|Publication number||USRE42068 E1|
|Application number||US 11/377,891|
|Publication date||Jan 25, 2011|
|Filing date||Mar 16, 2006|
|Priority date||Mar 31, 2000|
|Also published as||CN1229929C, CN1432227A, CN1750704A, CN1750704B, DE60140437D1, EP1269658A2, EP1269658B1, US6707798|
|Publication number||11377891, 377891, US RE42068 E1, US RE42068E1, US-E1-RE42068, USRE42068 E1, USRE42068E1|
|Inventors||Israel Jay Klein, Sheldon L. Gilbert, Rami Hadar|
|Original Assignee||Israel Jay Klein, Gilbert Sheldon L, Rami Hadar|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (36), Non-Patent Citations (11), Classifications (21), Legal Events (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This invention is related to commonly assigned U.S. Pat. No. 6,016,311, by Gilbert et al., issued Jan. 18, 2000, entitled “Adaptive Time Division Duplexing Method and Apparatus for Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation within a Wireless Communication System”, and U.S. Pat. No. 6,038,455, by Gardner et al., issued Mar. 14, 2000, entitled “Reverse Channel Reuse Scheme in a Time Shared Cellular Communication System”, both patents hereby incorporated by reference herein for their teachings on wireless communication systems in general, and specifically for their teachings of Adaptive TDD techniques and frequency re-use techniques, respectively.
1. Field of the Invention
This invention relates to communication systems, and more particularly to a method and apparatus for reducing co-channel interference in a frame-synchronized wireless communication system.
2. Description of Related Art
A wireless communication system facilitates two-way communication between a plurality of subscriber radio stations or subscriber units (either fixed or portable) and a fixed network infrastructure. Exemplary systems include mobile cellular telephone systems, personal communication systems (PCS), and cordless telephones. The objective of these wireless communication systems is to provide communication channels on demand between the subscriber units and the base station in order to connect the subscriber unit user with the fixed network infrastructure (usually a wired-line system). In the wireless systems using multiple access schemes, frames of time are the basic transmission unit. Each frame is divided into a plurality of slots of time. Some time slots are used for control purposes and some time slots are used for information transfer. Information is typically transmitted during time slots in the frame where the time slots are assigned to a specific subscriber unit. Subscriber units typically communicate with the base station using a “duplexing” scheme that allows for the exchange of information in both directions of connection.
Transmissions from the base station to the subscriber unit are commonly referred to as “downlink” transmissions. Transmissions from the subscriber unit to the base station are commonly referred to as “uplink” transmissions. Depending upon the design criteria of a given system, the prior art wireless communication systems have typically used either time division duplexing (TDD) or frequency division duplexing (FDD) methods to facilitate the exchange of information between the base station and the subscriber units. Both the TDD and FDD duplexing schemes are well known in the art. Exemplary wireless communication systems using these schemes are described in more detail in the related U.S. Pat. No. 6,038,455, by Gardner et al., issued Mar. 14, 2000, entitled “Reverse Channel Reuse Scheme in a Time Shared Cellular Communication System”, which has been incorporated by reference herein for its teachings on wireless communication systems.
Some communication systems do not use time frames in communicating between the base station and their respective and associated subscriber units (or “terminal stations” in Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) communication systems). For example, BWA systems based on cable modem technologies do not use time frames when communicating on either the uplink or the downlink. Therefore, these systems do not allow for frame synchronization between base stations and disadvantageously do not permit coordination between the base stations for purposes of reducing co-channel interference. Similarly, un-synchronized TDD systems allow different communication cells within the system to be “free running”, in that different cells and sectors within the system operate on frames that are not synchronized in time.
Wireless communication systems rely upon frequency re-use because frequency allocation or bandwidth is typically limited. For example, in cellular communication systems and broadband wireless systems, geographic areas or regions are typically divided into cells that are nominally hexagonally or square shaped. As described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,038,455, each cell or sector is allocated one or more radio frequency channels. For example, in a cellular communication system utilizing frequency division multiple access (FDMA), adjacent or nearby cells are assigned separate frequencies. After all available frequencies have been allocated, it is necessary to begin reusing the frequencies. For example, if four frequencies are available, it is necessary to begin using the first frequency again starting in the fifth cell. Due to the nature of the systems described in the incorporated U.S. Pat. No. 6,038,455, and in PCS, cellular and paging systems of the prior art, frequency re-use cannot be used as aggressively as it can be used in BWA systems. For example, in PCS/cellular/paging systems, typically only a fraction of the frequency spectrum is used per cell. In contrast, in BWA, frequency re-use can be much more aggressive (for example, a frequency can be re-used at least once per cell, with multiple sectors).
