|Publication number||USRE41750 E1|
|Application number||US 10/942,081|
|Publication date||Sep 21, 2010|
|Filing date||Sep 14, 2004|
|Priority date||Feb 17, 2000|
|Also published as||US6725264|
|Publication number||10942081, 942081, US RE41750 E1, US RE41750E1, US-E1-RE41750, USRE41750 E1, USRE41750E1|
|Inventors||James E. Christy|
|Original Assignee||Cisco Technology, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (85), Non-Patent Citations (26), Referenced by (5), Classifications (24), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to the field of data communications networks. More particularly, the present invention relates to an apparatus and method for redirecting network management messages in a cluster of network devices.
Two types of data communication networks known to those skilled in the art are Local Area Networks (“LANs”) and Wide Area Networks (“WAN”). Network devices are used to transmit information across networks, which may include various combinations of LANs and WANs. Without limitation, such network devices may include switches, bridges, and routers. “Switching” refers to a technology in which a network device (known as a switch) connects two or more LAN segments. A switch transmits frames of data from one segment to their destinations on the same or other segments. When a switch in an Ethernet LAN begins to operate, it examines the Media Access Control (“MAC”) address embedded in the frames that flow through it to build a table of known sources. If the switch determines that the destination of a frame is on the same segment as the source of the frame, it drops, or filters, the frame because there is no need to transmit it. If the switch determines that the destination is on another segment, it transmits the frame onto the destination segment only. Finally, using a technique known as flooding, if the destination segment is unknown, the switch transmits the frame on all segments except the source segment.
Because a switch maintains a table of the source MAC addresses received on every port, it “learns” to which port a station is attached every time the station transmits. Then, each packet that arrives for that station is forwarded only to the correct port, eliminating the waste of bandwidth on the other ports. Since station addresses are relearned every time a station transmits, if stations are relocated the switch will reconfigure its forwarding table immediately upon receiving a transmission from the stations.
An Ethernet LAN switch improves bandwidth by separating collision domains and selectively forwarding traffic to the appropriate segments.
Thus, performance improves in LANs in which LAN switches are installed because the LAN switch creates isolated collision domains. By spreading users over several collision domains, collisions are avoided and performance improves. In addition, many LAN switch installations dedicate certain ports to a single users, giving those users an effective bandwidth of 10 Mbps when using traditional Ethernet. As a LAN grows, either due to additional users or network devices, additional switches must often be added to the LAN and connected together to provide more ports and new network segments.
As LAN and WAN topologies become more complex, network management tools become critically important. As is known to those skilled in the art, the Simple Network Management Protocol (“SNMP”) is one currently popular example of a network management tool. SNMP is a simple request/response protocol that communicates management information between two types of SNMP software entities: SNMP applications (also called SNMP managers) and SNMP agents.
SNMP applications are typically executed in a network management station, and issue queries to gather information about the status, configuration, and performance of external network devices (called network elements in SNMP terminology). The CiscoWorks™ software package, available from Cisco Systems, Inc. of San Jose, Calif., is an example of a network management station, and a LAN switch is an example of a network element that can be managed using SNMP. Relevant details of the SNMP protocol will be discussed in subsequent sections of this document.
Traditionally, network device installation includes inserting the device into the network and assigning it an Internet Protocol (“IP”) address, which is typically a 32-bit number assigned to hosts that want to participate in a TCP/IP Internet. Newer versions of the IP protocol may use more bits for the IP address. The IP address of a network device is a unique address that specifies the logical location of a host or client on the Internet.
Once a network device has been assigned an IP address, a network administrator can enter the device's IP address into a network management station to access the network device and to configure it from anywhere in the Internet using a protocol such as SNMP. However, currently, each network device to be configured and managed must have its own IP address, which must be registered with a domain name service (“DNS”). Assigning an IP address to each and every network device is undesirable, because registering IP addresses with a DNS is both costly and cumbersome.
In order to implement a paradigm where several different devices can be managed and configured as a single network entity (called a “cluster”), what is needed is a way to allow all the device in a cluster to share a single IP address for the purposes of network management. Accordingly, it would be convenient for a network administrator to be able to assign a single IP address to one network device in a cluster, and then to be able to configure and manage all of the network devices in the cluster using this single IP address. Unfortunately, no current mechanism exists to enable this activity. The present invention provides an apparatus and method which permits an entire cluster of network devices to share a single IP address for the purposes of network management, and to provide a commander device which redirects network management data requests and responses (such as SNMP messages) to and from other devices in the cluster. These and other features and advantages of the present invention will be presented in more detail in the following specification of the invention and in the associated figures.
