|Publication number||USRE42226 E1|
|Application number||US 11/451,595|
|Publication date||Mar 15, 2011|
|Filing date||Jun 12, 2006|
|Priority date||Sep 24, 1997|
|Also published as||US6226548, US20050277832, US20060009780, USRE39133, USRE42194, USRE44305, USRE45509, WO1999015097A2, WO1999015097A3|
|Publication number||11451595, 451595, US RE42226 E1, US RE42226E1, US-E1-RE42226, USRE42226 E1, USRE42226E1|
|Inventors||Kevin T Foley, John B Clayton, Anthony Melkent, Michael C Sherman|
|Original Assignee||Medtronic Navigation, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (110), Non-Patent Citations (160), Classifications (19), Legal Events (3) |
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Percutaneous registration apparatus and method for use in computer-assisted surgical navigation
US RE42226 E1
An apparatus and procedures for percutaneous placement of surgical implants and instruments such as, for example, screws, rods, wires and plates into various body parts using image guided surgery. The invention includes an apparatus for use with a surgical navigation system, an attaching device rigidly connected to a body part, such as the spinous process of a vertebrae, with an identification superstructure rigidly but removably connected to the attaching device. This identification superstructure, for example, is a reference arc and fiducial array which accomplishes the function of identifying the location of the superstructure, and, therefore, the body part to which it is fixed, during imaging by CAT scan or MRI, and later during medical procedures.
1. An apparatus for facilitating percutaneous placement of surgical instruments into the spine, adapted for use with a surgical navigation system employing an energy-detecting array in communication with a surgical navigation computer to track positions of instruments in three dimensional space relative to a known reference point, said apparatus comprising:
a connector adapted to be rigidly attached to a portion of the spine;
at least one central post connected to said connector;
a position identification structure rigidly and removably connected to said central post at a predetermined position on said central post and adapted to be reconnected at the same said predetermined position, said identification structure being further adapted to allow a patient to be scanned with the structure connected to the central post, said structure including an assembly for communicating positioning information with respect to said assembly to the energy detecting array and surgical navigation computer; and
a connector assembly for said reconnecting of said structure substantially to said predetermined position on said central post.
2. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the connector is a clamp having teeth adapted for biting into a spinous process.
3. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the connector includes an elongated fixture with a central axis and a threaded end adapted to be inserted into the spinous process and a substantially rigid wire connected to the fixture with the central axis of the wire adapted to be implanted into the spinous process at an angle to elongated fixture to prevent the fixture from rotating.
4. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein said assembly for communication positioning information is a substantially H-shaped frame.
5. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein said assembly for communicating positioning information is a substantially W-shaped frame.
6. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein said assembly for communicating positioning information is a substantially U-shaped frame.
7. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein said assembly for communicating positioning information is a substantially X-shaped frame.
8. The apparatus of claim 1
, wherein said assembly for communicating positioning information comprises:
a fiducial array for registering the location of a spinal element with rigidly connected fiducials; and
a reference arc for signaling the position of a spinal element, said arc further comprising rigidly connected emitters.
9. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein said reference point is on the spine.
10. A method for monitoring the location of an instrument, surgical implant and various portions of the body, to be operated on, using a surgical navigation system with a surgical navigation computer and a digitizer array for monitoring the location of instruments in three-dimensional space relative to a known reference point, said method comprising the steps of:
attaching a fixture having a central post to a portion of the spine;
removably attaching an identification structure including a fiducial array and a reference arc to said central post;
providing a scanned three-dimensional image of a patient including said fiducial array rigidly attached to said central post of said fixture, said fixture being rigidly attached to the patient to identify the position of said fixture and said fiducial array on the scanned image;
using an image-guided system, by touching an image guided surgical pointer to one or more fiducials on the fiducial array to register the location of a spinal element fixed to said array; and
emitting a signal from said reference arc to indicate changes in position of the spinal element during a surgical procedure.
11. The method of claim 10
, further comprising:
performing a surgical procedure percutaneously on a patient using an instrument and implant locatable relative to the spinal element and said structure in known positions identified in the surgical navigation system.
12. The method of claim 10
, further comprising:
inserting a threaded fixture having a substantially rigid wire into a spinal element; and
touching an image guided pointer to said threaded fixture and wire to positively register the location of said fixture and wire in a surgical navigation computer.
13. The method of claim 10
, further comprising:
implanting imageable devices into spinal elements to identify the location of the spinal elements in the surgical navigation computer.
14. The method of claim 10
, further comprising:
implanting imageable devices into a plurality of spinal elements; and
manipulating the patient's spine by viewing the location of the implanted devices, as communicated to the surgical navigation computer by touching an instrument with a tracking emitter to said implanted imageable devices to align the actual position of the spinal elements with the previously scanned image.
15. The method of claim 10
percutaneously implanting screws into spinal elements; and
locating the position of said screws using image guided surgical navigation techniques.
16. The method of claim 15
manipulating the orientation of the screw heads percutaneously using a head-positioning probe for communicating location containing an emitter, said probe communicating to the surgical navigation computer the orientation of the screw heads; and
using a head positioning tool for manipulating implants having an end portion that mates with the heads of the screws and rotating the screws to receive a connecting implant.
17. The method of claim 16
tracking the location and position of the connecting implant by means of an instrument affixed to the implant having emitters capable of communicating orientation and location to the surgical navigation computer.
18. A system for use in performing the percutaneous placement of surgical implants and instruments into the spine using image guided surgery and a surgical navigation computer and energy detecting array, said system comprising:
means for attaching a fixture to a portion of the spine;
means for communicating position information to the surgical navigation computer and energy detecting array said means rigidly and removably connected to said means for attaching a fixture;
means for providing location information of said spinal portion to the surgical navigation system adapted to be connected to spinal elements;
means for indicating screw-head position said means electrically connected to the surgical navigation system and adapted to mate with the head of a screw implanted in one or more of said spinal elements.
19. The system of claim 18
an elongated implant adapted to be inserted into said implanted screws;
means for indicating the position of said elongated implant electrically connected to the surgical navigation system and adapted to mate with the elongated implant.
20. The system of claim 18, wherein said implanted screws have heads and the elongated implant is a rod adapted to be guided through holes in said implanted screw heads.
21. A method of positioning an implant in an anatomy, including a first implant portion and a second implant portion with a surgical navigation system, comprising:
positioning the first implant portion through an opening in a soft tissue of the anatomy;
tracking a position of the first implant portion;
interconnecting an implant inserter with the second implant portion;
determining a location of the second implant portion; and
moving the second implant portion relative to the first implant portion via determining a location of the second implant portion.
22. The method of claim 21, wherein positioning a first implant portion through an opening in a soft tissue, moving the second implant portion relative to the first implant portion, or combinations thereof includes positioning the first implant portion, the second implant portion, or combinations thereof percutaneously.
23. The method of claim 22
, wherein tracking a position of the first implant portion includes;
interconnecting a tracking apparatus with the first implant portion; and
tracking the tracking apparatus interconnected to the first implant portion.
24. The method of claim 23
, further comprising:
determining a position of the portion of the first implant portion;
wherein moving the second implant portion relative to the first implant portion includes determining a location of a second implant portion relative to the first implant portion.
25. The method of claim 24
, further comprising:
displaying the determined position of the first implant portion and the position of the second implant portion.
26. The method of claim 21
, further comprising:
configuring the second implant portion based upon a tracked position of the first implant portion, a determined location of the second implant portion, or combinations thereof.
27. The method of claim 21
, further comprising:
interconnecting a reference frame with the anatomy.
28. The method of claim 27
, further comprising:
displaying a determined position of the second implant portion on a display relative to a registered image of the anatomy.
29. The method of claim 21
, further comprising:
interconnecting a tracking apparatus with the implant inserter; and
tracking the tracking apparatus.
30. The method of claim 29, wherein the tracking apparatus includes a sensor.
31. The method of claim 30
, further comprising:
selecting a sensor to include at least one of a light emitter, an infrared light emitter, an electromagnet, a magnet, a radiation emitter, an acoustic emitter, or combinations thereof.
32. The method of claim 21, wherein determining a location of the second implant further includes tracking the tracking apparatus.
33. The method of claim 21
, further comprising:
imaging the anatomy while at least one of tracking the position of the first implant, tracking the tracking apparatus, determining a location of a portion of the second implant portion, or combinations thereof.
34. The method of claim 33, wherein imaging the anatomy includes imaging the anatomy with an ultrasound system.
35. The method of claim 21
, further comprising:
positioning a third implant portion through an opening in a soft tissue; and
interconnecting the first implant portion and the third implant portion with the second implant portion by moving the second implant portion relative to the first implant portion and the third implant portion.
36. The method of claim 21
, wherein said first implant portion is a slot in a screw head;
wherein said second implant portion is a rod;
wherein moving the second implant portion includes aligning the rod with the slot.
37. The method of claim 36
, further comprising:
fixing the first implant portion to a vertebrae.
38. The method of claim 21, wherein tracking a position includes tracking with an acoustic tracking system, optical tracking system, electromagnetic tracking system, micropulsed radar, or combinations thereof.
39. A method of performing a spinal procedure in an anatomy with a surgical navigation system, comprising:
positioning a first screw implant in a vertebrae percutaneously through an opening in a soft tissue of the anatomy;
tracking a position of the first screw implant with a screw tracking apparatus;
orientating the first screw implant in a selected orientation at least in part via tracking the position of the first screw implant;
interconnecting an implant inserter with a rod;
determining a position of a portion of the rod; and
moving the rod relative to the first screw implant via determining a location of the rod to interconnect the screw with rod.
40. The method of claim 39
, further comprising:
interconnecting a second tracking apparatus with the implant inserter.
41. The method of claim 39, wherein orientating said first screw implant includes orientating a slot defined by the screw.
42. The method of claim 41, wherein tracking a position of the first screw implant includes interconnecting the screw tracking apparatus with the first screw implant.
43. The method of claim 42, wherein interconnecting the screw tracking apparatus includes selecting a sensor.
44. The method of claim 43, wherein selecting the sensor includes selecting a light emitting diode, a light reflector, an infrared emitter, a magnet, an electromagnet, an acoustic emitter, an infrared reflector, or combinations thereof.
45. The method of claim 42, wherein interconnecting the screw tracking apparatus with the first screw implant includes positioning the screw tracking apparatus percutaneously.
46. The method of claim 42, wherein tracking the tracking apparatus includes at least triangulating a position of the tracking apparatus with the surgical navigational system.
47. The method of claim 46, wherein the surgical navigation system includes an acoustic tracking system, or electromagnetic tracking system, an optical tracking system, a micropulsed radar, or combinations thereof.
48. The method of claim 41, wherein orientating the first screw implant includes orientating the slot relative to the anatomy.
49. The method of claim 48
, further comprising:
positioning a second screw implant in a vertebrae percutaneously; and
orientating the second screw implant;
wherein orientating the second screw implant includes orientating second screw implant relative to the first screw implant.
50. The method of claim 49, wherein moving the rod relative to the first screw implant includes moving the rod relative to both the first screw implant and the second screw implant.
51. The method of claim 50
, further comprising:
manipulating the rod to achieve an interconnection of the first screw implant and the second screw implant.