Thus, each cell 2 has an associated and corresponding base station 1. For example, cell 2a has an associated and corresponding base station 1a. Cell 2b has an associated and corresponding base station 1b, and so on. Each base station 1 typically includes an array of sectored antennas for communicating with the terminal stations within the cells 2. In accordance with broadband wireless technology, a sectored antenna is typically 60 or 90 degrees in beamwidth for commnunicating with terminal stations within an entire sector. Thus, in a four-sector case, a base station 1a comprises at least four sectored antennas, one antenna per sector 4 (4a-4d). In a six-sector case, the base station comprises six sectored antennas. Each sector contains a plurality of terminal stations that communicate with the base station 1a on a unique radio frequency (RF) channel.
In broadband wireless systems, each terminal station utilizes a highly directional antenna (typically less than 3 degrees beamwidth) for communicating with its associated base station 1. The highly directional antenna is fixed and pointed toward the associated base station 1. The base station's sectored antenna receives energy from any terminal station operating on the same RF channel and is positioned on a line of sight relative to the sectored antenna. Line of sight (LoS) is defined herein as an unobstructed (first Fresnel zone clear) radio wave propagation path between a transmitting antenna and a receiving antenna. On the downlink, a base station's 1 sectored antenna transmits energy on an RF channel to a terminal station's highly directional antenna. On the uplink, a terminal station's highly directional antenna transmits energy on an RF channel to a base station's 1 sectored antenna.
In accordance with frequency re-use methodologies and techniques, a set of RF channels is allocated for use in each cell 2 (for example, cells 2a, 2b, 2c and 2d). As shown in
Because frequencies are re-used, two cells or sectors operating on the same usable frequency, though separated geographically, may interfere with each other. This is known as “co-channel interference”. The effect of co-channel interference varies with terrain and distance. In cases where path loss conditions favor the desired signal, the co-channel interference may not be strong enough to have a significant impact on receiver performance. In other cases, path loss conditions may cause the difference between the desired carrier power and the interference (known as the “C/I” ratio) to be insufficient for good receiver performance. Co-channel interference is inversely proportional to a wireless communication system's capacity (i.e., ability to communicate with multiple terminal stations). Thus, as co-channel interference increases, system capacity decreases.
Well-known modulation schemes such as quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) are utilized in broadband wireless communications for efficiently transmitting data between terminal stations and base stations. Three typical modulation schemes for use in broadband wireless communication systems are QAM-64, QAM-16 and QPSK. When the C/I ratio is low (i.e., relatively high co-channel interference) a robust modulation scheme must be used. QPSK is a robust modulation scheme that can operate at a C/I ratio of approximately 11 dB or greater.
In the exemplary broadband wireless communication system of
Referring to the T1+T2+T3 plot line of
Therefore, a need exists for a method and apparatus for reducing co-channel interference in a wireless communication system. The co-channel interference reducing method and apparatus should increase the wireless communication system's capacity. Such a co-channel interference reducing method and apparatus should utilize uplink and downlink bandwidth in an allocation-efficient manner. The present invention provides such a co-channel interference reducing method and apparatus.
The present invention is a novel method and apparatus for reducing co-channel interference in a wireless communication system. The present invention includes a powerful means for eliminating co-channel interference caused by terminal stations in a wireless communication system. The present co-channel interference reducing method and apparatus utilizes synchronization between selected time frames (for example, between even and odd time frames) to reduce co-channel interference. Advantageously, the present invention reduces co-channel interference and, thus, allows robust modulation schemes to operate even during a worst case scenario of 100% line-of-sight (LoS) interference. While the present invention improves system performance and capacity in both FDD and TDD systems, one embodiment of the present invention uses an adaptive TDD technique to further improve frequency re-use efficiencies. In accordance with this technique, when the uplink and downlink frequency re-use efficiencies differ, the present invention implements an uplink/downlink ratio formula to further improve system capacity (i.e., reduce co-channel interference). The present invention compensates for the re-use efficiency differences in the uplink and the downlink by changing the ratio between the uplink and downlink time portions.
The present inventive method and apparatus can be used in any type of frame based and frame synchronized communication system having time frames and base station synchronization. One such example is use of the invention in a 4 sector, 2 frequency sets TDD broadband wireless communication system. Alternatively, the present invention can be used in a 6 sector, 3 frequency sets TDD broadband wireless communication system.
In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, geographically close base stations having potentially interfering terminal stations operate on the uplink on selected frames only. Depending on bandwidth demands and spectrum efficiency, the present invention can change the uplink and downlink time frame ratio utilizing a formula based on system capabilities and demands.
Like reference numbers and designations in the various drawings indicate like elements.
Throughout this description, the preferred embodiment and examples shown should be considered as exemplars, rather than as limitations on the present invention.