A group of network devices, such as Ethernet switches, are logically configured as a single cluster, with one commander device and one or more member devices. Each device in the cluster is capable of supporting a network management protocol and contains its own management information base. Each device in the cluster is identified by a unique identifier such as a unique community string in the case of a Simple Management Network Protocol (“SNMP”) implementation. Each device in the cluster may also be uniquely identified by a Media Access Control (“MAC”) address if so desired in a particular implementation. However, only the cluster commander is required to have an IP address. The cluster commander redirects and translates network management messages from one or more management consoles destined for member devices so that the messages are processed by the appropriate cluster device. Responses to network management messages from the cluster device are received by the commander device and redirected to the appropriate management console. Information exchange between one or more management consoles and the devices in the cluster can be accomplished via redirection of SNMP requests and responses, thus providing a consistent, device-independent interface between the devices in the cluster and the management console.
The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in and constitute a part of this specification, illustrate an embodiment of the invention and, together with the present description, serve to explain the principles of the invention.
In the drawings:
Those of ordinary skill in the art will realize that the following description of the present invention is illustrative only and not in any way limiting. Other embodiments of the invention will readily suggest themselves to such skilled persons having the benefit of this disclosure. The same reference numbers will be used throughout the drawings and the following description to refer to the same or like parts.
Referring now to
Ethernet switch 200 also includes a frame buffer memory 210, 212, for each port, a source address table memory 220, discovery protocol logic 230, learning logic 240, forwarding logic 250, packet redirection logic 260, and a configuration and management interface 270. During operation, the learning logic 240 will look at the source address (“SA”) within a received Ethernet frame and populate the Source Address Table (“SAT”) memory 220 with three columns: MAC address 280, port number 282, and age 284. The MAC address is the same as the source address that a sender has embedded into the frame. The age item will be a date stamp to indicate when the last frame was received from a particular MAC SA. In the example shown in
Forwarding logic 250 examines at the destination address (“DA”) of a received Ethernet frame. This now becomes the new MAC address, which is then compared with the entries in the SAT. Four different forwarding options are possible. If the destination address is a specific address, known as a “broadcast” address, the frame is destined for all ports on the network. In this case, the Ethernet switch will forward the frame to all ports, except the one on which the frame was received. A broadcast address is six bytes with all ones, or “FF.FF.FF.FF.FF.FF” in hexadecimal notation. If the MAC address is found in the SAT and the corresponding port number is different from the received port, the frame is forwarded to that particular port number only. If the MAC address is found in the SAT and the port number is the same as the received port number, the frame is not forwarded; instead, it is discarded. This is known as “filtering.” The frame is discarded because the transmitting station and the receiving station are connected on the same shared LAN segment on that particular port and the receiver has already tuned into the frame. If the MAC address is not found in the table, the frame is forwarded to all ports. The reason a particular destination address is not present in the SAT table is that the receiving device could be new on the network, or the recipient has been very quiet (has not recently sent a frame). In both cases, the bridge SAT will not have a current entry. Flooding the frame on all ports is the brute way of ensuring that the frame is routed to its intended recipient.
Ethernet switch 200 uses the “age” entry in the SAT to determine whether that MAC address is still in use on the LAN. If the age has exceeded a certain preset value, the entry is removed. This conserves memory space and makes the bridge faster because fewer entries need to be scanned for address matching. Finally, the frame buffer memories 210, 212 will store frames on each port in case there is a backlog of frames to be forwarded.
According to embodiments of the present invention, discovery protocol logic 230 receives, processes, and sends Cisco™ Discovery Protocol (“CDP”) or other discovery protocol packets to neighboring network devices on the network. Packet redirection logic 260 examines the source and destination addresses of Ethernet packets under control of the configuration and management interface 270 and forwards them to other network devices in a cluster configuration. As known to those skilled in the art, the program code corresponding to discovery protocol logic 230, learning logic 240, forwarding logic 250, packet redirection logic 260, configuration and management interface 270, and other necessary functions may all be stored on a computer-readable medium. Depending on each particular application, computer-readable media suitable for this purpose may include, without limitation, floppy diskettes, hard drives, RAM, ROM, EEPROM, nonvolatile RAM, or flash memory.