52. The method of claim 48, wherein interconnecting the implant inserter with the rod includes interconnecting the implant inserter near a first end of the rod, a second end of the rod, a portion intermediate between the first end and the second end, or combinations thereof.
53. The method of claim 48, wherein interconnecting an implant inserter with a rod includes rigidly interconnecting an implant inserter with the rod.
54. The method of claim 53
, further comprising:
interconnecting a tracking apparatus with the implant inserter that includes rigidly interconnecting the tracking apparatus with the implant inserter.
55. The method of claim 48, wherein interconnecting an implant inserter with a rod includes releasably interconnecting the implant inserter with the rod.
56. The method of claim 48
, further comprising:
interconnecting a tracking apparatus with the implant inserter that includes positioning an emitter on the tracking apparatus.
57. The method of claim 56, wherein interconnecting a sensor with the tracking apparatus includes selecting at least one of a light emitting a diode, a light reflecting portion, an infrared light emitting portion, an infrared light reflecting portion, an acoustic emitter, an electromagnet, a magnet, or combinations thereof.
58. The method of claim 48
, further comprising:
imaging a portion of the anatomy.
59. The method of claim 58, wherein imaging an portion of the anatomy includes obtaining an MRI scan, a CT scan, an x-ray image, an ultrasound image, or combinations thereof.
60. The method of claim 48
, further comprising:
displaying an image of the anatomy; and
displaying a position of the portion of the screw on the display relative to the image of the anatomy, and displaying a determined position of the rod relative to the image of the anatomy.
61. The method of claim 60, wherein moving the rod relative to the screw includes displaying on the display the portion of the rod relative to the position of the head of the screw.
62. The method of claim 61
, further comprising:
manipulating the rod to achieve a selected interconnection of the rod and the screw implant.
63. The method of claim 62, wherein manipulating the rod includes bending the rod.
64. The method of claim 63
, further comprising:
positioning a second screw implant in a vertebrae percutaneously; and
moving the rod relative to the screw implant and the second screw implant.
65. The method of claim 48, wherein moving the rod relative to the screw includes moving the rod substantially percutaneously.
66. The method of claim 65, wherein moving the rod substantially percutaneously includes inserting the rod through a substantially single opening in a soft tissue of the anatomy and moving the rod based upon a tracked position of the rod.
67. The method of claim 66, wherein tracking a position of the portion of the screw and determining a position of a portion of the rod is substantially percutaneous.
68. The method of claim 48, wherein tracking the position of the first screw implant includes tracking a position of a slot defined by the screw.
69. The method of claim 68, wherein moving the rod relative to the first screw implant includes moving the rod percutaneously through the slot.
70. The method of claim 69
, further comprising:
positioning a second screw implant in a vertebrae percutaneously through an opening in a soft tissue of the anatomy;
tracking a position of the second screw implant; and
orientating the second screw implant in a selected orientation at least in part via tracking the position of the second screw implant.
71. The method of claim 70
, wherein orientating the second screw implant includes aligning a second slot defined by the second screw implant with a first slot defined by the first screw implant at least in part by tracking the position of the first screw implant, tracking the position of the first screw implant, or combinations thereof;
wherein moving the rod includes moving the rod through the first slot and the second slot.
72. The method of claim 71
, further comprising:
fixing the rod to the first screw implant and the second screw implant.
73. The method of claim 39, wherein orientating the first screw implant includes selecting an orientation of a head of the screw relative to a portion of the anatomy.
This application is a reissue of U.S. Pat. No. 6,226,548 issued on May 1, 2001 and also claims benefit under 35 U.S.C. §120 as a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/423,332 filed on Apr. 24, 2003 now RE39,133; which is a reissue of U.S. Pat. No. 6,226,548 issued on May 1, 2001; which claims rights under 35 U.S.C. §119 on provisional application Ser. No. 60/059,915, filed on Sep. 24, 1997. Notice is also given that concurrently filed is United States Patent Application No. filed on; which is also is a reissue of U.S. Pat. No. 6,226,548 issued on May 1, 2001 and also claims benefit under 35 U.S.C. §120 as a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/423,332 filed on Apr. 24, 2003; which is a reissue of U.S. Pat. No. 6,226,548 issued on May 1, 2001; which claims rights under 35 U.S.C. §119 on provisional application Ser. No. 60/059,915, filed on Sep. 24, 1997. The disclosures of the above applications are incorporated herein by reference.
The present invention claims rights under 35 U.S.C. § 119 on provisional application No. 60/059,915, filed on Sep. 24, 1997, and entitled “Percutaneous Registration Apparatus and Method for Use in Computer-Assisted Surgical Navigation.”
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates generally to guiding, directing, or navigating instruments or implants in a body percutaneously, in conjunction with systems that use and generate images during medical and surgical procedures, which images assist in executing the procedures and indicate the relative position of various body parts, surgical implants, and instruments. In particular the invention relates to apparatus and minimally invasive procedures for navigating instruments and providing surgical implants percutaneously in the spine, for example, to stabilize the spine, correct deformity, or enhance fusion in conjunction with a surgical navigation system for generating images during medical and surgical procedures.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Typically, spinal surgical procedures used, for example, to provide stabilization, fusion, or to correct deformities, require large incisions and substantial exposure of the spinal areas to permit the placement of surgical implants such as, for example, various forms of screws or hooks linked by rods, wires, or plates into portions of the spine. This standard procedure is invasive and can result in trauma, blood loss, and post operative pain. Alternatively, fluoroscopes have been used to assist in placing screws beneath the skin. In this alternative procedure at least four incisions must be made in the patient's back for inserting rods or wires through previously inserted screws. However, this technique can be difficult in that fluoroscopes only provide two-dimensional images and require the surgeon to rotate the fluoroscope frequently in order to get a mental image of the anatomy in three dimensions. Fluoroscopes also generate radiation to which the patient and surgical staff may become over exposed over time. Additionally, the subcutaneous implants required for this procedure may irritate the patient. A lever arm effect can also occur with the screws that are not connected by the rods or wires at the spine. Fluoroscopic screw placement techniques have traditionally used rods or plates that are subcutaneous to connect screws from vertebra to vertebra. This is due in part to the fact that there is no fluoroscopic technique that has been designed which can always adequately place rods or plates at the submuscular region (or adjacent to the vertebrae). These subcutaneous rods or plates may not be well tolerated by the patient. They also may not provide the optimal mechanical support to the spine because the moment arm of the construct can be increased, thereby translating higher loads and stresses through the construct.
A number of different types of surgical navigation systems have been described that include indications of the positions of medical instruments and patient anatomy used in medical or surgical procedures. For example, U.S. Pat. No. 5,383,454 to Bucholz; PCT Application No. PCT/US94/04530 (Publication No. WO 94/24933) to Bucholz; and PCT Application No. PCT/US95/12894 (Publication No. WO 96/11624) to Bucholz et al., the entire disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference, disclose systems for use during a medical or surgical procedure using scans generated by a scanner prior to the procedure. Surgical navigation systems typically include tracking means such as, for example, an LED array on the body part, LED emitters on the medical instruments, a digitizer to track the positions of the body part and the instruments, and a display for the position of an instrument used in a medical procedure relative to an image of a body part.
Bucholz et al. WO 96/11624 is of particular interest, in that it identifies special issues associated with surgical navigation in the spine, where there are multiple vertebral bodies that can move with respect to each other. Bucholz et al. describes a procedure for operating on the spine during an open process where, after imaging, the spinous process reference points may move with respect to each other. It also discloses a procedure for modifying and repositioning the image data set to match the actual position of the anatomical elements. When there is an opportunity for anatomical movement, such movement degrades the fidelity of the pre-procedural images in depicting the intra-procedural anatomy. Therefore, additional innovations are desirable to bring image guidance to the parts of the body experiencing anatomical movement.
Furthermore, spinal surgical procedures are typically highly invasive. There is, thus, a need for more minimally invasive techniques for performing these spinal procedures, such as biopsy, spinal fixation, endoscopy, spinal implant insertion, fusion, and insertion of drug delivery systems, by reducing incision size and amount. One such way is to use surgical navigation equipment to perform procedures percutaneously, that is beneath the skin. To do so by means of surgical navigation also requires apparatus that can indicate the position of the spinal elements, such as, for example the vertebrae, involved in the procedure relative to the instruments and implants being inserted beneath the patient's skin and into the patient's spine. Additionally, because the spinal elements naturally move relative to each other, the user requires the ability to reorient these spinal elements to align with earlier scanned images stored in the surgical navigation system computer, to assure the correct location of those elements relative to the instruments and implants being applied or inserted percutaneously.
In light of the foregoing, there is a need in the art for apparatus and minimally invasive procedures for percutaneous placement of surgical implants and instruments in the spine, reducing the size and amount of incisions and utilizing surgical navigation techniques.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Accordingly, the present invention is directed to apparatus and procedures for percutaneous placement of surgical implants and instruments such as, for example, screws, rods, wires and plates into various body parts using image guided surgery. More specifically, one object of the present invention is directed to apparatus and procedures for the percutaneous placement of surgical implants and instruments into various elements of the spine using image guided surgery.
To achieve these objects and other advantages and in accordance with the purpose of the invention, as embodied and broadly described herein, the invention includes an apparatus for use with a surgical navigation system and comprises an attaching device rigidly connected to a body part, such as the spinous process of a vertebrae, with an identification superstructure rigidly but removably connected to the attaching device. This identification superstructure is a reference arc and fiducial array, which accomplishes the function of identifying the location of the superstructure, and, therefore, the body part to which it is fixed, during imaging by CAT scan or MRI, and later during medical procedures.
In one aspect, the attaching device is a clamp with jaws and sharp teeth for biting into the spinous process.
In another aspect, the fixture is a screw, having a head, wherein the screw is implanted into the spinous process and a relatively rigid wire is attached to the head of the screw and also implanted into the spinous process at an angle to the axis of the screw to prevent the screw from rotating in either direction.
In another aspect, the superstructure includes a central post, and a fiducial array and a reference arc rigidly but removably attached to the central post. The fiducial array is composed of image-compatible materials, and includes fiducials for providing a reference point, indicating the position of the array, which are rigidly attached to the fiducial array, composed of, for example titanium or aluminum spheres. The reference arc includes emitters, such as, for example Light Emitting Diodes (“LEDs”), passive reflective spheres, or other tracking means such as acoustic, magnetic, electromagnetic, radiologic, or micropulsed radar, for indicating the location of the reference arc and, thus, the body part it is attached to, during medical procedures.
In addition, the invention further comprises a method for monitoring the location of an instrument, surgical implants and the various portions of the body, for example, vertebrae, to be operated on in a surgical navigation system comprising the steps of: attaching a fixture to the spinous process; attaching a superstructure including a fiducial array with fiducials and a reference arc to the fixture; scanning the patient using CT, MRI or some other three-dimensional method, with fiducial array rigidly fixed to patient to identify it on the scanned image; and thereafter, in an operating room, using image-guided technology, touching an image-guided surgical pointer or other instrument to one or more of the fiducials on the fiducial array to register the location of the spinal element fixed to the array and emitting an audio, visual, radiologic, magnetic or other detectable signal from the reference arc to an instrument such as, for example, a digitizer or other position-sensing unit, to indicate changes in position of the spinal element during a surgical procedure, and performing a surgical or medical procedure percutaneously on the patient using instruments and implants locatable relative to spinal elements in a known position in the surgical navigation system.
