|Publication number||USRE42741 E1|
|Application number||US 12/073,908|
|Publication date||Sep 27, 2011|
|Priority date||Jun 27, 2003|
|Also published as||DE60308161D1, DE60308161T2, EP1491956A1, EP1491956B1, US7012673, US20050002004, WO2005001572A2, WO2005001572A3|
|Publication number||073908, 12073908, US RE42741 E1, US RE42741E1, US-E1-RE42741, USRE42741 E1, USRE42741E1|
|Inventors||Aleksey Yurievich Kolesnychenko, Jan Evert Van Der Werp|
|Original Assignee||Asml Netherlands B.V.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (114), Non-Patent Citations (50), Classifications (8), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
More than one reissue application has been filed for the reissue of Pat. No. 7,012,673. The reissue applications are divisional reissue application Ser. No. 13/192,070, continuation reissue application Ser No. 13/192,106, and parent reissue application Ser. No. 12/073,908 (the present application), all of which are reissue applications of Pat. No. 7,012,673.
This application claims priority from European patent application EP 03254116.1, filed Jun. 27, 2003, which is incorporated herein in its entirety.
The present invention relates to a lithographic apparatus and a device manufacturing method.
The term “patterning device” as here employed should be broadly interpreted as referring to any device that can be used to endow an incoming radiation beam with a patterned cross-section, corresponding to a pattern that is to be created in a target portion of the substrate; the term “light valve” can also be used in this context. Generally, the pattern will correspond to a particular functional layer in a device being created in the target portion, such as an integrated circuit or other device (see below). Examples of such a patterning device include:
Lithographic projection apparatus can be used, for example, in the manufacture of integrated circuits (ICs). In such a case, the patterning device may generate a circuit pattern corresponding to an individual layer of the IC, and this pattern can be imaged onto a target portion (e.g. comprising one or more dies) on a substrate (silicon wafer) that has been coated with a layer of radiation-sensitive material (resist). In general, a single substrate will contain a whole network of adjacent target portions that are successively irradiated via the projection system, one at a time. In current apparatus, employing patterning by a mask on a mask table, a distinction can be made between two different types of machine. In one type of lithographic projection apparatus, each target portion is irradiated by exposing the entire mask pattern onto the target portion at one time; such an apparatus is commonly referred to as a stepper. In an alternative apparatus—commonly referred to as a step-and-scan apparatus—each target portion is irradiated by progressively scanning the mask pattern under the projection beam in a given reference direction (the “scanning” direction) while synchronously scanning the substrate table parallel or anti-parallel to this direction; since, in general, the projection system will have a magnification factor M (generally <1), the speed V at which the substrate table is scanned will be a factor M times that at which the mask table is scanned. More information with regard to lithographic devices as here described can be gleaned, for example, from U.S. Pat. No. 6,046,792, incorporated herein by reference.
In a manufacturing process using a lithographic projection apparatus, a pattern (e.g. in a mask) is imaged onto a substrate that is at least partially covered by a layer of radiation-sensitive material (resist). Prior to this imaging step, the substrate may undergo various procedures, such as priming, resist coating and a soft bake. After exposure, the substrate may be subjected to other procedures, such as a post-exposure bake (PEB), development, a hard bake and measurement/inspection of the imaged features. This array of procedures is used as a basis to pattern an individual layer of a device, e.g. an IC. Such a patterned layer may then undergo various processes such as etching, ion-implantation (doping), metallization, oxidation, chemo-mechanical polishing, etc., all intended to finish off an individual layer. If several layers are required, then the whole procedure, or a variant thereof, will have to be repeated for each new layer. Eventually, an array of devices will be present on the substrate (wafer). These devices are then separated from one another by a technique such as dicing or sawing, whence the individual devices can be mounted on a carrier, connected to pins, etc. Further information regarding such processes can be obtained, for example, from the book “Microchip Fabrication: A Practical Guide to Semiconductor Processing,” Third Edition, by Peter van Zant, McGraw Hill Publishing Co., 1997, ISBN 0-07-067250-4, incorporated herein by reference.
For the sake of simplicity, the projection system may hereinafter be referred to as the “projection lens”; however, this term should be broadly interpreted as encompassing various types of projection system, including refractive optics, reflective optics, and catadioptric systems, for example. The radiation system may also include components operating according to any of these design types for directing, shaping or controlling the projection beam of radiation, and such components may also be referred to below, collectively or singularly, as a “lens.” Further, the lithographic apparatus may be of a type having two or more substrate tables (and/or two or more mask tables). In such “multiple stage” devices the additional tables may be used in parallel, or preparatory steps may be carried out on one or more tables while one or more other tables are being used for exposures. Dual stage lithographic apparatus are described, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 5,969,441 and WO 98/40791, incorporated herein by reference.
It has been proposed to immerse the substrate in a lithographic projection apparatus in a liquid having a relatively high refractive index, e.g. water, so as to fill a space between the final element of the projection system and the substrate. The point of this is to enable imaging of smaller features since the exposure radiation will have a shorter wavelength in the liquid. (The effect of the liquid may also be regarded as increasing the effective NA of the system.)