The preferred embodiment of the present invention is a method and apparatus for reducing co-channel interference in a frame-based and frame-synchronized broadband wireless communication system. The present invention eliminates co-channel interference from selected base stations by transmitting uplink data from the selected base stations at pre-selected time frames while transmitting uplink data from other base stations at different pre-selected time frames. In one preferred embodiment, in a TDD system where the uplink and downlink frequency re-use efficiencies differ, the present invention implements an uplink/downlink ratio formula to compensate for the re-use efficiency differences. An exemplary frame-synchronized wireless communication system for use with the present co-channel interference reducing method and apparatus is now described.
An exemplary broadband wireless communication system for use with the present invention is described in the related U.S. Pat. No. 6,016,311, by Gilbert et al., issued Jan. 18, 2000, entitled “Adaptive Time Division Duplexing Method and Apparatus for Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation within a Wireless Communication System”, which is hereby incorporated by reference herein for its teachings on wireless communication systems. The communication system described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,016,311 is an adaptive time division duplexing (ATDD) method and apparatus for duplexing transmissions in wireless communication systems. The ATDD system facilitates the efficient use of communication channels in wireless communication systems by adapting to the uplink and downlink bandwidth requirements of the channels. In accordance with the ATDD system, the communication link bandwidth requirements are continuously monitored using sets of pre-determined bandwidth requirement parameters. The ATDD system flexibly and dynamically allocates time slots for either uplink or downlink transmissions in response to the changing bandwidth needs of the communication links. The ATDD system is particularly useful in wideband or broadband wireless communication systems, although it may also be used in any data communication system where an adaptive and dynamic time division duplexing transmission scheme is desirable.
In contrast to the TDD systems of the prior art which have time slots dedicated for either uplink or downlink transmissions, the ATDD system dynamically changes the time slot designation as either an uplink or downlink transmission period. Consequently, the uplink/downlink bandwidth allocation can be changed to accommodate the uplink/downlink bandwidth requirements of the link. The ATDD system thus allows channels to use either a symmetric or asymmetric uplink/downlink time slot allocation depending upon the needs of the channel. In the case of asymmetric time slot allocation, the ATDD system alternatively allows asymmetry in favor of the uplink (i.e., allocates more uplink time slots than downlink time slots) or in favor of the downlink (i.e., allocates more downlink time slots than uplink time slots).
A myriad of time slot allocation schemes is possible. One simplified time slot allocation scheme uses a “frame-based” approach which allows the system to dynamically allocate a first number of time slots of a frame for downlink (alternatively, uplink) transmissions only while configuring the remaining time slots of the frame for uplink (alternatively, downlink) transmissions. An alternative frame-based approach similarly allows the system to dynamically allocate a first number of time slots of a frame for downlink (alternatively uplink) transmissions only, however the remaining time slots of the frame may be allocated for either uplink or downlink transmissions, depending upon the channel bandwidth needs.
The ATDD system is particularly advantageous when used in a wireless communication system offering broadband data, video and telephone services. The wireless communication system preferably comprises a plurality of cells -organized into cell clusters, each cell including a base station having an associated active antenna array, and each base station providing wireless connectivity to a plurality of customer sites having a plurality of customer premises equipment.
In one preferred embodiment of the ATDD system, channel efficiency and data bandwidth improvements are achieved by using bandwidth requirement parameters to monitor and update the communication link time slot allocations. In accordance with the ATDD system, each communication session is preferably assigned both an “initial” and an “actual” set of bandwidth parameters. The initial set of bandwidth parameters can be established when the system is first installed. The actual set of bandwidth parameters are created and maintained by the system using the monitoring and updating technique of the present invention. Once the system learns about the exact nature of a communication session's bandwidth requirements it updates the initial values to accurately reflect the actual bandwidth requirements of the channel. In addition to assigning, monitoring, and updating session bandwidth parameters, the present ATDD system also maintains a set of bandwidth parameters for both the base stations and the cluster controllers of the wireless communication system. The base station parameters are used in controlling the uplink/downlink time slot allocations for a given cell. The cluster parameters are used in controlling the uplink/downlink time slot allocations for all of the cells in a given cluster.
The present invention reduces co-channel interference in a frame-synchronized broadband wireless communication system. The present invention eliminates co-channel interference from selected base stations by transmitting uplink data from the selected base stations at selected time frames while transmitting uplink data from other base stations at different selected time frames.
In the preferred embodiment of the present invention a simple method allows elimination of co-channel interference from selected base stations. The method can be used with systems that have a framing structure on the downlink and uplink, or alternatively only on the uplink, as do TDD or half-duplex-FDD systems. As defined herein, a “frame synchronized” system is one in which all of the base stations use frame based communications, and wherein all of the frames are synchronized to one another in the time domain. Typically, some amount of “guard” time is required between the cells to allow for propagation delays. All of the base stations in these frame synchronized systems communicate with their respective subscriber units (or terminal stations in the broadband wireless access systems) using time frames, wherein the frames are synchronized in time. It will be obvious to those skilled in the art that frame based systems exist that are not synchronized in time on a bit clock level. However, the present invention contemplates use in frame based, and frame synchronized communication systems.