In another aspect, the method includes inserting screws or rigid wires in spinal elements in the area involved in the anticipated surgical procedure before scanning the patient, and after scanning the patient and bringing the patient to the operating area, touching an image-guided or tracked surgical pointer to these screws and wires attached to the vertebrae to positively register their location in the surgical navigation computer, and manipulating either the patient's spine or the image to align the actual position of the spinal elements with the scanned image.
In another aspect, the method includes percutaneously implanting screws into spinal elements, which screws are located using image guided surgical navigation techniques, and further manipulating the orientation of the screw heads percutaneously using a head-positioning probe containing an emitter, that can communicate to the surgical navigation computer the orientation of the screw heads and position them, by use of a specially designed head-positioning tool with an end portion that mates with the heads of the screws and can rotate those screw heads to receive a rod, wire, plate, or other connecting implant. If a rod is being inserted into the screw heads for example, the method further includes tracking the location and position of the rod, percutaneously using a rod inserter having one or more emitters communicating the location and orientation of the rod to the surgical navigation computer.
The objects of the invention are to provide a user, such as a surgeon, with the system and method to track an instrument and surgical implants used in conjunction with a surgical navigation system in such a manner to operate percutaneously on a patient's body parts, such as spinal vertebrae which can move relative to each other.
It is a further object of this invention to provide a system and method to simply and yet positively indicate to the user a change in position of body parts, such as spinal vertebrae segments, from that identified in a stored image scan, such as from an MRI or CAT scan, and provide a method to realign those body parts to correspond with a previously stored image or the image to correspond with the actual current position of the body parts.
It is a further object of this invention to provide a system or method for allowing a fiducial array or reference arc that is removable from a location rigidly fixed to a body part and replaceable back in that precise location.
It is another object of this invention to provide a system and method for positively generating a display of instruments and surgical implants, such as, for example screws and rods, placed percutaneously in a patient using image-guided surgical methods and techniques.
It is another object of this invention for a percutaneous reference array and fiducial array, as described in this appplication, to be used to register and track the position of the vertebrae for the purposes of targeting a radiation dose to a diseased portion of said vertebrae using a traditional radiosurgical technique.
Additional objects and advantages of the invention will be set forth in part in the description which follows, and in part will be obvious from the description, or may be learned by practice of the invention. The objects and advantages of the invention will be realized and attained by means of the elements and combinations particularly pointed out in this description.
It is to be understood that both the foregoing general description and the following detailed description are exemplary and explanatory only and are not restrictive of the invention.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in and constitute a part of this specification, illustrate one embodiment of the invention and together with the description, serve to explain the principles of the invention.
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of one preferred embodiment of a superstructure for use in the current invention, including a reference arc, center post and fiducial array and rigid Kirschner wires (“K wires”) and screws placed in the spine for use with a surgical navigation system for percutaneous spinal surgical procedures.
FIG. 1A is an enlarged view of the superstructure depicted in FIG. 1 engaging a vertebra by a clamp and also K wires implanted in adjacent vertebrae in the superior and inferior positions of the spinous process.
FIG. 2 is a diagram of the preferred embodiment of a clamp fixture for rigid connection to the spinous process of a single vertebrae with an H-shaped fiducial array attached to a center post rigidly attached to the clamp and a mating connector at the tip of the post for mating with a reference array, and a reference array for use in the current invention.
FIG. 2A is a side view of FIG. 2 FIG. 2B is another side view of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2C is a top view of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2D is an exploded view of FIG. 2 without the reference arc.
FIG. 2E is an exploded view of the interface of the center post and clamp of FIG. 2.
FIG. 3 is a diagram of a W-Shaped fiducial array mounted to a central post with generally spherical fiducials attached to the array, for mounting to a single vertebrae.
FIG. 3A is a side view of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3B is another side view of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3C is a top view of FIG. 3.
FIG. 4 is a diagram of a reference arc and fiducial attached to a center post for use in the current invention in mounting to a single vertebrae.
FIG. 4A is a side view of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4B is a back view of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4C is a top view of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4D is an expanded view of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4E is an expanded side view of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4F is an expanded view of the array foot and shoe of FIG. 4E.
FIG. 5 is a diagram of an alternative embodiment of a fixture for use in the current invention using a cannulated screw for insertion into a vertebrae, with Kirschner wire mounted on a central post and including an alternate embodiment of a fiduciary array and reference arc combined on a single structure.
FIG. 6 is a side view of the screw and Kirschner wire fixture of FIG. 5 implanted in a spinous process of a vertebrae.
FIG. 7 is a diagram of a screw-head positioning probe and multiaxial screw for insertion into a single vertebrae.
FIG. 7A is a diagram of the screw of FIG. 7.
FIG. 8 is a diagram of a head positioning probe, multiaxial screw and spinal segment.
FIG. 9 is a diagram of a rod inserter with an LED.
FIG. 10 is a diagram of an alternative embodiment of the invention depicting a cannulated tube and attachment for holding a reference arc.
FIG. 11 is a diagram of the cannulated tube of FIG. 10 with a reference arc and screw for attachment to a spinal process.
FIG. 12 is a posterior view of spinal segment and implanted screws before alignment.
FIG. 13 is a posterior view of spinal segment and implanted screws after alignment.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
Reference will now be made in detail to the present preferred embodiment of the invention, an example of which is illustrated in the accompanying drawings. Wherever possible, the same reference numbers will be used throughout the drawings to refer to the same or like parts. The following example is intended to be purely exemplary of the invention.
As generally described in PCT/US95/12894, the entire disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference, a typical surgical navigation system is shown in FIG. 1 adopted to be used in the present invention. A computer assisted image-guided surgery system, indicated generally at 10, generates an image for display on a monitor 106 representing the position of one or more body elements, such as spinal elements fixedly held in a stabilizing frame or device such as a spinal surgery frame 125 commonly used for spinal surgery. A reference arc 120 bearing tracking means or emitters, such as for example LED emitters 122, is mounted to the spinous process by a central post 150. The structures 20 and K wires 260 of FIG. 1 are depicted in more detail in FIG. 1A. The image 105 is generated from an image data set, usually generated preoperatively by a CAT scanner or by MRI for example, which image 105 has reference points for at least one body element, such as a spinal element or vertebrae. The reference points of the particular body element have a fixed spatial relation to the particular body element.
The system includes an apparatus such as a digitizer or other Position Sensing Unit (PSU), such as for example sensor array 110 on support 112 for identifying, during the procedure, the relative position of each of the reference points to be displayed by tracking the position of emitters 122 on arc 120. The system also includes a processor 114 such as a PC or other suitable workstation processor associated with controller 108 for modifying the image data set according to the identified relative position of each of the reference points during the procedure, as identified by digitizer 110. The processor 114 can then, for example, generate an image data set representing the position of the body elements during the procedure for display on monitor 106. A surgical instrument 130, such as a probe or drill or other tool, may be included in the system, which is positioned relative to a body part and similarly tracked by sensor array 110.
In summary, the general operation of a surgical navigating system is well known in the art and need not further be described here.
In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the present invention, with further reference to FIGS. 1 through 6, a registration device 20 is rigidly fixed to a spinal element by, for example, a device such as a bone clamp 30 depicted in FIG. 2. Alternatively, a screw retention device 40, such as the cannulated screw 42 depicted in FIG. 5, and described in more detail below, can be used.
With reference now to FIG. 2, bone clamp 30 is fixedly attached to the spinous process. The clamp 30 includes at least two blades (or jaws) 32 with tips or teeth 34, which are preferably sharp, for driving together and penetrating soft tissue or more dense bone for rigid fixation to the spinous process. The teeth 34 are also preferably sized to accommodate the bulb shape of the spinous process. The driving mechanism 40 is, for example, a screw driven into a sleeve 41 and is also preferably located such that it will be accessible in a percutaneous manner. Attached to the clamp 30 is a superstructure 20. The superstructure 20 includes a central post 150 which is relocatable, that is, it fixes to the clamp 30 in a rigid fashion, for example, as depicted in FIGS. 2D and 2E, by being inserted into a V-shaped wedge 44 orienting the post 150 front to back and providing a mating hole 48 along the wedge 44 for insertion of post 150 in a single orientation and also providing fasteners such as screw 43 for tightning to lock the post 150 in place. The post 150 can be removed and reapplied by loosening and tightening screw 43, such that the original geometry and orientation is maintained. The central post 150 has at its apex a connector 60 with unique geometrical configuration, such as, for example, a starburst, onto which a spinal reference arc 120 of the superstructure 20 attaches. Any such standard reference arc 120 can be used, such as depicted in FIGS. 1A, 4, and 11, preferably including emitters 122, such as for example LEDs or reflective spheres for providing a positive indication of movement to the surgical navigation system during a procedure.
Also rigidly attached to the central post 150, as part of the superstructure 20 preferably at a location closer to the skin, or possibly collocated with or also performing the function of the reference arc 120, is a fiducial array 170, which can be of various different shapes, such as, for example the H-shaped frame 170 depicted in FIG. 2, the W-shaped frame 170′ as depicted in FIG. 3, the U-shaped frame 170″ as depicted in FIG. 4 or the X-shaped frame 120′, 170′″ depicted in FIG. 5 (depicting a structure that is both a fiducial array and a reference arc). As depicted in FIGS. 2 and 3, this array can include fiducial points 29 or spheres 17, rigidly attached to fiducial array 170, 170′ and is, for example, as depicted in FIG. 3, substantially in the shape of spheres 17 and of a material detectable by the CAT scan or MRI, preferably titanium or aluminum. This fiducial array such as 170 indicates to the surgical navigation system the location of the bone structure to which the clamp 30 and central post 150 are attached by touching a pointed surgical tracker to fiducial points 29 or a cup-shaped probe to fiducial spheres 17, thereby indicating the center of the fiducial to the surgical navigation controller 114. The array 170 and central post 150 are also attached to the clamp 30, as described above, in such a way that they can be removed and replaced in the same geometric orientation and location, for example, by means of a uniquely shaped interface, for example, a triangle, or a single unique shape or a combination of unique angles or pins with the clamp 30 such that the post 150 can only be reinserted the same way it was removed.
Additionally, the fiducial array 170, can be located at various heights on the post 150 to accomodate variations in patient tissue depth and size, preferably as close to the patient's body as possible, and then fixed at that specific height by the use of pins or indents matched to holes 19 (shown in FIG. 2) in the central post 150 or by placing the rods 39 of H-shaped array 170 in different holes 31. The fiducial array 170 also has, for example, divots 29 (shown in FIG. 2) shaped to interface with an instrument such as a surgical pointer 130 which can touch that divot 29 to register the location of the divot 29 and, thus, the location of the fiducial array 170 and likewise the spinal element in the surgical navigation system. Multiple divots can be registered to further increase accuracy of the registration system. In one preferred embodiment of the array, the fiducials 17 or 29 can be mounted in a manner such that they can be adjusted, for example by mounting them on a rotatable or collapsible arm 66 (as depicted in FIG. 3) that pivots and folds together, to get the maximum distance between fiducials while not dramatically increasing the field of view required at the time of scanning.