As is known to those skilled in the art, network devices, such as LAN switches, may be configured and managed using either out-of-band or in-band techniques. Out-of-band configuration and management are typically performed by connecting to the console port on the network device and using the management console locally from a terminal or remotely through a modem. Alternatively, network devices may be configured and managed “in-band,” either by connecting via Telnet to the network device and using a management console, or by communicating with the network device's in-band management interface using the industry standard Simple Network Management Protocol (“SNMP”). This can be accomplished by using an SNMP-compatible network management application and the network device's Management Interface Base (“MIB”) files. Normally, however, in order to perform in-band administrative tasks of a network device, such as configuration and management, the network device must first be assigned an IP address. Additionally, in order to use in-band configuration and management capabilities, the SNMP management platform of the network device must be configured to understand and be able to access the objects contained in the network device's MIB. Embodiments of the present invention use in-band network management techniques.
Embodiments of the present invention can use the Internet Protocol or a proprietary Cluster Management Protocol (“CMP”) (described in more detail in subsequent portions of this document) as the underlying mechanism to transport the SNMP configuration and management data. Without limitation, the protocols implemented in embodiments of the present invention include the Internet Protocol (“IP”), the Internet Control Message Protocol (“ICMP”), the User Datagram Protocol (“UDP”), the Trivial File Transfer Protocol (“TFTP”), the Bootstrap Protocol (“BOOTP”), and the Address Resolution Protocol (“ARP”).
The MIB variables of network devices according to embodiments of the present invention are accessible through SNMP. As has been mentioned earlier, SNMP is an application-layer protocol designed to facilitate the exchange of management information between network devices. SNMP is used to monitor IP gateways and their networks, and defines a set of variables that the gateway must keep and specifies that all operations on the gateway are a side effect of fetching or storing to data variables. SNMP consists of three parts: a Structure of Management Information (“SMI”), a Management Information Base (“MIB”) and the protocol itself. The SMI and MIB define and store the set of managed entities, while SNMP itself conveys information to and from the SMI and the MIB.
Instead of defining a large set of commands, SNMP places all operations in a get-request, get-next-request, and set-request format. For example, an SNMP manager can get a value from an SNMP agent or store a value into that SNMP agent. The SNMP manager can be part of a network management system (“NMS”), and the SNMP agent can reside on a networking device such as a LAN switch. The device MIB files may be compiled with network management software, which then permits the SNMP agent to respond to MIB-related queries being sent by the NMS.
As has already been mentioned, an example of an NMS is the Cisco Works™ network management software, available from Cisco Systems, Inc. of San Jose, Calif. Cisco-Works™ uses the device MIB variables to set device variables and to poll devices on the network for specific information. Among other tasks, the Cisco Works™ software permits the results of a poll to be displayed as a graph and analyzed in order to troubleshoot internetworking problems, increase network performance, verify the configuration of devices, and monitor traffic loads. Other products known to those skilled in the art, available from several other vendors, provide similar functionality.
Referring now to
Retrieve a value from a specific MTB variable.
Retrieve a value from a variable within a table. With
this operation, an SNMP manager does not need to
know the exact variable name. A sequential search is
performed to find the needed variable within a table.
The reply to a get-request, get-next-request, and
set-request sent by an NMS.
Store a value in a specific variable.
An unsolicited message sent by an SNMP agent to an
SNMP manager indicating that some event has
An SNMP community is a logical relationship between an SNMP agent and one or more SNMP managers. The community has a name (called a “community string”), and all members of a community have the same access privileges: either read-only (members can view configuration and performance information) or read-write (members can view configuration and performance information, and also change the configuration). As will be described in more detail in subsequent sections of this document, SNMP community strings are used to perform redirection of network management messages in one embodiment of the present invention.
All SNMP message exchanges consist of a community string and a data field, which contains the SNMP operation and its associated operands. An SNMP agent can be configured to receive requests and send responses only from managers that are members of a known community. If the agent knows the community string in the SNMP message and knows that the manager generating the request is a member of that community, it considers the message to be authentic and gives it the access allowed for members of that community. Thus, the SNMP community prevents unauthorized managers from viewing or changing the configuration of a network device. As will be discussed in more detail in subsequent sections of this document, embodiments of the present invention use the value of the SNMP community string to enable redirection of network management requests and responses within a cluster of network devices.
