking and adjusting the reference signal value for the A/D converter (the whole dynamic range of the incoming signal should be covered by the A/D converter resolution without any overflow/underflow). Therefore it is the object of the present invention to provide for a synchronization technique which bases on the known synchronization technique but which presents improved time domain signal properties to reduce the requirements for the hardware. The above object is achieved by means of the features of the independent claims. The dependent claims develop further the central idea of the present invention. According to the present invention therefore a method for generating synchronization bursts for OFDM transmission systems is provided. Symbols of a predefined symbol sequence are mapped according to a predefined mapping scheme on subcarriers of the OFDM system wherein the symbols of the predefined symbol sequence represent subcarriers with nonzero amplitudes. A synchronization burst is generated by inverse fast Fourier transforming the subcarriers mapped with a predefined symbol sequence. According to the present invention the predefined symbol sequence is optimized such that the envelope fluctuation of the time domain signal (Peak-to-average-power-ratio) is minimized. The predefined symbol sequence can be chosen such that the following equations are satisfied for all symbols of the predefined symbol sequence:
The mapping of the symbols of the predefined symbol sequence and the Inverse Fast Fourier Transform can be set such that the resulting time domain signal of the synchronization burst represents a periodic nature. Alternatively the mapping of the symbols of the predefined symbol sequence and the Inverse Fast Fourier Transform is set such that one burst part of the synchronization burst in the time domain is generated and the periodic nature of the synchronization burst in the time domain is achieved by copying the one burst part. The number of symbols of a symbol sequence (n) can for example be 12. The above equations define generally the symbol sequences according to the present invention. The pre-defined symbol sequence can therefore be for example: A A A −A −A −A −A A −A −A A −A, wherein A is a complex value. Alternatively the predefined symbol sequence can be: A −A A A −A A A A A −A −A −A, wherein A is a complex value. Alternatively the following predefined symbol sequence can be used: A B −A B −A −B B A −B A −B −A wherein A, B are complex values. As a further alternative the following sequence can be used: A −B −A −B −A B −B A B A B −A, wherein A, B are complex values. According to the present invention furthermore a method for synchronizing wireless OFDM systems is provided, wherein a synchronization burst is generated according to a method as set forth above and the synchronization burst is transmitted respectively before the transmission of data fields. Thereby the time domain signals of the synchronization burst can be precomputed and stored in a memory, such that the computation of the time domain signal of the burst is only effected once. According to the present invention furthermore a OFDM transmitter is provided comprising a mapping unit for mapping the symbols of a predefined symbols sequence according to a predefined mapping scheme on subcarriers of the OFDM system, wherein the symbols of a predefined symbols sequence represent the subcarriers of the OFDM system with nonzero amplitudes. Furthermore an inverse fast Fourier transforming unit is provided for generating a synchronization burst by inverse fast Fourier transforming the subcarriers of the OFDM mapped with said predefined symbols sequence. The mapping unit thereby is designed such that the resulting time domain signal of the synchronization burst represents a periodic nature. The mapping unit according to the present invention uses a predefined symbol sequence which is such that the envelope fluctuation of the time domain signal of the synchronization burst is minimized. According to the present invention furthermore a mobile communications device such as set forth above is used. With reference to the figures of the enclosed drawings referred embodiments of the present invention will now be explained. According to the present invention the time domain synchronization burst structure as shown in According to the present invention a short OFDM symbol (t1, . . . t6) consists of 12 phase-modulated subcarriers.
with Generally the predefined symbol sequence therefore is chosen such that the envelope fluctuation of the time domain signal of the synchronization burst is minimized. Therefore generally the predefined symbol sequence is set such that the following equations are satisfied for all symbols for the predefined symbol sequence:
In the following the time domain signal properties of the new sequences according to the present invention will be shown with reference to For simplicity we use in our demonstration the classical quadriphase symbol alphabet,
Table 1: Complex symbol mapping PAPR (in decibel) is limited to 2.059 (even when using a time domain oversampling to capture the actual peak). Further simulations have shown that not only the PAPR can be optimized but also the dynamic range of the signal should be minimized. Therefore another four sequences, with achieve a small PAPR and at the same time a small overall dynamic range are proposed further below. Using the sequence as proposed in the state of the art the PAPR is 3.01 dB and the dynamic range (defined as the ratio of the peak power to the minimum power) is 30.82 dB (see FIGS. 9a and 9b). Using the sequences according to the present invention and as described above the PAPR is reduced to 2.06 dB, however, the dynamic range is increased as the signal power is ‘0’ at some points. Therefore the following four sequences are proposed as a further embodiment of the present invention: The symbol sequence is C0, C1, . . . C11 and the mapping is:
with A=exp (i*2*π*φ_{A}) and and 0.0≦φ_{A<}1.0. Using these sequences the PAPR is reduced to 2.24 dB and the dynamic range is limited to 7.01 dB as it is shown in The advantages are the same as described before, however, the clipping problem is further reduced due to the very limited dynamic range of the signal. With reference to In the transmitter the sync symbol data 1 are prepared and mapped in a IFFT mapping unit 2 to the appropriate IFFT points. The subcarriers of the OFDM system are transformed by a IFFT unit 3 and then the time domain signal is extended in a time extension unit 4 by copying parts of the signals (for example, t1, t2 are copied to t5, t6). The time extended signal is then sent to the I/Q modulator 5. As shown in With reference to According to this scheme, the principle of setting only every fourth subcarrier of the OFDM system to a non-zero amplitude (see The IFFT size is now only 16 (instead of 64 as it is the case in FIG. 7). Only one of the bursts t1, t2, . . . t6 will be generated. The other bursts can be generated by copying to retain the periodic nature of the synchronization time domain signal necessary for the correlation and synchronization on the receiving side. Therefore for example the time extension unit 4 can perform the copying of the 16-sample burst t1 generated by the IFFT 16 according to The mapping scheme shown in According to the present invention therefore a synchronization burst structure to be used in high speed wireless transmission systems is proposed. The synchronization burst is constructed using especially designed OFDM symbols and time domain repetitions. The resulting synchronization burst achieves a high timing detection and frequency offset estimation accuracy. Furthermore the burst is optimized to achieve a very low envelope fluctuation (Low peak-to-average-power-ratio) to reduce the complexity on the receiver and to reduce time and frequency acquisition time at the receiver. Therefore the synchronization performance can further be improved. As with the scheme according to the present invention the envelope of the OFDM based synchronization burst in the time domain is reduced, the AGC pool-in speed at the receiver can be improved and an accurate time and frequency synchronization can be achieved. Furthermore the synchronization complexity on the receiver side can be reduced due to the reduced resolution requirements necessary due to reduced envelope fluctuation. The advantages of the present invention can be set forth as following:
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