Alternatively, rather than using clamp 30, a screw 42 and rigid wire 45 attachment, as depicted in FIGS. 5 and 6, may be used to rigidly attach the central post of the superstructure 20 to a body element, such as, for example, a vertebrae. As depicted in FIG. 6, screw 42 is screwed into the spinal process of spinal element 100. A rigid wire 45, post, or other sufficiently rigid fastener such as for example a Kirschner wire (K-wire), is inserted through the cannulation in the center of post 150 and the screw 42 or is otherwise fixed to the screw 42, and exits the tip of the screw 42 at some angle, and is also implanted into the spinal element 100 to prevent the screw 42 from rotating in either direction.
Another embodiment for preventing the superstructure 20 from rotating as depicted in FIGS. 10 and 11 includes the insertion of a screw 85 through a cannulated tube 86 which has teeth 89 in the end (or V-shaped end) that would bite into the tip of the spinous process, preventing rotation.
Having described the preferred embodiment of this apparatus of the present system, the method of using this apparatus to practice the invention of registering a single vertebrae will now be discussed. The operation of a surgical navigating system is generally well known and is described in PCT/US95/12894. In the preferred method of operation, clamp 30 of FIG. 2 or screw 42 and K-Wire 45 of FIG. 5 are implanted percutaneously through a small incision in the skin and rigidly attached to the spinal process. This attachment occurs with the clamp 30, by driving the blades 32 of the clamp 30 together to hold the spinous process rigidly. The central post 150 is then rigidly fixed to the clamp 30 or screw 42 and the fiducial array 170 is rigidly fixed to the central post 150. The patient is then scanned and imaged with a CAT scan or MRI with a field of view sufficiently large to display the spinal anatomy and the clamp 30 or screw 42 and the fiducial array 170. This scan is loaded into the surgical navigation system processor 104.
After scanning the patient, the array 120 and post 150 can be removed from the patient, while leaving in place the rigidly connected clamp 30 or screw 42. For example, as depicted in FIGS. 4D and 4E, a foot 55 located below array 170″ engages with shoe 56 and rigidly connected by screws 57 and 58. Before the surgical procedure, the post 150, array 120 and other remaining portions of the superstructure 20, once removed, may be sterilized. The patient is then moved to the operating room or similar facility from, for example, the scanning room.
Once in the operating room, the patient may be positioned in an apparatus, such as, for example, a spinal surgery frame 125 to help keep the spinal elements in a particular position and relatively motionless. The superstructure 20 is then replaced on the clamp 30 or screw 42 in a precise manner to the same relative position to the spinal elements as it was in the earlier CAT scan or MRI imaging. The reference arc 120 is fixed to the starburst or other interface connector 60 on the central post 150 which is fixed to the clamp 30 or screw 42. The operator, for example a surgeon, then touches an instrument with a tracking emitter such as a surgical pointer 130 with emitters 195 to the divots 29 on the fiducial array 170 to register the location of the array 170 and, thus, because the spinal process is fixed to the fiducial array 170, the location of the spinal element is also registered in the surgical navigation system.
Once the superstructure 20 is placed back on the patient, any instrument 130 fitted with tracking emitters thereon such as, for example, a drill or screw driver, can be tracked in space relative to the spine in the surgical navigation system without further surgical exposure of the spine. The position of the instrument 130 is determined by the user stepping on a foot pedal 116 to begin tracking the emitter array 190. The emitters 195 generate infrared signals to be picked up by camera digitizer array 110 and triangulated to determine the position of the instrument 130. Additionally, other methods may be employed to track reference arcs, pointer probes, and other tracked instruments, such as with reflective spheres, or sound or magnetic emitters, instead of LED's. For example, reflective spheres can reflect infrared light that is emitted from the camera array 110 back to the camera array 110. The relative position of the body part, such as the spinal process is determined in a similar manner, through the use of similar emitters 122 mounted on the reference frame 120 in mechanical communication with the spinal segment. As is well known in this art and described generally in PCT/US95/12894, based upon the relative position of the spinal segment and the instrument 130 (such as by touching a known reference point) the computer would illustrate a preoperative scan—such as the proper CAT scan slice—on the screen of monitor 106 which would indicate the position of the tool 130 and the spinal segment for the area of the spine involved in the medical procedure.
For better access by the operator of various areas near the central post 150, the fiducial array 170 can be removed from the central post 150, by, for example, loosening screw 42 and sliding the array 170 off post 150, leaving the reference arc 120 in place or replacing it after removal of array 170. By leaving the reference arc 120 in place, the registration of the location of the spinal process is maintained. Additionally, the central post 150, reference arc 120, and fiducial array 170 can be removed after the spinal element has been registered leaving only the clamp 30 or screw 42 in place. The entire surgical field can then be sterilized and a sterile post 150 and reference arc 170 fixed to the clamp 30 or screw 42 with the registration maintained.
This surgical navigation system, with spinal element registration maintained, can then be used, for example, to place necessary and desired screws, rods, hooks, plates, wires, and other surgical instruments and implants percutaneously, using image-guided technology. Once the location of the spinal element 100 involved in the procedure is registered, by the process described above, in relation to the image data set and image 105 projected on monitor 106, other instruments 130 and surgical implants can be placed under the patient's skin at locations indicated by the instrument 130 relative to the spinal element 100.
Additionally, the location of other spinal elements, relative to the spinal element 100 containing the fiducial array 170, can be registered in the surgical navigation system by, for example, inserting additional screws 250, rigid wires 260, or other rigid implants or imageable devices into the spinal segment.
For example, as depicted in FIG. 1, and in more detail FIG. 1A, additional screws 250 or rigid and pointed wires 260 are placed in the vertebrae adjacent to the vertebrae containing the clamp 30 and post 150 prior to scanning. On the image 105 provided by monitor 106, the surgeon can see the clamp 30 or screw 42 and fiducial array 170 and also the additional screws 250, wires 260 or other imageable devices. When screws 250 or other devices are used, these screws 250 (as depicted in FIG. 7) may contain a divot 256 or other specially shaped interface on the head 255 so that a pointer probe 130 can be used to point to the head 255 of the screw 250 (or wire) and indicate the orientation of the screw 250 or wire 260 to the surgical navigation system by communicating to the controller 114 or by emission from LEDs 195 on probe 130 to digitizer 110. The image of these additional screws 250 also appear in the scan. Once the patient is then moved to the operating facility, rather than the scanning area, the image of the screw 250 can be compared to the actual position of the screw 250 as indicated by the pointer probe 130 that is touched to the head 255 of the screw 250 or wire 260. If necessary, the operator can manipulate the position of the patient to move the spinal element and thus the location of the screw 250 or wire 260 to realign the spinal elements with the earlier image of the spine. Alternatively, the operator can manipulate the image to correspond to the current position of the spinal segments.
For additional positioning information, the operator can place additional rigid wires 260 or screws 250 into the vertebrae, for example, located at the superior (toward the patient's head) and inferior (towards the patient's feet) ends of the spinal process to more accurately position those vertebrae relative to the other vertebrae and the image data. Additionally, the wires 260 and screws 250 implanted to provide positioning information can also be equipped with emitters, such as, for example, LEDs, to provide additional information to the surgical navigation system on the location of the wire 260 or screw 250, and thus the vertebra to which they are affixed.
Alternatively, the patient can be placed in a position stabilizing device, such as a spinal surgery frame 125 or board, before a scan is taken, and then moved to the operating facility for the procedure, maintaining the spine segments in the same position from the time of scanning until the time of surgery. Alternatively, a fluoroscope can be used to reposition the spinal segments relative to the earlier image from the scan. An ultrasound probe can be used to take real-time images of the spinal segment which can be portrayed by monitor 106 overlayed or superimposed on image 105. Then the operator can manually manipulate the spinal elements and take additional images of these elements with the fluoroscope to, in an iterative fashion, align the spinal elements with the previously scanned image 105.
Alternatively, a clamp 30 or screw 42 and superstructure 20 can be rigidly fixed to each vertebra involved in the surgical or medical procedure to register the position of each vertebra as explained previously for a single vertebra:
After the spinal elements are registered in the spine, various medical and surgical procedures can be performed on that patient. For example, spinal implants, endoscopes, or biopsy probes can be passed into the spine and procedures such as, for example, spinal fusion, manipulation, or disc removal can be performed percutaneously and facilitated by the surgical navigation image-guiding system. Additionally, a radiation dose can be targeted to a specific region of the vertebrae.
One such procedure facilitated by the apparatus and methods described above is the percutaneous insertion of screws and rods, fixed to different vertebra in a spine to stabilize them. Once screws, for example multiaxial screws 250, (as depicted in FIG. 12, before manipulation) are implanted through small incisions they can be manipulated by a head-positioning probe 280. The final position of screws 250 and heads 255 are depicted in FIG. 13. This probe 280, as depicted in FIG. 7, includes a head 285 that mates in a geometrically unique fashion with the head 255 of the screw 250. An emitter, such as for example an LED array 380 on the probe 280, indicates the location and orientation of the screw head 255 to the computer 114 of the surgical navigation system by providing an optical signal received by digitizer 110. The screw head 255 can then be rotatably manipulated under the patient's skin by the head positioning probe 280 to be properly oriented for the receipt of a rod 360 inserted through the rotating head 255. The operator can then plan a path from the head 255 of each screw 250 to the other screws 250 to be connected. Then, with reference now to FIG. 9, an optically tracked rod inserter 245 also equipped with emitters, such as, for example LEDs 247, can be placed through another small incision to mate with and guide a rod 360 through the holes or slots in the screw heads 245, through and beneath various tissues of the patient, with the rod inserter 245, and, therefore, the rod 360, fixed to the inserter 245, being tracked in the surgical navigation system. The operator can also use the computer 114 to determine the required bending angles of the rod 360. For greater visualization, the geometry of the screws 250 could be loaded into the computer 114 and when the position and orientation of the head 255 is given to the computer 114 via the probe 280, the computer 114 could place this geometry onto the image data and three-dimensional model. The rod 360 geometry could also be loaded into the computer 114 and could be visible and shown in real time on monitor 106 as the operator is placing it in the screw heads 255.
In an alternative procedure, one or more plates and/or one or more wires may be inserted instead of one or more rods 360.