However, submersing the substrate or substrate and substrate table in a bath of liquid (see for example U.S. Pat. No. 4,509,852, hereby incorporated in its entirety by reference) means that there is a large body of liquid that must be accelerated during a scanning exposure. This requires additional or more powerful motors and turbulence in the liquid may lead to undesirable and unpredictable effects.
One of the solutions proposed is for a liquid supply system to provide liquid on a localized area of the substrate and in between the final element of the projection system and the substrate (the substrate generally has a larger surface area than the final element of the projection system). One way which has been proposed to arrange for this is disclosed in WO 99/49504, hereby incorporated in its entirety by reference. As illustrated in
However this and other immersion lithography proposals can incur several difficulties. For example, the effect of immersion liquid on resist chemistry is unknown and outgassing of the resist could cause bubbles in the immersion liquid. Bubbles in the immersion liquid would alter the course of the radiation and thus affect the uniformity of the exposure. Furthermore, even with protective measures, the problem of mechanical disturbances due to coupling between the projection apparatus and the substrate via the immersion liquid remains significant.
An alternative method to improve the resolution of lithographic apparatus, as described by L. P. Ghislain et al. in “Near-Field Photolithography with Solid Immersion Lens,” App. Phys. Lett. 74, 501-503. (1999), is to provide a solid immersion lens with a high refractive index between the projection system and the substrate. The projection beam is focused on the solid immersion lens and the radiation propagates to the resist through a very thin air (or other gas) gap using an evanescent field (near-field operation mode). The distance between the solid lens and the substrate is made sufficiently small (i.e. less than the wavelength of the radiation) that some photons are transmitted across the gap and the substrate is exposed. This proposal obviously relies on a very small gap between the substrate and the solid lens and the chances of a crash between the two are high.
Accordingly, it would be advantageous, for example, to provide an alternative method and apparatus with improved resolution. The alternative method and apparatus may alleviate some of the disadvantages of the presence of liquid or the presence of a solid lens.
According to an aspect of the invention, there is provided a lithographic apparatus comprising:
Problems that may result from the contact between the liquid and the substrate, such as the effect on resist chemistry and outgassing of the resist can be avoided by having a space not occupied by liquid between the liquid and the substrate. Even if a crash occurs between the liquid and the substrate the consequences will not be as serious as a crash between a solid lens and the substrate. The liquid may be dispersed in the system but the substrate will likely not be permanently damaged and the lithographic apparatus will likely not need major repair work. Arrangements to catch liquid dispersed in the event of a crash may easily be provided.
The liquid supply system can include elements to control the position, quantity, shape, flow rate or any other features of the liquid.
A distance between the liquid and the substrate is, in an embodiment, smaller than the wavelength of the radiation and, in an embodiment, less than 100 nm. The distance between the liquid and the substrate should be carefully monitored because if the distance is too great insufficient radiation may be transmitted to the substrate. The distance should also be as uniform as possible to prevent variation in the amount of radiation transmitted. Similarly, the depth of the liquid should be monitored as it affects the focal plane of the entire projection system. Both the distance between the liquid and the substrate and the depth of the liquid should be carefully regulated such that any variations can be compensated for.
To prevent erroneous and unquantified refraction of the radiation, the surface of the liquid closest to the substrate should be substantially parallel to the substrate.
To confine the liquid to form a liquid lens, the liquid supply system may comprise a hydrophobic surface. The hydrophobic surface may, in an embodiment, be of a substantially annular shape to form the liquid lens in the center of the annulus. In an embodiment, a radiation-transmissive hydrophilic surface configured to define the shape of the liquid may be provided. In an embodiment, the hydrophilic surface fills the hole at the center of the annular hydrophobic surface. A metallic electrode may also be used to adjust the shape (including diameter) of the liquid.
For ease of use, the lithographic apparatus may be arranged such that the substrate table is vertically above the projection system.
According to a further aspect of the invention, there is provided a device manufacturing method comprising:
Although specific reference may be made in this text to the use of the apparatus according to the invention in the manufacture of ICs, it should be explicitly understood that such an apparatus has many other possible applications. For example, it may be employed in the manufacture of integrated optical systems, guidance and detection patterns for magnetic domain memories, liquid-crystal display panels, thin-film magnetic heads, etc. The skilled artisan will appreciate that, in the context of such alternative applications, any use of the terms “reticle”, “wafer” or “die” in this text should be considered as being replaced by the more general terms “mask”, “substrate” and “target portion”, respectively.
In the present document, the terms “radiation” and “beam” are used to encompass all types of electromagnetic radiation, including ultraviolet radiation (e.g. with a wavelength of 365, 248, 193, 157 or 126 nm).
Embodiments of the invention will now be described, by way of example only, with reference to the accompanying schematic drawings in which:
In the Figures, corresponding reference symbols indicate corresponding parts.
