|Publication number||USRE41889 E1|
|Application number||US 10/360,367|
|Publication date||Oct 26, 2010|
|Filing date||Feb 5, 2003|
|Priority date||Jul 31, 1997|
|Also published as||DE69726718D1, DE69726718T2, EP0895090A1, EP0895090B1, US6109106, US6184051, USRE41856|
|Publication number||10360367, 360367, US RE41889 E1, US RE41889E1, US-E1-RE41889, USRE41889 E1, USRE41889E1|
|Inventors||Paolo Ferrari, Benedetto Vigna, Pietro Montanini, Marco Ferrera|
|Original Assignee||Stmicroelectronics S.R.L.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (14), Non-Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (16), Classifications (31), Legal Events (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a divisional of pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/126,625, filed Jul. 30, 1998.
The invention relates to a process for manufacturing high-sensitivity accelerometric and gyroscopic integrated sensors and a sensor thus produced.
As is known, using electromechanical microstructures of semiconductor material, the manufacture of which utilizes microelectronics techniques, has recently been proposed for producing accelerometers and gyroscopes. These silicon micro-machining techniques make it possible to produce different types of angular velocity and acceleration sensors. In particular, at the present lime prototypes operating according to the piezoelectric, piezoresistive, capacitive, threshold, resonant and tunnel effect principles have been proposed.
Reference will be made below to an accelerometric sensor of differential capacitive type, i.e. one in which acceleration induces the movement of a seismic mass which constitutes the electrode common to two coupled capacitors by varying the two capacitances in opposite directions. This effect is known as differential variation of capacitance.
Historically, integrated micro-structures have been manufactured by preferably using the “bulk micro-machining” technique in which a wafer of single-crystal silicon is machined on both faces. This technique is, however, incompatible with the process steps for producing components of a circuit which processes a signal picked up by a sensitive element, as required at present.
It has been proposed to use the technique of “surface micro-machining” in which the sensitive element is made of multi-crystal silicon and suspended structures are formed by depositing and successively removing sacrificial layers. This technique is compatible with the current integrated circuit manufacturing processes and is therefore preferred at present. The integrated micro-structures produced with this technique are, however, relatively insensitive to acceleration and angular velocity. In fact, having a mass of the order of a few tenths of a microgram, they suffer the effects of thermodynamic noise caused by the Brownian movement of the particles of the fluid in which they are immersed (see, for example, the article by T. B. Gabrielson entitled “Mechanical-Thermal Noise in Micromachined Acoustic and Vibration Sensors”, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 40, No. 5, May 1993). The upper limit to the mass obtainable with these structures is imposed by genuinely technological reasons; the deposition of very thick films involves extremely long wafer machining times and renders the surface of the wafer unsuitable for the successive operations such as lapping the wafers.
A technique for machining the epitaxial layer (epitaxial micro-machining) is also known, which produces micro-structures with inertial masses that are higher and hence more sensitive, but not yet at a sufficient value for practical applications.
An object of the invention is to improve a process for manufacturing an accelerometric and gyroscopic sensor according to a technique of “epitaxial micro-machining” so as to increase its sensitivity further than the prior art.
An embodiment of the invention provides a process for manufacturing a high-sensitivity accelerometric and gyroscopic integrated sensor including forming a sacrificial region on a substrate of semiconductor material, growing an epitaxial layer that includes tungsten on the substrate and the sacrificial region, and then removing selective portions of the epitaxial layer and the sacrificial region to form a movable mass. The moveable mass formed is surrounded at the sides and separated from fixed regions by trenches, and separated from the substrate by an air gap.
It also provides for an accelerometric integrated sensor, having a substrate and an epitaxial layer of semiconductor material, whereby the epitaxial layer includes tungsten and forms a movable mass which is surrounded at sides by a fixed mass. The movable mass is separated from the substrate by a gap from below and from the fixed mass by trenches at the sides, and is supported by the fixed mass through anchorage portions.
For an understanding of the invention, a number of preferred embodiments will now be described, purely by way of non-exhaustive example, with reference to the accompanying drawings.
An embodiment of a capacitive-type accelerometric or gyroscopic sensor according to a first embodiment of the process will now be described with reference to
Through suitable masking steps, portions of the layers 5, 6 are then removed in the sensor zone 7 where the buried contacts of the sensor and of the silicon nitride layer 6 are to be formed in the circuitry and from an interconnection area 10, obtaining the structure of FIG. 3. In
An amorphous or multi-crystal silicon layer 12 is then deposited, as shown in FIG. 4. By means of a phototechnique and plasma etching step, the amorphous or multi-crystal silicon layer 12 is removed, except in the sensor zone 7, forming a silicon region 12′ representing the nucleus for a successive epitaxial growth step. By means of chemical etching, the pad oxide layer 5 is then removed where exposed and epitaxial growth takes place with formation of a “pseudo-epitaxial”, P-type layer 13. In the sensor zone 7, the layer 13 has a multi-crystal structure (multi-crystal region 13′) and a single-crystal structure elsewhere (single-crystal region 13″). A wafer 14 as shown in
The pseudo-epitaxial layer 13 is then doped with doping ions suitable for determining an N-type conductivity to form deep regions. In particular, as shown in
The electronic components of the circuitry are then formed by means of standard steps. In the example shown, an N-type collector well 15 is formed, extending from the surface 16 of the pseudo-epitaxial layer 13 as far as the substrate 1. An NPN transistor 23, having an N+-type collector contact region 20, a P-type base region 21 and an N+-type emitter region 22 is formed in the collector well 15.