It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various modifications and variations can be made in the present invention and in construction of this surgical navigation system without departing from the scope or spirit of the invention. Other embodiments of the invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art from consideration of the specification and practice of the invention disclosed herein. It is intended that the specification and examples be considered as exemplary only.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US1576781||Apr 22, 1924||Mar 16, 1926||Philips Herman B||Fluoroscopic fracture apparatus|
|US1735726||Dec 20, 1927||Nov 12, 1929|| ||bornhardt|
|US2407845||Jan 16, 1943||Sep 17, 1946||California Inst Res Found||Aligning device for tools|
|US2650588||Feb 7, 1951||Sep 1, 1953||Drew Harry Guy Radcliffe||Artificial femoral head having an x-ray marker|
|US2697433||Dec 4, 1951||Dec 21, 1954||Max A Zehnder||Device for accurately positioning and guiding guide wires used in the nailing of thefemoral neck|
|US3016899||Nov 3, 1958||Jan 16, 1962||Carl B Stenvall||Surgical instrument|
|US3017887||Jan 19, 1960||Jan 23, 1962||William T Heyer||Stereotaxy device|
|US3061936||Jul 8, 1959||Nov 6, 1962||Univ Louvain||Stereotaxical methods and apparatus|
|US3073310||Aug 5, 1957||Jan 15, 1963||Zenon R Mocarski||Surgical instrument positioning device|
|US3109588||Jan 26, 1962||Nov 5, 1963||Bostick Lewis M||Celestial computers|
|US3294083||Aug 26, 1963||Dec 27, 1966||Alderson Res Lab Inc||Dosimetry system for penetrating radiation|
|US3367326||Jun 15, 1965||Feb 6, 1968||Calvin H. Frazier||Intra spinal fixation rod|
|US3439256||Feb 23, 1967||Apr 15, 1969||Merckle Flugzeugwerke Gmbh||Inductive angular position transmitter|
|US3577160||Jan 10, 1968||May 4, 1971||James E White||X-ray gauging apparatus with x-ray opaque markers in the x-ray path to indicate alignment of x-ray tube, subject and film|
|US3614950||Mar 17, 1969||Oct 26, 1971||Graham Peter Rabey||Apparatus for location relatively to a subject's cephalic axis|
|US3644825||Dec 31, 1969||Feb 22, 1972||Texas Instruments Inc||Magnetic detection system for detecting movement of an object utilizing signals derived from two orthogonal pickup coils|
|US3674014||Oct 21, 1970||Jul 4, 1972||Astra Meditec Ab||Magnetically guidable catheter-tip and method|
|US3702935||Oct 13, 1971||Nov 14, 1972||Litton Medical Products||Mobile fluoroscopic unit for bedside catheter placement|
|US3704707||Apr 6, 1971||Dec 5, 1972||William X Halloran||Orthopedic drill guide apparatus|
|US3821469||May 15, 1972||Jun 28, 1974||Amperex Electronic Corp||Graphical data device|
|US3868565||Jul 30, 1973||Feb 25, 1975||Jack Kuipers||Object tracking and orientation determination means, system and process|
|US3941127||Oct 3, 1974||Mar 2, 1976||Froning Edward C||Apparatus and method for stereotaxic lateral extradural disc puncture|
|US3983474||Feb 21, 1975||Sep 28, 1976||Polhemus Navigation Sciences, Inc.||Tracking and determining orientation of object using coordinate transformation means, system and process|
|US4017858||Feb 24, 1975||Apr 12, 1977||Polhemus Navigation Sciences, Inc.||Apparatus for generating a nutating electromagnetic field|
|US4037592||May 4, 1976||Jul 26, 1977||Kronner Richard F||Guide pin locating tool and method|
|US4052620||Nov 28, 1975||Oct 4, 1977||Picker Corporation||Method and apparatus for improved radiation detection in radiation scanning systems|
|US4054881||Apr 26, 1976||Oct 18, 1977||The Austin Company||Remote object position locater|
|US4058114||Sep 10, 1975||Nov 15, 1977||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft||Ultrasonic arrangement for puncturing internal body organs, vessels and the like|
|US4117337||Nov 3, 1977||Sep 26, 1978||General Electric Company||Patient positioning indication arrangement for a computed tomography system|
|US4173228||May 16, 1977||Nov 6, 1979||Applied Medical Devices||Catheter locating device|
|US4182312||May 20, 1977||Jan 8, 1980||Mushabac David R||Dental probe|
|US4202349||Apr 24, 1978||May 13, 1980||Jones James W||Radiopaque vessel markers|
|US4209254||Feb 1, 1979||Jun 24, 1980||Thomson-Csf||System for monitoring the movements of one or more point sources of luminous radiation|
|US4228799||Sep 22, 1978||Oct 21, 1980||Anichkov Andrei D||Method of guiding a stereotaxic instrument at an intracerebral space target point|
|US4256112||Feb 12, 1979||Mar 17, 1981||David Kopf Instruments||Head positioner|
|US4259725||Mar 1, 1979||Mar 31, 1981||General Electric Company||Cursor generator for use in computerized tomography and other image display systems|
|US4262306||Nov 21, 1979||Apr 14, 1981||Karlheinz Renner||Method and apparatus for monitoring of positions of patients and/or radiation units|
|US4287809||Aug 20, 1979||Sep 8, 1981||Honeywell Inc.||Helmet-mounted sighting system|
|US4298874||Oct 24, 1978||Nov 3, 1981||The Austin Company||Method and apparatus for tracking objects|
|US4314251||Jul 30, 1979||Feb 2, 1982||The Austin Company||Remote object position and orientation locater|
|US4317078||Oct 15, 1979||Feb 23, 1982||Ohio State University Research Foundation||Remote position and orientation detection employing magnetic flux linkage|
|US4319136||Nov 9, 1979||Mar 9, 1982||Jinkins J Randolph||Computerized tomography radiograph data transfer cap|
|US4328548||Apr 4, 1980||May 4, 1982||The Austin Company||Locator for source of electromagnetic radiation having unknown structure or orientation|
|US4328813||Oct 20, 1980||May 11, 1982||Medtronic, Inc.||Brain lead anchoring system|
|US4339953||Aug 29, 1980||Jul 20, 1982||Aisin Seiki Company, Ltd.||Position sensor|
|US4341220||Apr 13, 1979||Jul 27, 1982||Pfizer Inc.||Stereotactic surgery apparatus and method|
|US4346384||Jun 30, 1980||Aug 24, 1982||The Austin Company||Remote object position and orientation locator|
|US4358856||Oct 31, 1980||Nov 9, 1982||General Electric Company||Multiaxial x-ray apparatus|
|US4368536||Nov 19, 1980||Jan 11, 1983||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft||Diagnostic radiology apparatus for producing layer images|
|US4396885||Jun 3, 1980||Aug 2, 1983||Thomson-Csf||Device applicable to direction finding for measuring the relative orientation of two bodies|
|US4396945||Aug 19, 1981||Aug 2, 1983||Solid Photography Inc.||Method of sensing the position and orientation of elements in space|
|US4398540||Nov 4, 1980||Aug 16, 1983||Tokyo Shibaura Denki Kabushiki Kaisha||Compound mode ultrasound diagnosis apparatus|
|US4403321||Apr 15, 1981||Sep 6, 1983||U.S. Philips Corporation||Switching network|
|US4418422||Mar 11, 1981||Nov 29, 1983||Howmedica International, Inc.||Aiming device for setting nails in bones|
|US4419012||Sep 3, 1980||Dec 6, 1983||Elliott Brothers (London) Limited||Position measuring system|
|US4422041||Jul 30, 1981||Dec 20, 1983||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army||Magnet position sensing system|
|US4431005||May 7, 1981||Feb 14, 1984||Mccormick Laboratories, Inc.||Method of and apparatus for determining very accurately the position of a device inside biological tissue|
|US4457311||Sep 3, 1982||Jul 3, 1984||Medtronic, Inc.||Ultrasound imaging system for scanning the human back|
|US4485815||Aug 30, 1982||Dec 4, 1984||Kurt Amplatz||Device and method for fluoroscope-monitored percutaneous puncture treatment|
|US4506676||Sep 10, 1982||Mar 26, 1985||Duska Alois A||Radiographic localization technique|
|US4543959||Jan 25, 1985||Oct 1, 1985||Instrumentarium Oy||Diagnosis apparatus and the determination of tissue structure and quality|
|US4548208||Jun 27, 1984||Oct 22, 1985||Medtronic, Inc.||Automatic adjusting induction coil treatment device|
|US4571834||May 16, 1985||Feb 25, 1986||Orthotronics Limited Partnership||Knee laxity evaluator and motion module/digitizer arrangement|
|US4572198||Jun 18, 1984||Feb 25, 1986||Varian Associates, Inc.||Catheter for use with NMR imaging systems|
|US4583538||May 4, 1984||Apr 22, 1986||Onik Gary M||Method and apparatus for stereotaxic placement of probes in the body utilizing CT scanner localization|
|US4584577||Oct 17, 1983||Apr 22, 1986||Brookes & Gatehouse Limited||Angular position sensor|
|US4592352||Nov 30, 1984||Jun 3, 1986||Patil Arun A||Computer-assisted tomography stereotactic system|
|US4602622||Nov 3, 1980||Jul 29, 1986||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft||Medical examination installation|
|US4608977||Dec 20, 1982||Sep 2, 1986||Brown Russell A||System using computed tomography as for selective body treatment|
|US4613866||May 13, 1983||Sep 23, 1986||Mcdonnell Douglas Corporation||Three dimensional digitizer with electromagnetic coupling|
|US4617925||Sep 28, 1984||Oct 21, 1986||Laitinen Lauri V||Adapter for definition of the position of brain structures|
|US4618978||Oct 21, 1983||Oct 21, 1986||Cosman Eric R||Means for localizing target coordinates in a body relative to a guidance system reference frame in any arbitrary plane as viewed by a tomographic image through the body|
|US4621628||Sep 6, 1984||Nov 11, 1986||Ortopedia Gmbh||Apparatus for locating transverse holes of intramedullary implantates|
|US4625718||Jun 7, 1985||Dec 2, 1986||Howmedica International, Inc.||Aiming apparatus|
|US4638798||Sep 10, 1980||Jan 27, 1987||Shelden C Hunter||Stereotactic method and apparatus for locating and treating or removing lesions|
|US4642786||May 25, 1984||Feb 10, 1987||Position Orientation Systems, Ltd.||Method and apparatus for position and orientation measurement using a magnetic field and retransmission|
|US4645343||Jun 4, 1984||Feb 24, 1987||U.S. Philips Corporation||Atomic resonance line source lamps and spectrophotometers for use with such lamps|
|US4649504||May 22, 1984||Mar 10, 1987||Cae Electronics, Ltd.||Optical position and orientation measurement techniques|
|US4651732||Apr 11, 1985||Mar 24, 1987||Frederick Philip R||Three-dimensional light guidance system for invasive procedures|
|US4653509||Jul 3, 1985||Mar 31, 1987||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force||Guided trephine samples for skeletal bone studies|
|US4659971||Aug 16, 1985||Apr 21, 1987||Seiko Instruments & Electronics Ltd.||Robot controlling system|