As here depicted, the apparatus is of a transmissive type (e.g. has a transmissive mask). However, in general, it may also be of a reflective type, for example (e.g. with a reflective mask). Alternatively, the apparatus may employ another kind of patterning device, such as a programmable mirror array of a type as referred to above.
The source LA (e.g. a laser-produced or discharge plasma source) produces a beam of radiation. This beam is fed into an illumination system (illuminator) IL, either directly or after having traversed conditioning means, such as a beam expander Ex, for example. The illuminator IL may comprise adjusting means AM for setting the outer and/or inner radial extent (commonly referred to as σ-outer and σ-inner, respectively) of the intensity distribution in the beam. In addition, it will generally comprise various other components, such as an integrator IN and a condenser CO. In this way, the beam PB impinging on the mask MA has a desired uniformity and intensity distribution in its cross-section.
It should be noted with regard to
The beam PB subsequently intercepts the mask MA, which is held on a mask table MT. Having traversed the mask MA, the beam PB passes through the projection lens PL, which focuses the beam PB onto a target portion C of the substrate W. With the aid of the second positioning device (and an interferometric measuring device IF), the substrate table WT can be moved accurately, e.g. so as to position different target portions C in the path of the beam PB. Similarly, the first positioning device can be used to accurately position the mask MA with respect to the path of the beam PB, e.g. after mechanical retrieval of the mask MA from a mask library, or during a scan. In general, movement of the object tables MT, WT will be realized with the aid of a long-stroke module (course positioning) and a short-stroke module (fine positioning), which are not explicitly depicted in
The depicted apparatus can be used in two different modes:
As shown in
A band of a hydrophobic material 22 (e.g. a coating) is adhered to the liquid supply system 18 which confines liquid in the lens 10. Additionally, the surface of the projection system PL disposed towards the substrate surface comprises a radiation-transmissive hydrophilic material 23 (e.g. a coating) to ensure the lens 10 adheres to the projection system. The specific choice of hydrophobic and hydrophilic materials is dependent on the liquid. For example, when using substantially water as the liquid, glass has been found to be a suitable hydrophilic material and Teflon a suitable hydrophobic material. Other factors such as the degree of roughness of the surface can also be used to improve the hydrophobic quality of a material.
A liquid sensor 24 senses the depth of the liquid lens 10 and the high precision liquid supply system 18 provides enough liquid to substantially fill the space between the projection system PL and the substrate W, but such that there is a gap between the substrate W and the liquid lens 10 of less than the wavelength of the projection radiation. Liquid sensor 24 forms part of a feedback system in which more liquid can be provided into the lens 10 by the high precision liquid supply system 18 when the depth is insufficient and liquid can be removed from the lens 10 by an outlet 14 (or one of the ducts 17 can be used as an outlet) when the depth is too great. The liquid sensor 24 works by sensing radiation from within the liquid lens 10 and using internal reflections from surfaces of the liquid lens to determine the depth of the lens. As the distance between the projection system PL and the substrate W can either be set or alternatively easily measured, the gap between the lens 10 and the substrate W can be calculated by simply subtracting the depth of the lens 10 from the total distance between the projection system PL and the substrate W. Alternatively these distances can be measured by measuring the capacitance between electrodes on, for example, the substrate table WT and the projection system PL.
Radiation is thus projected through the liquid lens 10 and an evanescent field is formed between the substrate W and the surface of the liquid lens 10 disposed towards the substrate surface. The resolution of the system is therefore improved by a factor of n.
The lens 10 should, in an embodiment, have a large flat surface to prevent erroneous refraction of the radiation. By charging (e.g., metallic) electrodes 28 under the hydrophobic material, the shape (form and size of the liquid lens) can be adjusted appropriately. For example, the lens 10 can be adjusted to have a large diameter to provide a large flat area at the center.
Alternatively or additionally to the hydrophobic material 22 and/or hydrophilic material 23, a gas seal 16 may be used to confine the liquid in the lens 10. As shown in
If the lens 10 is sufficiently small, a lithographic apparatus with the projection system PL above the substrate table WT, as shown in
Another liquid supply system which has been proposed, as described in U.S. patent application U.S. Ser. No. 10/705,783, is to provide the liquid supply system with a seal member which extends along at least a part of a boundary of the space between the final element of the projection system and the substrate table. The seal member is substantially stationary relative to the projection system in the XY plane and a seal is formed between the seal member and the surface of the substrate. In an embodiment, the seal is a contactless seal such as a gas seal.
While specific embodiments of the invention have been described above, it will be appreciated that the invention may be practiced otherwise than as described. The description is not intended to limit the invention.
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|U.S. Classification||355/53, 355/30, 355/62|
|International Classification||G03B27/42, G03B27/52, G03F7/20|
|Dec 6, 2011||CC||Certificate of correction|
|Apr 9, 2013||CC||Certificate of correction|
|Oct 25, 2013||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Mar 14, 2014||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|