Community strings act as passwords for SNMP operations. Each network device has one or more community strings which define the ability of others to read and write the MIB of that device. As mentioned earlier, typically there are at least two community strings defined, one for read access and one for write access. A common default read community string is “public,” but this string may be changed in networks more concerned with security.
SNMP network devices usually respond to SNMP requests when those requests include a valid community string. Devices that support directed community strings can be programmed to only respond to SNMP requests using a community string if the request is made from a particular IP address. Directed community strings provide an additional level of security, causing network devices to respond to SNMP requests only from certain management workstations/servers.
As is known to those skilled in the art, the SNMP model typically assumes that each managed network device is capable of running an SNMP agent internally. However, some devices, such as older devices which were not originally intended for use on a network, may not have this capability. To handle them, the SNMP protocol defines what is called an “SNMP proxy agent,” namely an agent that watches over one or more non-SNMP devices and communicates with the management console on their behalf, typically communicating with the non-SNMP-devices themselves using some nonstandard or proprietary protocol. Typically, the SNMP proxy agent operates by translating the SNMP interactions it receives from the management console into whatever protocols are supported by the foreign device.
As shown in
Still referring to
Embodiments of the present invention support the following configuration and management interfaces: HTML (web-based) interfaces, SNMP, and a proprietary Internet Operating System (“IOS”) command line interpreter (“CLI”). Each of these management interfaces can be used to monitor and configure a LAN switch or a group of switches, known as a cluster. The cluster management tools are web-based, and may be accessed via an ordinary browser, such as Netscape Navigator™ or Microsoft Internet Explorer™. Embedded HTTP server-based management tools using tools such as HTML code or Java™ Applets typically display images of network devices and graphical user interfaces.
When network devices are grouped into clusters, one device is called the commander device, and the other devices are called member devices. Referring now to
As shown in
A cluster is a group of connected network devices that are managed as a single entity. The network devices can be in the same location, or they can be distributed across a network. According to embodiments of the present invention, network management communication with cluster devices is performed using a single IP address assigned to the commander device. Clusters may be configured in a variety of topologies. As an example,
In one embodiment, the commander device is the single point of access used to configure and monitor all the devices in a cluster, and member devices are managed through the commander device. The commander device is used to manage the cluster, and is managed directly by the network management station. Member devices operate under the control of the commander. While they are a part of a cluster, member devices are not managed directly. Rather, requests intended for a member device are first sent to the commander, then forwarded to the appropriate member device in the cluster. As noted earlier, however, a member device in a cluster may also be managed directly if it has been assigned its own IP address.
When devices are first installed, they are cabled together according to the network configuration desired for a particular application, and an IP address is assigned to the commander device. In addition, the commander device must be enabled as the commander device of the cluster. Once the commander device has been enabled, it can use information known about the network topology to identify other network devices in the network that may be added to the cluster. According to one embodiment of the present invention, the commander device uses the Cisco™ Discovery Protocol (“CDP”) to automatically identify candidate network devices. However, other similar products known to those of ordinary skill in the art are available from other vendors to accomplish the same task. Alternatively, discovery of candidate network devices may be performed manually by inspecting the network topology and the network devices attached to the network.
CDP is a media-independent device discovery protocol which can be used by a network administrator to view information about other network devices directly attached to a particular network device. In addition, network management applications can retrieve the device type and SNMP-agent address of neighboring network devices. This enables applications to send SNMP queries to neighboring devices. CDP thus allows network management applications to discover devices that are neighbors of already known devices, such as neighbors running lower-layer, transparent protocols.
It is to be understood that the present invention is not limited to devices that are compatible with CDP. CDP runs on all media that support the Subnetwork Access Protocol (“SNAP”), including LAN and Frame Relay. CDP runs over the data link layer only. Each network device sends periodic messages to a multicast address and listens to the periodic messages sent by others in order to learn about neighboring devices and determine when their interfaces to the media go up or down. Each device also advertises at least one address at which it can receive SNMP messages. The advertisements contain holdtime information, which indicates the period of time a receiving device should hold CDP information from a neighbor before discarding it. With CDP, network management applications can learn the device type and the SNMP agent address of neighboring devices. This process enables applications to send SNMP queries to neighboring devices.
Once a network device cluster is formed, any of the devices in the cluster may be accessed by entering the IP address of the commander device into a Web browser. The single password that is entered to log in to the commander device also grants access to all the member devices in the cluster.