|US4660970||Oct 15, 1984||Apr 28, 1987||Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung||Method and apparatus for the contact-less measuring of objects|
|US4673352||Jan 2, 1986||Jun 16, 1987||Markus Hansen||Device for measuring relative jaw positions and movements|
|US4686997||Nov 13, 1986||Aug 18, 1987||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force||Skeletal bone remodeling studies using guided trephine sample|
|US4688037||Apr 19, 1982||Aug 18, 1987||Mcdonnell Douglas Corporation||Electromagnetic communications and switching system|
|US4701049||Jun 19, 1984||Oct 20, 1987||B.V. Optische Industrie "De Oude Delft"||Measuring system employing a measuring method based on the triangulation principle for the non-contact measurement of a distance from the surface of a contoured object to a reference level. _|
|US4705395||Oct 3, 1984||Nov 10, 1987||Diffracto Ltd.||Triangulation data integrity|
|US4705401||Aug 12, 1985||Nov 10, 1987||Cyberware Laboratory Inc.||Rapid three-dimensional surface digitizer|
|US4706665||Dec 17, 1984||Nov 17, 1987||Gouda Kasim I||Frame for stereotactic surgery|
|US4709156||Nov 27, 1985||Nov 24, 1987||Ex-Cell-O Corporation||Method and apparatus for inspecting a surface|
|US4710708||Jul 23, 1982||Dec 1, 1987||Develco||Method and apparatus employing received independent magnetic field components of a transmitted alternating magnetic field for determining location|
|US4719419||Jul 15, 1985||Jan 12, 1988||Harris Graphics Corporation||Apparatus for detecting a rotary position of a shaft|
|US4722056||Feb 18, 1986||Jan 26, 1988||Trustees Of Dartmouth College||Reference display systems for superimposing a tomagraphic image onto the focal plane of an operating microscope|
|US4722336||Jan 25, 1985||Feb 2, 1988||Michael Kim||Placement guide|
|US4723544||Jul 9, 1986||Feb 9, 1988||Moore Robert R||Hemispherical vectoring needle guide for discolysis|
|US4727565||Nov 13, 1984||Feb 23, 1988||Ericson Bjoern E||Method of localization|
|US4733661||Apr 27, 1987||Mar 29, 1988||Palestrant Aubrey M||Guidance device for C.T. guided drainage and biopsy procedures|
|US4733969||Sep 8, 1986||Mar 29, 1988||Cyberoptics Corporation||Laser probe for determining distance|
|US5776064 *||May 20, 1996||Jul 7, 1998||The Cleveland Clinic Foundation||Frameless stereotaxy system for indicating the position and axis of a surgical probe|
|USRE32619||Oct 17, 1984||Mar 8, 1988|| ||Apparatus and method for nuclear magnetic resonance scanning and mapping|
|DE19715202A1 *||Apr 11, 1997||Oct 15, 1998||Brainlab Med Computersyst Gmbh||Position referencing system for medical examinations or treatment|
|EP0018166A1||Apr 9, 1980||Oct 29, 1980||Pfizer Inc.||Apparatus for use in stereotactic surgery|
|EP0326768A2 *||Dec 13, 1988||Aug 9, 1989||Faro Medical Technologies Inc.||Computer-aided surgery apparatus|
|EP0359773B1||May 21, 1988||Oct 6, 1993||Schlöndorff, Georg, Prof. Dr. med.||Process and device for optical representation of surgical operations|
|EP0427358A1 *||Oct 19, 1990||May 15, 1991||George S. Allen||Mechanical arm for and interactive image-guided surgical system|
|EP0456103A2 *||May 2, 1991||Nov 13, 1991||International Business Machines Corporation||Image-directed robotic system for precise surgery|
|EP0469966A1 *||Jul 25, 1991||Feb 5, 1992||Faro Medical Technologies (Us) Inc.||Computer-aided surgery apparatus|
|EP0501993B1||Nov 21, 1990||Jun 11, 1997||I.S.G. Technologies Inc.||Probe-correlated viewing of anatomical image data|
|WO1996011624A2 *||Oct 5, 1995||Apr 25, 1996||Univ St Louis||Surgical navigation systems including reference and localization frames|
|WO1996032059A1 *||Nov 6, 1995||Oct 17, 1996||Compass International Inc||Magnetic field digitizer for stereotactic surgery|
|1|| *||3-D Digitizer Captures the World, BYTE, Oct. 1990, p. 43.|
|2||Adams et al., "Orientation Aid for Head and Neck Surgeons," Innov. Tech. Biol. Med., vol. 13, No. 4, 1992, pp. 409-424.|
|3|| *||Adams et al., Computer-Assisted Surgery, IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications, May 1990, pp. 43-51.|
|4||Adams et al., Computer-Assisted Surgery, IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications, pp. 43-51, (May 1990).|
|5|| *||Alignment Procedure for the PixSys Two-Emitter Offset Probe for the SAC GP-8-3d Sonic Digitizer, PixSys, Jul. 2, 1992, pp. 1-4.|
|6|| *||Awwad, et al., Post-traumatic Spinal Synovial Cyst with Spondylolysis: CT Features, Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, vol. 13, No. 2, 1989, pp. 334-337.|
|7||Barrick et al., "Prophylactic Intramedullary Fixation of the Tibia for Stress Fracture in a Professional Athlete," Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 241-244 (1992).|
|8||Barrick et al., "Technical Difficulties with the Brooker-Wills Nail in Acute Fractures of the Femur," Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 144-150 (1990).|
|9||Barrick, "Distal Locking Screw Insertion Using a Cannulated Drill Bit: Technical Note," Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, vol. 7, No. 3, 1993, pp. 248-251.|
|10||Batnitzky et al., "Three-Dimensinal Computer Reconstructions of Brain Lesions from Surface Contours Provided by Computed Tomography: A Prospectus," Neurosurgery, vol. 11, No. 1, Part 1, 1982, pp. 73-84.|
|11||Benzel et al., "Magnetic Source Imaging: a Review of the Magnes System of Biomagnetic Technologies Incorporated," Neurosurgery, vol. 33, No. 2 (Aug. 1993), pp. 252-259.|
|12||Bergstrom et al. Stereotaxic Computed Tomography, Am. J. Roentgenol, vol. 127 pp. 167-170 (1976).|
|13||Bouazza-Marouf et al.; "Robotic-Assisted Internal Fixation of Femoral Fractures", IMECHE., pp. 51-58 (1995).|
|14||Brack et al., "Accurate X-ray Based Navigation in Computer-Assisted Orthopedic Surgery," CAR '98, pp. 716-722.|
|15||Brown, R., M.D., A Stereotactic Head Frame for Use with CT Body Scanners, Investigative Radiology © J.B. Lippincott Company, pp. 300-304 (Jul.-Aug. 1979).|
|16||Bryan, "Bryan Cervical Disc System Single Level Surgical Technique", Spinal Dynamics, 2002, pp. 1-33.|
|17||Bucholz et al., "Variables affecting the accuracy of stereotactic localizationusing computerized tomography," Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 79, Nov. 1993, pp. 667-673.|
|18|| *||Bucholz, et al., Halo vest versus spinal fusion for cervical injury: evidence from an outcome study, J. Neurosurg., vol. 70, pp. 884-892.|
|19|| *||Bucholz, et al., Image-Guided Surgical Techniques for Infections and Trauma of the Central Nervous System, Neurosurgery Clinics of North America, vol. 7, No. 2, Apr. 1996, pp. 187-200.|
|20|| *||Bucholz, et al., Intraoperative localization using a three dimensional optical digitizer, SPIE vol. 1894, Jan. 17, 1993, pp. 312-322.|
|21||Bucholz, R.D., et al. Image-guided surgical techniques for infections and trauma of the central nervous system, Neurosurg. Clinics of N.A., vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 187-200 (1996).|
|22||Bucholz, R.D., et al., A Comparison of Sonic Digitizers Versus Light Emitting Diode-Based Localization, Interactiv Image-Guided Neurosurgery, Chapter 16, pp. 179-200 (1993).|
|23||Bucholz, R.D., et al., Intraoperative localization using a three dimensional optical digitizer, SPIE-The Intl. Soc. for Opt. Eng., vol. 1894, pp. 312-322 (Jan. 17-19, 1993).|
|24||Bucholz, R.D., et al., Intraoperative localization using a three dimensional optical digitizer, SPIE—The Intl. Soc. for Opt. Eng., vol. 1894, pp. 312-322 (Jan. 17-19, 1993).|
|25||Bucholz, R.D., et al., Intraoperative Ultrasonic Brain Shift Monitor and Analysis, Stealth Station Marketing Brochure (2 pages) (undated).|
|26||Bucholz, R.D., et al., The Correction of Stereotactic Inaccuracy Caused by Brain Shift Using an Intraoperative Ultrasound Device, First Joint Conference, Computer Vision, Virtual Reality and Robotics in Medicine and Medical Robotics and Computer-Assisted Surgery, Grenoble, France, pp. 459-466 (Mar. 19-22, 1997).|
|27||Champleboux et al., "Accurate Calibration of Cameras and Range Imaging Sensors: the NPBS Method," IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Nice, France, May 1992.|
|28||Champleboux, "Utilisation de Fonctions Splines pour la Mise au Point D'un Capteur Tridimensionnel sans Contact," Quelques Applications Medicales, Jul. 1991.|
|29||Cinquin et al., "Computer Assisted Medical Interventions," IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology, May/Jun. 1995, pp. 254-263.|
|30||Cinquin et al., "Computer Assisted Medical Interventions," International Advanced Robotics Programme, Sep. 1989, pp. 63-65.|
|31|| *||Cinquin, et al., GOR: Image Guided Operating Robot. Methodology, Applications, IEEE EMBS, Paris 1992, pp. 1-2.|
|32||Clarysse et al., "A Computer-Assisted System for 3-D Frameless Localization in Stereotaxic MRI," IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol. 10, No. 4, Dec. 1991, pp. 523-529.|
|33||Cutting M.D. et al., Optical Tracking of Bone Fragments During Craniofacial Surgery, Second Annual International Symposium on Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery, pp. 221-225, (Nov. 1995).|
|34||Feldmar et al., "3D-2D Projective Registration of Free-Form Curves and Surfaces," Rapport de recherche (Inria Sophia Antipolis), 1994, pp. 1-44.|
|35||Foley et al., "Fundamentals of Interactive Computer Graphics," The Systems Programming Series, Chapter 7, Jul. 1984, pp. 245-266.|
|36||Foley et al., "Image-guided Intraoperative Spinal Localization," Intraoperative Neuroprotection, Chapter 19, 1996, pp. 325-340.|
|37||Foley, "The StealthStation: Three-Dimensional Image-Interactive Guidance for the Spine Surgeon," Spinal Frontiers, Apr. 1996, pp. 7-9.|
|38|| *||Foley, et al., Image-guided Intraoperative Spinal Localization, Intraoperative Neuroprotection: Monitoring, Part Three, 1996, pp. 325-340.|
|39||Friets, E.M., et al. A Frameless Stereotaxic Operating Microscope for Neurosurgery, IEEE Trans. on Biomed. Eng., vol. 36, No. 6, pp. 608-617 (Jul. 1989).|
|40||Gallen, C.C., et al., Intracranial Neurosurgery Guided by Functional Imaging, Surg. Neurol., vol. 42, pp. 523-530 (1994).|
|41||Galloway, R.L., et al., Interactive Image-Guided Neurosurgery, IEEE Trans. on Biomed. Eng., vol. 89, No. 12, pp. 1226-1231 (1992).|
|42||Galloway, R.L., Jr. et al, Optical localization for interactive, image-guided neurosurgery, SPIE, vol. 2164, pp. 137-145 (undated.|