In accordance with the present invention, base stations having potentially interfering terminal stations are identified, and then, depending upon the base station's location, assigned to communicate on the uplink during separate time frames. Base stations having potentially interfering terminal stations are base stations that operate on the same frequency, have the same polarization, and have sectored antennas facing the same direction relative to absolute North.
In accordance with the present invention, base stations having potentially interfering terminal stations that are geographically located on the same or similar diagonals (relative to the base station) operate on a, first set of time frames (e.g., “even” time frames). Similarly, base stations having potentially interfering terminal stations that are not geographically located on the same or similar diagonals operate on a second set of time frames (e.g., “odd” time frames).
Similarly, the terminal stations located within sectors T2 and T3 (not on the same diagonal relative to the base station 1g) operate on the uplink (i.e., are active) only during odd time frames. Terminal stations located within sectors T1 and T4 do not operate on the uplink (i.e., are inactive) during the odd time frames. Therefore, during the odd time frames, the base station 1g only receives potential interference in the uplink from terminal stations located in the sectors T2 and T3. However, terminal stations located in sector T4 are inactive on the uplink during this period, so the interference that may be produced by the terminal stations in sectors T2 and T3 do not degrade system performance on the uplink.
Those of ordinary skill in the art shall recognize that any communication system that operates in a frame based and frame synchronized manner in the uplink, having frame-synchronized base stations, can be used to practice the present inventive uplink frequency allocation re-use scheme. For example, half-duplex FDD and TDD can be used with the present invention. Also, different time frame allocation schemes can be used with the present invention without departing from the scope or spirit of the invention. For example, terminal stations within sectors T1 & T4 can operate on the uplink every third frame. In this scheme, the terminal stations within the sectors T2 and T3 would be inactive on the uplink during the time frames that T1 and T4 were active on the uplink.
The present inventive frequency re-use scheme can also be extended and adapted for use in systems using a wide range of cell topologies. In addition, those skilled in the art shall recognize that the present invention can be adapted to reduce specific potential interference producers within a cell or sector, wherein the specific potential interference producers are more likely to interfere due to propagation conditions in the environment. Note that in this case the entire system is not penalized by a factor of 2 using the present invention (i.e., all of the users in the system are not penalized by a factor of 2 based upon the even/odd time frames used). Rather, the system allows these interfering users to communicate on a 1 to N basis. The other system users (most of the other users) communicate on a N−1 to N basis. N is greater than 1, and typically much greater than 1.
The present invention utilizes a variable ratio for uplink/downlink communication time frames when co-channel interference dictates different spectrum efficiencies for the uplink and the downlink. Spectrum efficiency is defined herein as the amount of information that can be transmitted in a communication system as measured in bits per Hertz (bps/Hz). Typically, spectrum efficiency is proportional to system capacity and inversely proportional to interference. Thus, as a system's interference decreases, the system's spectrum efficiency and capacity increases. As is well known, some wireless communication systems have different spectrum efficiencies for the uplink (Su) and the downlink (Sd). For example, as described above, broadband wireless access communication systems typically have different co-channel interference and thus spectrum efficiencies on the uplink as compared with the downlink due to differences between the sectored antenna used by the base stations and the narrow bandwidth antenna used by the terminal stations. As described in more detail below, the present invention can take advantage of adaptive TDD techniques (such as those described in incorporated and commonly assigned U.S. Pat. No. 6,016,311) to compensate for differences between the uplink and downlink spectrum efficiencies.
Although U.S. Pat. No. 6,016,311 teaches changing the uplink/downlink ratio based upon traffic asymmetry conditions, it does not account for changing this ratio based upon differences in spectrum efficiencies and co-channel interference in the uplink and downlink. The present invention advantageously uses a variable ratio for the uplink and downlink to compensate for the re-use efficiency differences between the uplink and the downlink.
In accordance with the present invention, when interference dictates different spectrum efficiencies in the uplink and the downlink an Adaptive TDD approach is used to compensate for the differing inefficiencies by shifting the imbalance using time compensation. For example, consider the case where it is desired to have symmetric uplink and downlink net bandwidth (i.e., 50% of the bandwidth allocation is reserved for the uplink and 50% for the downlink), but, for the reasons described above, the downlink average spectrum efficiency is approximately 3 bits per second (bps) per Hz while the uplink average spectrum efficiency is approximately 1.5 bps/Hz. In this case, the differences in spectrum efficiencies can be compensated by changing the allocated bandwidth. For example, in the scenario described, each frame can be divided into uplink and downlink portions having a ratio of 3 to 1.5, or 2 to 1, meaning that approximately 67% of the frame is allocated for uplink transmissions and approximately 33% is allocated for downlink transmissions. Due to the spectrum inefficiencies given, the desired 50/50 net uplink/downlink bandwidth ratio results.