In one embodiment, there can be a maximum of sixteen devices in a cluster: fifteen member devices and one commander device. If passwords are defined for the candidate member devices, the network administrator must know them all before they can be added to the cluster. In addition, a candidate device according to embodiments of the present invention must not already be a member device or a commander device of another active cluster. Each member device is given a unique member number within the cluster by the user when it joins the cluster. This number is used to identify the different member devices of the cluster. The commander device is assigned member number ZERO by default, but it can be assigned any other appropriate number or other identifier if so desired in a particular implementation. In this embodiment, the only devices eligible to become member devices are devices that are one CDP hop away from the current cluster (as defined by the commander device and the current set of member devices) and which support the cluster software requirements. These devices are called candidate devices.
If the commander device of a cluster fails, member devices continue forwarding but cannot be managed through the commander device. Member devices retain the ability to be managed through normal standalone means, such as the console-port CLI, and they can be managed through SNMP, HTML, and Telnet after they have been assigned an IP address. Recovery from a failed commander device can be accomplished by replacing the failed unit with a cluster member or another network device. To have a cluster member ready to replace the commander device, the network administrator must assign an IP address to another cluster member, and know the command-device enable password for that device.
According to embodiments of the present invention, when a cluster of LAN switches is formed, the commander switch automatically changes three parameters on all the member switches in the cluster: the IOS host name, the enable password, and the. SNMP community string. If a switch has not been assigned an IOS host name, the commander switch appends a number to the name of the commander switch and assigns it sequentially to the member switches. For example, a commander switch named eng-cluster could name a cluster member switch eng-cluster-5. If an IOS host name has already been assigned to a switch, the switch retains its IOS host name.
Once a cluster of network devices, such as a cluster of LAN switches, has been created, network management software such as the Cluster Manager™ program, available from Cisco Systems, Inc. of San Jose, Calif., may be used to monitor and configure the switches in the cluster.
Thus, one advantage of the present invention is that a network administrator need set only one IP address, one password, and one system SNMP configuration in order to manage an entire cluster of switches. A cluster can be formed from switches located in several different buildings on a campus, and may be linked by fiber optic, Fast Ethernet, or Gigabit Ethernet connections.
Clusters may be managed from a management station through ASCII terminal consoles, telnet sessions, SNMP management stations and Web Consoles. All configuration and management requests are first directed to the cluster commander. Any required authentication is done by the commander. If necessary, the commander acts as a redirector and forwards requests to the appropriate member switch and forwards the reply to the management station. According to embodiments of the present invention, a member switch can be in only one cluster at a time and can have only one commander. There is no restriction on the type of connections between a commander switch and member switches. In one embodiment of the present invention, a cluster can be formed for a fully interconnected group of CDP neighbors. A network device can join a cluster when the network device is a CDP neighbor of the cluster.
The primary external configuration and management interface to the cluster is a TCP/IP connection to the commander switch. HTTP, SNMP, and telnet protocols run on top of the IP stack in the operating system. Alternatively, the cluster may also be managed via the console port of the commander.
According to embodiments of the present invention, SNMP redirection allows a commander switch to act similarly to an SNMP proxy for the entire cluster. An SNMP request is received by the commander and, depending on whether the request is intended to be processed by the commander switch or a member switch, it is either processed on the commander or redirected to a member switch. If an SNMP request is redirected to a member switch, the response is also redirected back to the original requester.
The commander switch 410 manages SNMP communication for all switches in the cluster. The commander switch 410 forwards the set and get requests from SNMP applications to member switches 420-A-420-N, and it forwards traps and other responses from the member switches 420-A-420-N back to the management station 310. In one embodiment of the present invention, as will be explained more fully below, read-write and read-only community strings are established for an entire cluster. In this embodiment, the commander switch appends a string (which may contain numbers) to the community strings of member switches so that these modified community strings can provide authentication for the member switches. When a new switch is added to the cluster, a community string is created for it based on the community string for the cluster. Only the first read-only and read-write community strings are propagated to the cluster.
At step 920, the commander device examines the community strings in SNMP requests to determine when it should dispatch an SNMP request to another device. When it is determined that an SNMP request should be dispatched to another device, the SNMP request is transmitted over the network to the member device, using the Cluster Management Protocol (“CMP”) transport method which will be described later in this document with reference to FIG. 10. If a network device has been configured with an IP address, IP can also be used as the transport method.