|43||Germano, "Instrumentation, Technique and Technology", Neurosurgery, vol. 37, No. 2, Aug. 1995, pp. 348-350.|
|44||Gildenberg et al., "Calculation of Stereotactic Coordinates from the Computed Tomographic Scan," Neurosurgery, vol. 10, No. 5, May 1982, pp. 580-586.|
|45||Gomez, C.R., et al., Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound Following Closed Head Injury: Vasospasm or Vasoparalysis?, Surg. Neurol., vol. 35, pp. 30-35 (1991).|
|46||Gonzalez, "Digital Image Fundamentals," Digital Image Processing, Second Edition, 1987, pp. 52-54.|
|47||Gottesfeld Brown et al., "Registration of Planar Film Radiographs with Computer Tomography," Proceedings of MMBIA, Jun. '96, pp. 42-51.|
|48||Grimson, W.E.L., An Automatic Registration Method for Frameless Stereotaxy, Image Guided Surgery, and enhanced Reality Visualization, IEEE, pp. 430-436 (1994).|
|49||Grimson, W.E.L., et al., Virtual-reality technology is giving surgeons the equivalent of x-ray vision helping them to remove tumors more effectively, to minimize surgical wounds and to avoid damaging critical tissues, Sci. Amer., vol. 280, No. 6, pp. 62-69 (Jun. 1999).|
|50||Gueziec et al., "Registration of Computed Tomography Data to a Surgical Robot Using Fluoroscopy: A Feasibility Study," Computer Science/Mathematics, Sep. 27, 1996, 6 pages.|
|51||Guthrie, B.L., Graphic-Interactive Cranial Surgery: The Operating Arm System, Handbook of Stereotaxy Using the CRW Apparatus, Chapter 13, pp. 193-211 (undated.|
|52||Hamadeh et al, "Kinematic Study of Lumbar Spine Using Functional Radiographies and 3D/2D Registration," TIMC UMR 5525-IMAG.|
|53||Hamadeh et al, "Kinematic Study of Lumbar Spine Using Functional Radiographies and 3D/2D Registration," TIMC UMR 5525—IMAG.|
|54||Hamadeh et al., "Automated 3-Dimensional Computed Tomographic and Fluorscopic Image Registration," Computer Aided Surgery (1998), 3:11-19.|
|55||Hamadeh et al., "Towards Automatic Registration Between CT and X-ray Images: Cooperation Between 3D/2D Registration and 2D Edge Detection," MRCAS '95, pp. 39-46.|
|56||Hardy, T., M.D., et al., CASS: A Program for Computer Assist Stereotaxic Surgery, The Fifth Annual Symposium on Computer Applications in Medical Care, Proceedings, Nov. 1-4, 1981, IEEE, pp. 1116-1126, (1981).|
|57||Hatch, "Reference-Display System for the Integration of CT Scanning and the Operating Microscope," Thesis, Thayer School of Engineering, Oct. 1984, pp. 1-189.|
|58||Hatch, et al., "Reference-Display System for the Integration of CT Scanning and the Operating Microscope", Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference, Mar. 14-15, 1985, pp. 252-254.|
|59||Heilbrun et al., "Preliminary experience with Brown-Roberts-Wells (BRW) computerized tomography stereotaxic guidance system," Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 59, Aug. 1983, pp. 217-222.|
|60||Heilbrun, M.D., Progressive Technology Applications, Neurosurgery for the Third Millenium, Chapter 15, J. Whitaker & Sons, Ltd., Amer. Assoc. of Neurol. Surgeons, pp. 191-198 (1992).|
|61||Heilbrun, M.P., Computed Tomography-Guided Stereotactic Systems, Clinical Neurosurgery, Chapter 31, pp. 564-581 (1983).|
|62||Heilbrun, M.P., Computed Tomography—Guided Stereotactic Systems, Clinical Neurosurgery, Chapter 31, pp. 564-581 (1983).|
|63||Heilbrun, M.P., et al., Stereotactic Localization and Guidance Using a Machine Vision Technique, Sterotact & Funct. Neurosurg., Proceed. of the Mtg. of the Amer. Soc. for Sterot. and Funct. Neurosurg. (Pittsburgh, PA) vol. 58, pp. 94-98 (1992).|
|64||Henderson et al., "An Accurate and Ergonomic Method of Registration for Image-guided Neurosurgery," Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics, vol. 18, No. 4, Jul.-Aug. 1994, pp. 273-277.|
|65||Hoerenz, "The Operating Microscope I. Optical Principles, Illumination Systems, and Support Systems," Journal of Microsurgery, vol. 1, 1980, pp. 364-369.|
|66||Hofstetter et al., "Fluoroscopy Based Surgical Navigation-Concept and Clinical Applications," Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, 1997, pp. 956-960.|
|67||Hofstetter et al., "Fluoroscopy Based Surgical Navigation—Concept and Clinical Applications," Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, 1997, pp. 956-960.|
|68||Horner et al., "A Comparison of CT-Stereotaxic Brain Biopsy Techniques," Investigative Radiology, Sep.-Oct. 1984, pp. 367-373.|
|69||Hounsfield, "Computerized transverse axial scanning (tomography): Part 1. Description of system," British Journal of Radiology, vol. 46, No. 552, Dec. 1973, pp. 1016-1022.|
|70|| *||J.F. Mallet, et al., Post-Laminectomy Cervical-Thoracic Kyphosis in a Patient with Von Recklinghausen's Disease, Spinal Frontiers, vol. Three, Issue One, Apr. 1996, pp. 1-15.|
|71||Jacques et al., "A Computerized Microstereotactic Method to Approach, 3-Dimensionally Reconstruct, Remove and Adjuvantly Treat Small CNS Lesions," Applied Neurophysiology, vol. 43, 1980, pp. 176-182.|
|72||Jacques et al., "Computerized three-dimensional stereotaxic removal of small central nervous system lesion in patients," J. Neurosurg., vol. 53, Dec. 1980, pp. 816-820.|
|73||Joskowicz et al., "Computer-Aided Image-Guided Bone Fracture Surgery: Concept and Implementation," CAR '98, pp. 710-715.|
|74||Kall, B., The Impact of Computer and Imaging Technology on Stereotactic Surgery, Proceedings of the Meeting of the American Society for Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, pp. 10-22 (1987).|
|75||Kato, A., et al., A frameless, armless navigational system for computer-assisted neurosurgery, J. Neurosurg., vol. 74, pp. 845-849 (May 1991).|
|76|| *||Kato, et al., A frameless, armless navigational system for computer-assisted neurosurgery, J. Neurosurgery 74 1991, pp. 845-849.|
|77||Kelly et al., "Computer-assisted stereotaxic laser resection of intra-axial brain neoplasms," Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 64, Mar. 1986, pp. 427-439.|
|78||Kelly et al., "Precision Resection of Intra-Axial CNS Lesions by CT-Based Stereotactic Craniotomy and Computer Monitored CO2 Laser," Acta Neurochirurgica, vol. 68, 1983, pp. 1-9.|
|79||Kelly, P.J., Computer Assisted Stereotactic Biopsy and Volumetric Resection of Pediatric Brain Tumors, Brain Tumors in Children, Neurologic Clinics, vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 317-336 (May 1991).|
|80||Kelly, P.J., Computer-Directed Stereotactic Resection of Brain Tumors, Neurologica Operative Atlas, vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 299-313 (1991).|
|81||Kelly, P.J., et al., Results of Computed Tomography-based Computer-assisted Stereotactic Resection of Metastatic Intracranial Tumors, Neurosurgery, vol. 22, No. 1, Part 1, 1988, pp. 7-17 (Jan. 1988).|
|82||Kelly, P.J., Stereotactic Imaging, Surgical Planning and Computer-Assisted Resection of Intracranial Lesions: Methods and Results, Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery, vol. 17, pp. 78-118, (1990).|
|83|| *||Kelly, The NeuroStation System for Image-Guided, Frameless Stereotaxy, Neurosurgery, vol. 37, No. 2, Aug. 1995, pp. 348-350.|
|84||Kim, W.S. et al., A Helmet Mounted Display for Telerobotics, IEEE, pp. 543-547 (1988).|
|85||Klimek, L., et al., Long-Term Experience with Different Types of Localization Systems in Skull-Base Surgery, Ear, Nose & Throat Surgery, Chapter 51, pp. 635-638 (undated).|
|86||Kosugi, Y., et al., An Articulated Neurosurgical Navigation System Using MRI and CT Images, IEEE Trans. on Biomed, Eng. vol. 35, No. 2, pp. 147-152 (Feb. 1988).|
|87||Krybus, W., et al., Navigation Support for Surgery by Means of Optical Position Detection, Computer Assisted Radiology Proceed. of the Intl. Symp. CAR '91 Computed Assisted Radiology, pp. 362-366 (Jul. 3-6, 1991).|
|88||Kwoh, Y.S., Ph.D., et al., A New Computerized Tomographic-Aided Robotic Stereotaxis System, Robotics Age, vol. 7, No. 6, pp. 17-22 (Jun. 1985).|
|89||Laitinen et al., "An Adapter for Computed Tomography-Guided, Stereotaxis," Surg. Neurol., 1985, pp. 559-566.|
|90||Laitinen, "Noninvasive multipurpose stereoadapter," Neurological Research, Jun. 1987, pp. 137-141.|
|91||Lavalle, S., et al., Computer Assisted Knee Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction First Clinical Tests, Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery, pp. 11-16 (Sep. 1994).|
|92||Lavallee et al, "Matching 3-D Smooth Surfaces with their 2-D Projections using 3-D Distance Maps," SPIE, vol. 1570, Geometric Methods in Computer Vision, 1991, pp. 322-336.|
|93||Lavallee et al., "Computer Assisted Driving of a Needle into the Brain," Proceedings of the International Symposium CAR '89, Computer Assisted Radiology, 1989, pp. 416-420.|
|94||Lavallee et al., "Computer Assisted Interventionist Imaging: The Instance of Stereotactic Brain Surgery," North-Holland MEDINFO 89, Part 1, 1989, pp. 613-617.|
|95||Lavallee et al., "Computer Assisted Spine Surgery: A Technique For Accurate Transpedicular Screw Fixation Using CT Data and a 3-D Optical Localizer," TIMC, Faculte de Medecine de Grenoble.|
|96||Lavallee et al., "Image guided operating robot: a clinical application in stereotactic neurosurgery," Proceedings of the 1992 IEEE Internation Conference on Robotics and Automation, May 1992, pp. 618-624.|
|97||Lavallee et al., "Matching of Medical Images for Computed and Robot Assisted Surgery," IEEE EMBS, Orlando, 1991.|
|98||Lavallee, "A New System for Computer Assisted Neurosurgery," IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society 11th Annual International Conference, 1989, pp. 0926-0927.|
|99||Lavallee, "VI Adaption de la Methodologie a Quelques Applications Cliniques," Chapitre VI, pp. 133-148.|
|100|| *||Lavallée, et al., Computer Assisted Medical Interventions, NATO ASI Series, vol. F 60, 1990, pp. 301-312.|
|101||Lavallee, S., et al., Computer Assisted Medical Interventions, NATO ASI Series, vol. F 60, 3d Imaging in Medic., pp. 301-312 (1990).|
|102||Leavitt, D.D., et al., Dynamic Field Shaping to Optimize Stereotactic Radiosurgery, I.J. Rad. Onc. Biol. Physc., vol. 21, pp. 1247-1255 (1991).|
|103||Leksell et al., "Stereotaxis and Tomography-A Technical Note," ACTA Neurochirurgica, vol. 52, 1980, pp. 1-7.|