Consider another specific example where, due to different bandwidth requirements, a downlink/uplink bandwidth allocation ratio of 80% is desired (80% of the net bandwidth allocated for the downlink and only 20% of the net bandwidth allocated for the uplink). This may be a typical scenario in the case where an Internet web user typically requires much data from the base station on the downlink, but transmits a relatively small amount of data on the uplink. Assumring the same downlink/uplink spectrum efficiencies described above (i.e., 3 bps/Hz on the downlink but only 1.5 bps/Hz on the uplink), an adaptive TDD approach can be used to change the uplink/downlink bandwidth allocation ratio to compensate for the spectrum efficiencies differences to achieve the desired net bandwidth allocation of 80/20, by allocating 67% of the frame for downlink communications, 33% of the frame for uplink communications. Or, described in another manner, an 80/20 desired net bandwidth allocation (downlink/uplink) is a 4/1 ratio. By allocating 2/3 for the downlink, and 1/3 for the uplink, or (2/3*3 (bps/Hz))/(1/3*3/2 (bps/Hz))=2/(1/2)=4/1, the desired net 4 to 1 bandwidth allocation ratio is achieved despite the differences between the uplink and the downlink efficiencies.
Now we turn to the more general case. Typically, when a specific net downlink/uplink ratio is desired in a time frame communication system, the fractional part of the time frame (or bandwidth) dedicated for the downlink (Rd) is calculated and the system adjusts the bandwidth allocation accordingly. Equation 1 is utilized to calculate Rd.
Rd=1/[(Sd/Su)/(Td/Tu)+1]; Equation (1)
The Td/Tu ratio is monitored and adjusted in a well-known manner by the communication system. Thus, the time frame (the amount of bandwidth dedicated to the uplink and the downlink) can be adapted in the time domain accordingly. For example, an ATDD time frame method can allocate the downlink portion of a time frame according to the Rd value calculated utilizing Equation 1. The fractional part of the time frame dedicated to the uplink (Ru) is simply calculated from the Rd using the following formula: Ru=1−Rd.
In accordance with the present invention, when the uplink time frame allocation scheme described above (with reference to
Rd=1/[(Sd/Su)/(Td/Tu/2)+1] Equation (2)
Note that the time slots allocated by the system on the uplink, or Tu, is divided by a factor of “2” in Equation 2. As described above, and for the reasons given above, in BWA systems, the uplink typically experiences greater co-channel interference than does the downlink. Consequently, there is less re-use of frequencies on the uplink than there is on the downlink. The uplink is penalized by the RF planning scheme due to the increased interference in the uplink. Equation 2 compensates in time for this difference between the uplink and downlink frequency re-use efficiency by allowing for more uplink time.
Thus, the present inventive method and apparatus can utilize a combination of a downlink/uplink ratio and an uplink time frame allocation scheme to reduce co-channel interference in a broadband wireless communication system having ATDD. The present co-channel interference reducing method and apparatus is now described in the context of various exemplary communication re-use schemes.
The present inventive co-channel interference reducing method and apparatus has been described above in the context of a communication re-use scheme having a frequency re-use factor of 2, 2 frequency sets (A and B) and 4 sectors per cell. As one of ordinary skill in the wireless communication art shall recognize, the present invention is not so limited and different communication re-use schemes can be utilized without departing from the scope or spirit of the present invention. Examples of such alternative schemes are now described with reference to
Re-Use 2, 1 Frequency Set, 4 Sectors
Re-Use 2, 3 Frequency Sets, 6 Sectors
As shown in
In order to reduce co-channel interference in the uplink, we must identify all terminal stations that may potentially cause co-channel interference in the uplink. In order to do this, only those base stations that use identical frequency re-use patterns and that are sufficiently near the base station of interest as to contribute to co-channel interference are considered. The novel co-channel interference reducing method and apparatus works on a sector-by-sector basis. That is, only sectors that are sufficiently proximate to a sector of interest, using the same RF channel as the sector of interest, and facing the same direction with respect to their associated base stations as does the sector of interest, need be considered for interference reduction purposes. The method is then extended and repeated for every sector in a cell and along the line of sight of each sector of the cell.