Still referring to step 920 as shown in
At step 930, the appropriate member device receives the SNMP request. This SNMP request will appear to the member device to be a normal SNMP request that originated from a network management station (“NMS”). At step 940, the member device processes the SNMP request in the normal manner.
Because the source address of the SNMP request is the address of the commander device, at step 950, the SNMP response will be sent to the commander device. The SNMP response received from the member device will also have a copy of the same SNMP request-ID that was in the original SNMP request that was forwarded from the commander device to the member device.
At step 960, when the commander device receives the SNMP response, it uses the received request-ID combined with the member device source address in the message to look up the source network management station address and the original request-ID in a table. The destination address of the SNMP response and the request-ID of the SNMP response are replaced by the network management station address and the request-ID that had been saved in step 920. The source address of the SNMP response is replaced by the address of the commander device, and the SNMP response is transmitted to the management console. Finally, at step 970, the management console receives the forwarded response from the commander device.
As mentioned earlier, embodiments of the present invention may use the Internet Protocol (“IP”) or a proprietary Cluster Management Protocol (“CMP”) as the transport mechanism used to communicate between the commander switch and member switches in a cluster. To distinguish between normal IP packets and the cluster management IP packets, a special Subnetwork Access Protocol (“SNAP”) header is used for the cluster management IP packets. In one embodiment of the present invention, private IP addresses (“10.x.y.z”) are used for intracluster communication. Each cluster member, including the commander, is assigned a private IP address, known as the cluster IP address, or CMP address. These private IP addresses are maintained internally by the commander.
As described below, when a member switch is added to a cluster, the commander generates a unique cluster IP address and assigns it to the member switch. The commander's cluster IP address is also passed to the member switch. These cluster IP addresses are dynamically assigned. When the commander finds a conflict with one of the assigned cluster IP addresses (such as when some other IP station, not part of the cluster, is using the same IP address as one of the cluster IP addresses), then the commander resolves the conflict by selecting another cluster IP address and assigning it to the corresponding member switch.
In one embodiment of the present invention, both the commander switch and the member switches use CMP addresses to send and receive management data within the cluster. A CMP address is a private IP address in “10.x.y.z” format, where x, y, and z, are integers between 0 and 255. The commander switch automatically generates a CMP address and assigns it to the member switch when the switch first joins the cluster.
Since CMP addresses are automatically generated, there can be conflicts between the IP address used by a cluster network device and the IP address of a network device outside the cluster. For example, some other IP station can be using the same address as an automatically assigned CMP address. Thus, both the commander switch and the member switches constantly check for conflicts, a new CMP address is generated if a conflict is detected.
The commander switch assigns the CMP address to the member switch using the CMP/RARP protocol. CMP/RARP is a variation of the normal RARP (Reverse ARP) protocol. As described below, CMP/RARP uses a different SNAP encapsulation, and it has provisions to carry variable list of cluster parameters as Type Length Value (“TLV”) fields.
As shown in
The present invention thus enables the transparent management of multiple network devices as a single entity, and allows a cluster having multiple network devices to share a single IP network address. The present invention also allows the use of the standard set of SNMP managed objects without changing the protocol from the point of view of the network management station or the member devices. Finally, since the dispatch of the SNMP request to the member devices is performed using composite community strings in one embodiment, the number of devices that can be addressed is unbounded.
While embodiments and applications of this invention have been shown and described, it would be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art having the benefit of this disclosure that many more modifications than mentioned above are possible without departing from the inventive concepts herein. The invention, therefore, is not to be restricted except in the spirit of the appended claims.
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|U.S. Classification||709/225, 709/223, 370/389, 709/246|
|International Classification||H04L29/08, H04L29/06, H04L12/24, H04L29/12, G06F15/16, G06F15/173, H04L12/28|
|Cooperative Classification||H04L29/1233, H04L41/00, H04L29/12009, H04L41/12, H04L61/25, H04L41/0213, H04L41/0893|
|European Classification||H04L41/08F, H04L41/00, H04L61/25, H04L29/12A, H04L29/12A4, H04L12/24|
|Dec 17, 2008||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: CISCO TECHNOLOGY, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:CHRISTY, JAMES EDWIN;REEL/FRAME:021990/0771
Effective date: 20000322
|Jul 26, 2011||CC||Certificate of correction|
|Oct 20, 2011||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8
|Oct 20, 2015||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 12