|104||Leksell et al., "Stereotaxis and Tomography—A Technical Note," ACTA Neurochirurgica, vol. 52, 1980, pp. 1-7.|
|105||Lemieux et al., "A Patient-to-Computed-Tomography Image Registration Method Based on Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs," Med. Phys. 21 (11), Nov. 1994, pp. 1749-1760.|
|106||Levin et al., "The Brain: Integrated Three-dimensional Display of MR and PET Images," Radiology, vol. 172, No. 3, Sep. 1989, pp. 783-789.|
|107||Maurer, Jr., et al., Registration of Head CT Images to Physical Space Using a Weighted Combination of Points and Surfaces, IEEE Trans. on Med. Imaging, vol. 17, No. 5, pp. 753-761 (Oct. 1998).|
|108||Mazier et al., "Computer-Assisted Interventionist Imaging: Application to the Vertebral Column Surgery," Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, vol. 12, No. 1, 1990, pp. 0430-0431.|
|109||Mazier et al., Chirurgie de la Colonne Vertebrale Assistee par Ordinateur: Appication au Vissage Pediculaire, Innov. Tech. Biol. Med., vol. 11, No. 5, 1990, pp. 559-566.|
|110|| *||Mazier, et al., Computer Assisted Interventionist Imaging: Application to the Vertebral Column Surgery, Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, vol. 12, No. 1, 1990, pp. 0430-0431.|
|111||McGirr, S., M.D., et al., Stereotactic Resection of Juvenile Pilocytic Astrocytomas of the Thalamus and Basal Ganglia, Neurosurgery, vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 447-452, (1987).|
|112||Merloz, et al., "Computer Assisted Spine Surgery", Clinical Assisted Spine Surgery, No. 337, pp. 86-96.|
|113||Ng, W.S. et al., Robotic Surgery-A First-Hand Experience in Transurethral Resection of the Prostate Surgery, IEEE Eng. in Med. and Biology, pp. 120-125 (Mar. 1993).|
|114||Ng, W.S. et al., Robotic Surgery—A First-Hand Experience in Transurethral Resection of the Prostate Surgery, IEEE Eng. in Med. and Biology, pp. 120-125 (Mar. 1993).|
|115||Office Action mailed Dec. 12, 2008 in pending U.S. Appl. No. 11/451,594, filed Jun. 12, 2006.|
|116||Office Action mailed Sep. 21, 2008 in pending U.S. Appl. No. 11/451,594, filed Jun. 12, 2006.|
|117||Pelizzari et al., "Accurate Three-Dimensional Registration of CT, PET, and/or MR Images of the Brain," Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, Jan./Feb. 1989, pp. 20-26.|
|118||Pelizzari et al., "Interactive 3D Patient-Image Registration," Information Processing in Medical Imaging, 12th International Conference, IPMI '91, Jul. 7-12, 136-141 (A.C.F. Colchester et al. eds. 1991).|
|119||Pelizzari et al., No. 528-"Three Dimensional Correlation of PET, CT and MRI Images," The Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 28, No. 4, Apr. 1987, p. 682.|
|120||Pelizzari et al., No. 528—"Three Dimensional Correlation of PET, CT and MRI Images," The Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 28, No. 4, Apr. 1987, p. 682.|
|121||Penn, R.D., et al., Stereotactic Surgery with Image Processing of Computerized Tomographic Scans, Neurosurgery, vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 157-163 (Sep.-Oct. 1978).|
|122||Phillips et al., "Image Guided Orthopaedic Surgery Design and Analysis," Trans Inst. MC, vol. 17, No. 5, 1995, pp. 251-264.|
|123||Pixsys, 3-D Digitizing Accessories, by Pixsys (marketing brochure) (undated) (2 pages).|
|124||Potamianos et al., "Intra-Operative Imaging Guidance for Keyhole Surgery Methodology and Calibration," First International Symposium on Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery, Sep. 22-24, 1994, pp. 98-104.|
|125||Prestige Cervical Disc System Surgical Technique, 12 pgs.|
|126||Reinhardt et al., "CT-Guided ‘Real Time’ Stereotaxy," Acta Neurochirurgica, 1989.|
|127|| *||Reinhardt, et al., Interactive Sonar-Operated Device for Stereotactic and Open Surgery, Proceedings of the Xth Meeting of the World Society for Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, Maebashi, Japan, Oct. 1989, pp. 393-397.|
|128||Reinhardt, H., et al., A Computer-Assisted Device for Intraoperative CT-Correlated Localization of Brain Tumors, pp. 51-58 (1988).|
|129||Reinhardt, H.F. et al., Sonic Stereometry in Microsurgical Procedures for Deep-Seated Brain Tumors and Vascular Malformations, Neurosurgery, vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 51-57 (Jan. 1993).|
|130||Reinhardt, H.F., et al., Mikrochirugische Entfernung tiefliegender Gefäβmiβbild ungen mit Hilfe der Sonar-Stereometrie (Microsurgical Removal of Deep-Seated Vascular Malformations Using Sonar Stereometry). Ultraschall in Med. 12, pp. 80-83 (1991).|
|131||Reinhardt, Hans. F., Neuronavigation: A Ten-Year Review, Neurosurgery, pp. 329-341 (undated).|
|132|| *||Reinhardt, Neuronavigation: A Ten-Year Review, Neurosurgery, 1993, pp. 329-341.|
|133||Roberts et al., "A frameless stereotaxic integration of computerized tomographic imaging and the operating microscope," J. Neurosurg., vol. 65, Oct. 1986, pp. 545-549.|
|134||Rosenbaum et al., "Computerized Tomography Guided Stereotaxis: A New Approach," Applied Neurophysiology, vol. 43, No. 3-5, 1980, pp. 172-173.|
|135|| *||Sautot et al., Computer Assisted Spine Surgery: a first step toward clinical application in orthopaedics, IEEE, 1992, p. 1071-1072.|
|136||Sautot, "Vissage Pediculaire Assiste Par Ordinateur," Sep. 20, 1994.|
|137||Schueler et al., "Correction of Image Intensifier Distortion for Three-Dimensional X-Ray Angiography," SPIE Medical Imaging 1995, vol. 2432, pp. 272-279.|
|138||Selvik et al., "A Roentgen Stereophotogrammetric System," Acta Radiologica Diagnosis, 1983, pp. 343-352.|
|139||Shelden et al., "Development of a computerized microsteroetaxic method for localization and removal of minute CNS lesions under direct 3-D vision," J. Neurosurg., vol. 52, 1980, pp. 21-27.|
|140||Simon, D.A., Accuracy Validation in Image-Guided Orthopaedic Surgery, Second Annual Intl. Symp. on Med. Rob. an Comp-Assisted surgery, MRCAS '95, pp. 185-192 (undated).|
|141||Smith et al., "Computer Methods for Improved Diagnostic Image Display Applied to Stereotactic Neurosurgery," Automedical, vol. 14, 1992, pp. 371-382 (4 unnumbered pages).|
|142||Smith et al., "The Neurostation™—A Highly Accurate, Minimally Invasive Solution to Frameless Stereotactic Neurosurgery," Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics, vol. 18, Jul.-Aug. 1994, pp. 247-256.|
|143|| *||Smith et al., Multimodality Image Analysis and Display Methods for Improved Tumor Localization in Stereotatic Neurosurgery, Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, vol. 13, 1991, p. 0210.|
|144|| *||Smith, et al., Computer Methods for Improved Diagnostic Image Display Applied to Stereotactic Neurosurgery, Automedica, 1992, vol. 14, pp. 371-382.|
|145|| *||Smith, et al., The Neurostation(TM) -A Highly Accurate, Minimally Invasive Solution to Frameless Stereotactic Neurosurgery, Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics, vol. 18, 1994, pp. 247-256.|
|146|| *||Smith, et al., The Neurostation™ -A Highly Accurate, Minimally Invasive Solution to Frameless Stereotactic Neurosurgery, Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics, vol. 18, 1994, pp. 247-256.|
|147||Smith, K.R., et al. Multimodality Image Analysis and Display Methods for Improved Tumor Localization in Stereotactic Neurosurgery, Annul Intl. Conf. of the IEEE Eng. in Med. and Biol. Soc., vol. 13, No. 1, p. 210 (1991).|
|148||Tan, K., Ph.D., et al., A frameless stereotactic approach to neurosurgical planning based on retrospective patient-image registration, J Neurosurgy, vol. 79, pp. 296-303 (Aug. 1993).|
|149||The Laitinen Stereotactic System, E2-E6.|
|150||Thompson, et al., A System for Anatomical and Functional Mapping of the Human Thalamus, Computers and Biomedical Research, vol. 10, pp. 9-24 (1977).|
|151||Trobraugh, J.W., et al., Frameless Stereotactic Ultrasonography: Method and Applications, Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics, vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 235-246 (1994).|
|152|| *||Vector Vision: The Power of Surgical Tracking, BrainLab, 1997.|
|153||Viant et al., "A Computer Assisted Orthopaedic System for Distal Locking of Intramedullary Nails," Proc. of MediMEC '95, Bristol, 1995, pp. 86-91.|
|154||Von Hanwhr et al., Foreword, Computerized Medical Imagine and Graphics, vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 225-228, (Jul.-Aug. 1994).|
|155||Wang, M.Y., et al., An Automatic Technique for Finding and Localizing Externally Attached Markers in CT and MR Volume Images of the Head, IEEE Trans. on Biomed. Eng., vol. 43, No. 6, pp. 627-637 (Jun. 1996).|
|156||Watanabe et al., "Three-Dimensional Digitizer (Neuronavigator): New Equipment for Computed Tomography-Guided Stereotaxic Surgery," Surgical Neurology, vol. 27, No. 6, Jun. 1987, pp. 543-547.|
|157||Watanabe, "Neuronavigator," Igaku-no-Ayumi, vol. 137, No. 6, May 10, 1986, pp. 1-4.|
|158||Watanabe, E., M.D., et al., Open Surgery Assisted by the Neuronavigator, a Stereotactic, Articulated, Sensitive Arm, Neurosurgery, vol. 28, No. 6, pp. 792-800 (1991).|
|159||Weese et al., "An Approach to 2D/3D Registration of a Vertebra in 2D X-ray Fluoroscopies with 3D CT Images," pp. 119-128.|
|160|| *||Weinstein, et al., Spinal Pedicle Fixation: Reliability and Validity of Roentgenogram-Based Assessment and Surgical Factors on Successful Screw Placement, Spine, vol. 13, No. 9, 1988, pp. 1012-1018.|
| || |
|International Classification||A61B5/05, A61B17/70, A61B19/00, A61B17/88|
|Cooperative Classification||A61B19/5244, A61B19/50, A61B2017/00477, A61B2019/5272, A61B19/201, A61B17/7083, A61B2019/5483, A61B2019/5255, A61B17/7032, A61B17/70, A61B2019/5445, A61B2019/5287|
|European Classification||A61B17/70T4, A61B19/52H12|
|Apr 7, 2011||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: MEDTRONIC NAVIGATION, INC., COLORADO
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:SURGICAL NAVIGATION TECHNOLOGIES, INC.;REEL/FRAME:026100/0686
Effective date: 20041220
Owner name: SURGICAL NAVIGATION TECHNOLOGIES, INC., COLORADO
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:CLAYTON, JOHN B.;FOLEY, KEVIN T.;MELKENT, ANTHONY;AND OTHERS;SIGNING DATES FROM 19980713 TO 19980901;REEL/FRAME:026092/0357
|Oct 2, 2012||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 12
|Feb 26, 2013||CC||Certificate of correction|