For this-example, consider the potential uplink interferers to base station 11a, and specifically, potential interference that may adversely affect terminal stations located in sector T15. As shown in
Therefore, the inventive method determines all of the potentially interfering sectors that are located in cells having the identical reuse pattern as the base station of interest. In the example shown, we are interested in all sectors that may potentially interfere on the uplink with sector T15. Sector T15 faces in a northeast direction, along directional ray 40, as shown in FIG. 6. All similarly geographically located sectors (i.e., located in the line of sight of T15 and base station 11a, and face the same direction with respect to their associated base stations as does T15 faces with respect to base station 11a), that are within sufficiently close proximity to sector T15 to potentially cause co-channel interference on the uplink, and that have identical re-use frequencies and polarizations as T15, are considered using the present method. As shown in
The novel method next logically groups the identified potentially interfering sectors into separate timing groupings depending upon their proximity from the sector of interest, in this case, sector T15. For example, the first such sector is the closest sector, T11, associated with base station 11c. An equidistant sector (equidistant from sector T15) that also uses the identical RF channel as T15, is T10, associated with base station 11f. However, T10 is not in the line of sight of sector T15 along directional ray 40, and therefore would not significantly interfere. Nonetheless, for purposes of the present invention, T10 can be logically grouped in the same timing grouping as T11. All other sectors having the same RF channel and along the same diagonal directional ray as indicated by diagonal directional ray 44 are logically grouped together in this first timing grouping.
Owing to the configurations of the sectors with respect to their associated base stations, the diagonal directional rays that define the sector timing groupings are perpendicular to the line of sight of the sector of interest. For example, as shown in
Base stations 11b, 11d and 11e use identical frequency re-use plans as base station 11a and can be defined by a second diagonal directional ray, as indicated by the second diagonal directional ray 46. Similar to the first diagonal ray 44, the diagonal ray 46 defines a second sector timing grouping comprising base stations 11b, 11d, and 11e, and sectors T12, T13 and T14, respectively. Note that the diagonal 46 is perpendicular to the ray 40, and necessarily parallel to the diagonal 44. These two diagonals, 44 and 46, are used by the present invention to control the frame timing of their respective sectors.
In order to remove the uplink interference that may be caused by the sector T11 (the closest sector to sector T15), terminal stations in the sector T11 are allowed to transmit on the uplink only during frames when those in sector T15 (of base station 11a) are inactive. Alternatively, the terminal stations in sector T11 are inactive when T15 is active on the uplink. As shown in FIG. 6 and as described above, sector T11 belongs to the first timing grouping defined by diagonal 44. Accordingly, T11 is active only during a first set of frames and inactive during a second set of frames. Assuming a frame based communication system having “odd” and “even” frames, the first set of frames may be referred to as odd frames, and the second set of frames may be referred to as even frames. Therefore, T11 is active in the uplink only during odd frames, and inactive during even frames. T15 is inactive in the uplink during odd frames, and active during even frames.
Advantageously, interference on the uplink from terminal stations in the geographically closest potentially interfering sector T11 (potentially interfering on the uplink with terminal stations in sector T15) is effectively removed during the time frames that the terminal stations in sector T15 are active. The co-channel interference from the other potentially interfering sectors (i e., T12-T14) is still present, but it is at acceptable levels due to the distance that these sectors are from the sector of interest T15. Therefore, the overall performance of the communication system is improved using the present invention.
Note that the reuse technique described above can be extended to include every sector in the cell of interest. Using the same approach as described above, a second sector of interest is selected. For example, the sector directly adjacent to T15 and to the west of T15 is selected as the second sector of interest. This sector now faces a second direction with respect to base station 11a. In this case diagonal ray 40 faces a new direction, i.e., the northwest direction. Consequently, the sector timing group diagonals 42, 44 and 46 are all rotated in a counterclockwise fashion to point in a southwest to northeast direction. That is, the diagonals 42, 44 and 46 are perpendicular to the now northwest pointing directional ray 40.
The frame timing of the sectors having the same RF channel as the new sector of interest, and defined by the diagonals 42, 44 and 46 for the sectors is the same as described above for the case when T15 was the sector of interest. Consequently, the timing of the potentially interfering sectors are defined by the even diagonals 42, 46 and the odd diagonal 44 in the same manner as described above. Those of ordinary skill in the art shall recognize that this same process can be repeated for every sector for a base station of interest in order to define the frame timing for every sector in the communication system.
Re-Use 3/2, 4 Frequency Sets, 6 Sectors
As shown by the shadings of the sectors in
However, as shown in
Similar to the technique described with reference to
This same technique can be described with reference to the base stations associated with sectors T21-T24. Base stations 21a and 21c are active in the uplink only during odd time frames. Base stations 21b and 21d are inactive on the uplink during the odd time frames, and active only during the even time frames. Therefore, any potential co-channel interference that may have been introduced by the terminal stations in sectors T21 and T23 (relative to base station 21a, and thus affecting uplink communications from terminal stations in sector T24) is eliminated. The only potential interference on the uplink is from terminal stations in sector T22 during the odd time frames. However, this interference is acceptable because sector T22 is at a significant distance from sector T24. Consequently, co-channel interference on the uplink is reduced, capacity is increased, and less robust modulation schemes may be used. This results in a more efficient, less costly communication system.