A dielectric layer 24 for opening the contacts, e.g., BPSG (boron phosphorus silicon glass) is then deposited on the surface 16 of the wafer 14. Then, by a suitable masking and selective removal step, the contacts are opened in the circuitry area and on the deep region 18, and a part of the dielectric layer 24 is removed from the sensor zone 7. An adhesive layer 25 (of titanium nitride for example) is then deposited, to facilitate the adhesion of the next layer to the silicon of the wafer 14. A tungsten layer 26 is deposited by CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) at a thickness of 1 μm thick, for example, obtaining the intermediate structure of FIG. 6. The nucleus silicon region 12′ has been omitted in FIG. 6.
The tungsten layer 26 is then shaped, by means of known photo-lithographic steps, so as to form contacts 26a of the circuitry and 26b of the sensor and a weighting region 26c over the well 19, as shown in
A silicon carbide layer 31, intended to form a mask for the subsequent step of excavation of the pseudo-epitaxial layer 13 and precisely of the multi-crystal region 13′, is then deposited and defined. Excavations are carried out to release the movable mass of the accelerometer, to separate the fixed and movable electrodes and to insulate the regions at different potential. Thus a trench 33a which separates the fixed part from the movable part and the fixed mass from the surrounding portion of the well 19 is formed. A trench 33b (see
Finally, the sacrificial region 8 is removed by etching in, e.g., hydrofluoric acid, and the zone previously occupied by this region 8 forms an air gap 38 which at the bottom separates the movable mass from the rest of the wafer. The movable mass is then etched and supported by the chip only at the anchorage zones. With a subsequent etching in plasma, the silicon carbide layer 31 is removed from all areas of the wafer. The final structure is thus obtained which is shown in
As will be noted, the movable mass 40 is H-shaped and the transverse walls 34 define the movable electrodes of the capacitive sensor. The moveable electrodes are interleaved in a comb-like manner with the transverse walls 35 defining the fixed electrodes and are separated from its central element. The structure is therefore equivalent to a capacitor formed by two capacitors in series, each formed by a plurality of elementary capacitors connected in parallel.
In per se known manner, through the deep regions 18 and the buried conductive regions 2, 2′, 2″, and 3, the movable electrodes 34 and the fixed electrodes 35 are biased at different voltages so that when the movable mass 40 is subjected to acceleration, the consequent change of distance between the movable electrodes and the fixed ones may be detected as a variation of capacitance.
Manufacturing the movable mass 40 in a semiconductor material having a tungsten weighting region 26c, as described, gives the sensor high sensitivity. In fact, tungsten has high density (19.3 g/cm3) with respect to multi-crystal or amorphous silicon (2.33 g/cm3). Consequently, a tungsten layer 1 μm thick is virtually equivalent, from the point of view of the mechanical properties, to a 10 μm polysilicon layer. On the other hand, the deposition by CVD of a tungsten layer of the indicated thickness can easily be achieved with the conventional integrated microelectronics machining techniques.
The sensor obtained in this way thus has high sensitivity, yet benefits from the advantages typical of epitaxial machining technology and permits the integration of the sensor together with the integrated signal processing circuit.
The manufacturing process is simple to implement, using steps typical of microelectronics and forms the metallic circuit interconnection regions and the weighting regions of the movable structure at the same time. The process is also readily controllable and repeatable.
According to a different embodiment of the invention, the buried oxide regions 8 and 9 are grown in recesses previously formed in the substrate 1, after the buried conductive regions 2, 3 have been formed. In detail, shown in
According to a further embodiment which is not shown, the sacrificial and buried oxide regions may be obtained by depositing and shaping an oxide layer.