Note that the reuse technique described above can be extended to include every sector in the cell of interest. Those skilled in the art shall recognize that the communication system of
Referring now to
The horizontal dashed lines labeled “64 QAM, 16 QAM and 4 QAM” of
However, when the present co-channel interference reducing method and apparatus of the present invention is utilized with the 6 sector re-use scheme described above with reference to
Furthermore, when the present co-channel interference reducing method and apparatus is utilized with the 6 sector re-use scheme described above with reference to
The present inventive co-channel interference reducing method and apparatus has been described above in the context of various communication re-use schemes having various frequency re-use factors, frequency sets and cell sectors (e.g., communication schemes described with reference to
In summary, the co-channel interference reducing method and apparatus of the present invention includes a powerful means for eliminating co-channel interference from terminal stations in a wireless communication system. The present co-channel interference reducing method and apparatus utilizes frame synchronization between selected time frames (e.g., odd and even time frames) to reduce co-channel interference. Advantageously, the present invention reduces co-channel interference and, thus, allows robust modulation schemes to operate even at a worst case scenario of 100% line-of-sight (LoS) interference. The present invention can also implement an uplink/downlink ratio formula to further improve system capacity (i.e., reduce co-channel interference) in ATDD systems.
A number of embodiments of the present invention have been described. Nevertheless, it will be understood that various modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. For example, the present inventive method and apparatus can be used in any type of frame based and frame synchronized communication system. One such example is use of the invention in a 4 sector, 2 frequency set TDD broadband wireless communication system. Alternatively, the present invention can be used in a 6 sector, 3 frequency set TDD broadband wireless communication system. In addition, adaptive antennas can be used in combination with the present invention to increase system capacity. Furthermore, multi-point to point links can be used to practice the present invention. This is equivalent to using a plurality of narrow beam sectored antennas at the base station. Accordingly, it is to be understood that the invention is not to be limited by the specific illustrated embodiment, but only by the scope of the appended claims.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US5228029||Feb 27, 1990||Jul 13, 1993||Motorola, Inc.||Cellular tdm communication system employing offset frame synchronization|
|US5257398||Feb 27, 1990||Oct 26, 1993||Motorola, Inc.||Hopped-carrier dynamic frequency reuse|
|US5301188||Aug 10, 1992||Apr 5, 1994||Motorola, Inc.||Shared-carrier frequency hopping|
|US5408496||Jun 18, 1993||Apr 18, 1995||Rafael Armament Development Authority||Spread-spectrum, frequency-hopping radiotelephone system|
|US5420851||Nov 24, 1993||May 30, 1995||At&T Corp.||Method of multiple access|
|US5448753||Aug 12, 1993||Sep 5, 1995||Ahl; Karl-Axel||Wide area radio communication network system and method|
|US5485463||Sep 9, 1994||Jan 16, 1996||Glenayre Electronics, Inc.||System for transmitting paging signals using time-division-multiplexing|
|US5517503||Jun 11, 1993||May 14, 1996||Motorola, Inc.||Apparatus for and method of temporary termination of a communication resource|
|US5594720||Dec 27, 1994||Jan 14, 1997||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Multiple access cellular communication with dynamic slot allocation and reduced co-channel interferences|
|US5668610||Dec 4, 1995||Sep 16, 1997||Cellularvision Technology & Telecommunications, L.P.||LMDS transmitter array with polarization-diversity sub-cells|
|US5768254||Sep 29, 1995||Jun 16, 1998||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Multiple access cellular communication with signal cancellation to reduce co-channel interference|
|US5774790||Oct 15, 1996||Jun 30, 1998||Alcatel N.V.||Sectorized cellular mobile radio system with sector signalling and control in predetermined time slots|
|US5903826||Dec 6, 1996||May 11, 1999||Northern Telecom Limited||Extremely high frequency multipoint fixed-access wireless communication system|
|US5974323||Sep 13, 1996||Oct 26, 1999||Airnet Communications Corporation||Frequency plan for wireless communication system that accommodates demand growth to high efficiency reuse factors|
|US6006069||Jun 7, 1995||Dec 21, 1999||Bosch Telecom Gmbh||Point-to-multipoint communications system|
|US6016311||Nov 19, 1997||Jan 18, 2000||Ensemble Communications, Inc.||Adaptive time division duplexing method and apparatus for dynamic bandwidth allocation within a wireless communication system|
|US6016313||Nov 7, 1996||Jan 18, 2000||Wavtrace, Inc.||System and method for broadband millimeter wave data communication|
|US6038455||Aug 29, 1996||Mar 14, 2000||Cirrus Logic, Inc.||Reverse channel reuse scheme in a time shared cellular communication system|
|US6256486 *||Mar 2, 2000||Jul 3, 2001||Nortel Networks Limited||Method and apparatus for measuring co-channel interference|
|US6327254||May 22, 1998||Dec 4, 2001||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Method for bandwidth sharing in a multiple access system for communications networks|
|US6339708||Oct 5, 1998||Jan 15, 2002||At&T Corp.||Method and apparatus for communications resource allocation for a wireless communications system|
|US6400697 *||Jan 15, 1998||Jun 4, 2002||At&T Corp.||Method and apparatus for sector based resource allocation in a broadhand wireless communications system|
|US6405044||Aug 30, 1999||Jun 11, 2002||Nortel Networks Limited||Cellular communications system|
|US6407993||Apr 30, 1998||Jun 18, 2002||Koninklije Philips Electronics N.V.||Flexible two-way telecommunication system|
|US6493331||Mar 30, 2000||Dec 10, 2002||Qualcomm Incorporated||Method and apparatus for controlling transmissions of a communications systems|
|US6553011 *||Nov 6, 1998||Apr 22, 2003||Agere Systems Inc.||Cellular multicarrier wireless communication system|
|US20020058513 *||Sep 5, 2001||May 16, 2002||Klein Israel Jay||Method and system for reducing channel interference in a frame-synchronized wireless communication system|
|US20020186710||Mar 27, 2000||Dec 12, 2002||Antero Alvesalo||Allocation of data transmission resources between different networks|
|US20070111665 *||Dec 28, 2006||May 17, 2007||Klein Israel J||Method and system for reducing channel interference in a frame-synchronized wireless communication system|
|EP0720405A2||Dec 11, 1995||Jul 3, 1996||AT&T Corp.||Multiple access cellular communication with dynamic slot allocation and reduced co-channel interference|
|WO1999038343A||Title not available|
|WO1999038343A2||Jan 12, 1999||Jul 29, 1999||Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson||Tdma-tdd/fdd radio communication system and channel selection method and apparatus for such a system|
|WO1999039532A||Title not available|
|WO1999039532A1||Feb 2, 1999||Aug 5, 1999||Ericsson, Inc.||Coverage area sectorization in time division multiple access/frequency-time division duplex communications systems|
|WO2000001188A||Title not available|
|WO2000001188A1||Jun 24, 1999||Jan 6, 2000||Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson (Publ)||Channel allocation in a telecommunications system with asymmetric uplink and downlink traffic|
|1||International Preliminary Examination Report mailed Jul. 10, 2002, for PCT Application No. PCT/US01/10243.|
|2||International Search Report mailed Oct. 22, 2001, for PCT Application No. PCT/US01/10243.|
|3||Office Action mailed Apr. 25, 2008, for Chinese Application No. 200510106967.9.|
|4||Office Action mailed Aug. 6, 2004, for Chinese Application No. 01810473.8.|
|5||Office Action mailed Jan. 26, 2007, for Chinese Application No. 200510106967.9.|
|6||Office Action mailed May 8, 2003 for U.S. Appl. No. 09/539,851.|
|7||Office Action mailed Sep. 7, 2007, for Chinese Application No. 200510106967.9.|
|8||Papadopoulos, et al., "Reduction of Mixed Co-Channel Interference in Microcellular STDD Systems", IEEE, (1995), pp. 759-763.|
|9||Reexamination Decision for Chinese Application No. 200510106967.9, dated Sep. 16, 2010, 16 pages.|
|10||Reexamination Notification issued Apr. 30, 2010 for Chinese Application No. 200510106967.9.|
|11||Rejection Decision mail May 8, 2009, for Chinese Application No. 200510106967.9.|
|U.S. Classification||370/280, 370/277, 370/281, 455/446, 370/329, 455/447, 370/330|
|International Classification||H04W16/12, H04W16/24, H04W16/02|
|Cooperative Classification||H04W16/10, H04L27/34, H04W72/0446, H04W72/082, H04W16/24, H04L5/143, H04L5/16|
|European Classification||H04W16/10, H04L5/16, H04L5/14P, H04L27/34|
|Mar 16, 2006||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: HARINGTON VALVE, LLC, CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:ENSEMBLE COMMUNICATIONS, INC.;REEL/FRAME:017699/0963
Effective date: 20040720
Owner name: ENSEMBLE COMMUNICATIONS, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:KLEIN, ISRAEL JAY;GILBERT, SHELDON L.;HADAR, RAMI;SIGNING DATES FROM 20000427 TO 20000503;REEL/FRAME:017700/0985
|May 24, 2011||CC||Certificate of correction|
|Aug 24, 2011||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8
|Aug 25, 2015||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 12
|Dec 28, 2015||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: ZARBANA DIGITAL FUND LLC, DELAWARE
Free format text: MERGER;ASSIGNOR:HARINGTON VALVE, LLC;REEL/FRAME:037366/0907
Effective date: 20150811