Finally it will be clear that numerous modifications and variations may be introduced to the process and sensor described and illustrated herein, all coming within the scope of the inventive concept as defined in the accompanying claims. In particular, the components of the circuitry integrated with the sensor may be either bipolar or MOS; the conductivity of the conductive regions may be the opposite of that shown and the protective and/or adhesive materials may be replaced by others which are equivalent as regards the functions desired, as well as other changes and variations.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4699006||Feb 4, 1986||Oct 13, 1987||The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc.||Vibratory digital integrating accelerometer|
|US4783237||Jun 11, 1986||Nov 8, 1988||Harry E. Aine||Solid state transducer and method of making same|
|US5016072||Mar 14, 1990||May 14, 1991||The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc.||Semiconductor chip gyroscopic transducer|
|US5395802 *||Mar 26, 1993||Mar 7, 1995||Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.||Process for making semiconductor acceleration sensor having anti-etching layer|
|US5417111||Jun 10, 1993||May 23, 1995||Analog Devices, Inc.||Monolithic chip containing integrated circuitry and suspended microstructure|
|US5591910||Jun 3, 1994||Jan 7, 1997||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Accelerometer|
|US5616514||Jun 6, 1995||Apr 1, 1997||Robert Bosch Gmbh||Method of fabricating a micromechanical sensor|
|US5747353 *||Mar 11, 1997||May 5, 1998||National Semiconductor Corporation||Method of making surface micro-machined accelerometer using silicon-on-insulator technology|
|US5830777 *||Jun 27, 1996||Nov 3, 1998||Kabushiki Kaisha Tokai Rika Denki Seisakusho||Method of manufacturing a capacitance type acceleration sensor|
|US6020215 *||Apr 28, 1997||Feb 1, 2000||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Process for manufacturing microstructure|
|US6090638||Jul 10, 1998||Jul 18, 2000||Stmicroelectronics S.R.L.||Process for manufacturing high-sensitivity capacitive and resonant integrated sensors, particularly accelerometers and gyroscopes, and sensors made therefrom|
|US6133059 *||Feb 25, 1998||Oct 17, 2000||Infineon Technologies Ag||Integrated micromechanical sensor device and process for producing it|
|US6199874 *||Dec 7, 1995||Mar 13, 2001||Cornell Research Foundation Inc.||Microelectromechanical accelerometer for automotive applications|
|DE4318466A1||Jun 3, 1993||Dec 8, 1994||Bosch Gmbh Robert||Micromechanical sensor and method for its production|
|1||Gabrielson, Thomas B., "Mechanical-Thermal Noise in Micromachined Acoustic and Vibration Sensors," IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 40, No. 5, pp. 903-909, May 1993.|
|2||Kuehnel, Wolfgang et al., "A Surface Micromachined Silicon Accelerometer With On-Chip Detection Circuitry," Elsevier Science Sensors and Actuators, vol. 45, pp. 7-16, 1994.|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US8007167 *||Oct 2, 2006||Aug 30, 2011||Silicon Laboratories Inc.||Integrated electronic sensor|
|US8357958||Mar 18, 2011||Jan 22, 2013||Silicon Laboratories Inc.||Integrated CMOS porous sensor|
|US8497531||Dec 23, 2010||Jul 30, 2013||Silicon Laboratories Inc.||Integrated MOS gas or humidity sensor having a wireless transceiver|
|US8507954||Dec 22, 2010||Aug 13, 2013||Silicon Laboratories Inc.||Integrated CMOS porous sensor having sensor electrodes formed with the interconnect conductors of a MOS circuit|
|US8507955||Dec 23, 2010||Aug 13, 2013||Silicon Laboratories Inc.||Sensor device having MOS circuits, a gas or humidity sensor and a temperature sensor|
|US8648395||May 28, 2009||Feb 11, 2014||Silicon Laboratories Inc.||Integrated CMOS porous sensor|
|US8669131||Sep 30, 2011||Mar 11, 2014||Silicon Laboratories Inc.||Methods and materials for forming gas sensor structures|
|US8691609||Sep 30, 2011||Apr 8, 2014||Silicon Laboratories Inc.||Gas sensor materials and methods for preparation thereof|
|US8852513||Sep 30, 2011||Oct 7, 2014||Silicon Laboratories Inc.||Systems and methods for packaging integrated circuit gas sensor systems|
|US9164052||Sep 30, 2011||Oct 20, 2015||Silicon Laboratories Inc.||Integrated gas sensor|
|US20090141767 *||Oct 2, 2006||Jun 4, 2009||Timothy Cummins||Integrated Electronic Sensor|
|US20090273009 *||May 28, 2009||Nov 5, 2009||Chipsensor Limited||Integrated CMOS porous sensor|
|US20110089439 *||Dec 22, 2010||Apr 21, 2011||ChipSensors Limited||Integrated cmos porous sensor|
|US20110089472 *||Dec 23, 2010||Apr 21, 2011||ChipSensors Limited.||Integrated mos sensor having temperature sensor|
|US20110098937 *||Dec 23, 2010||Apr 28, 2011||ChipSensors Limited||Integrated mos wireless sensor|
|US20110226041 *||Mar 18, 2011||Sep 22, 2011||ChipSensors Limited.||Integrated CMOS porous sensor|
|U.S. Classification||438/48, 257/E21.613, 257/414, 438/52, 438/53|
|International Classification||G01P15/08, G01C19/56, G01P9/04, H01L21/764, H01L41/08, B81B3/00, G01P15/125, H01L21/762, H01L21/00|
|Cooperative Classification||G01P2015/0814, B81C2203/0778, B81B2201/0242, B81C2203/0735, B81C2201/0177, G01P15/0802, G01P15/125, H01L21/76202, B81C1/00246, B81C2201/0109, B81B2201/0235, H01L21/764|
|European Classification||H01L21/762B, B81C1/00C12F, H01L21/764, G01P15/125, G01P15/08A|