|Publication number||USRE42857 E1|
|Application number||US 12/765,356|
|Publication date||Oct 18, 2011|
|Filing date||Apr 22, 2010|
|Priority date||Jan 27, 2000|
|Also published as||US6872226, US7594974, US8043450, US8672999, US20030028247, US20050098547, US20090188900, US20090326524, US20120035720, USRE42818|
|Publication number||12765356, 765356, US RE42857 E1, US RE42857E1, US-E1-RE42857, USRE42857 E1, USRE42857E1|
|Inventors||Douglas S. Cali, Keith E. Myers|
|Original Assignee||3F Therapeutics, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (80), Non-Patent Citations (12), Referenced by (2), Classifications (24), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 09/772,526, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,682,559, entitled PROSTHETIC HEART VALVE; which was filed on Jan. 29, 2001 and which claims the benefit of priority of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/178,333, which was filed on Jan. 27, 2000. This application also claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/308,268, which was filed on Jul. 26, 2001. The above priority applications Application Ser. Nos. 09/772,526 and 60/308,268 are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.
1. Field of the Invention
This invention relates to implantable medical devices, and more particularly relates to forming segments used to construct such implantable medical devices.
2. Description of the Related Art
Medical devices are often surgically implanted into a patient in order to assist or replace diseased tissue. For instance, a prosthetic device such as an artificial heart valve can be implanted to replace a defective natural heart valve.
It is important for such prosthetic devices to be substantially durable, as failure of the device may have drastic consequences for the patient. As can be appreciated, a prosthetic device that wears out prematurely may put a patient at substantial risk, both because of the possibility of early, sudden failure of the device and because of additional surgery that may be required to replace the device.
Some implantable medical devices comprise two or more members or segments of material that are assembled to form the device. The manner in which the segments of material are formed can significantly affect the durability of the device. For example, if the segments are formed by being cut out of a larger portion of material, the edges of the cut segments may be especially susceptible to premature wear. Also, imprecise cutting or inconsistencies between cut segments may negatively affect both the operability and durability of the assembled prosthetic device.
Accordingly, there is a need for a method and apparatus for cutting segments of material for use in implantable medical devices wherein the segments are cut with precision and consistency, and wherein the cut edges of the segments resist wear when implanted into the body.
In accordance with one embodiment, a method of creating an implantable medical prosthesis is provided. A sheet of pericardium having at least two tissue layers is provided and a segment of tissue is cut out of the sheet of pericardium with a laser beam. The cutting comprises operating a laser at a power and pulse rate such that the beam welds the layers of the pericardium together along a laser cut edge without significantly burning the pericardium adjacent the cut edge.
For purposes of summarizing the invention and the advantages achieved over the prior art, certain aspects and advantages of the invention have been described herein above. Of course, it is to be understood that not necessarily all such aspects or advantages may be achieved in accordance with any particular embodiment of the invention. Thus, for example, those skilled in the art will recognize that the invention may be embodied or carried out in a manner that employs one or more aspects to achieve or optimize one advantage or group of advantages as taught herein without necessarily using other aspects or achieving other advantages as may be taught or suggested herein.
All of these aspects are intended to be within the scope of the invention herein disclosed. These and other aspects of the present invention will become readily apparent to those skilled in the art from the following detailed description of the preferred embodiments having reference to the attached figures, the invention not being limited to any particular preferred embodiment(s) disclosed.
The present invention can be used to cut out segments used when constructing several types of prostheses. One type of prosthesis that particularly benefits from use of the present invention is a replacement heart valve having one or more leaflets that are cut from a source material and assembled to form the valve.
The aortic heart valve 20 of
Each of the tabs 30, 32 communicate with the leaflet main body 24 through a neck portion 40. Curved transition edges 42, 44 connect an inner edge 46 of each tab 30, 32 with the distal end 28 of the leaflet 22, and a proximal edge 48 of each tab 30, 32 with the corresponding side edge 34, 36 of the leaflet 22. An elongate slot 50 is formed in the second tab 32. The slot 50 extends distally from the proximal edge 48 of the tab to a point just distal of the distal-most edge 28 of the leaflet main body 24.
With reference next to
The series of sutures 52 terminates prior to reaching the proximal edge 48 of the tabs 30, 32, with the last suture being placed proximal of the proximal transition edge 44. The tabs 30, 32 are then folded backwardly along the fold line LF so as to overlap the outer surface of their respective leaflets 22, as shown in
In the illustrated embodiment, each of the leaflets 22 is substantially identical in shape. It is to be understood, however, that other prosthetic devices may employ segments of varying sizes and shapes. For example, a prosthetic mitral heart valve can employ two leaflets which are shaped differently from one another. However to maintain consistency in manufacture, the respective leaflets preferably are substantially identical in size and shape from valve to valve. Additionally, prosthetic devices such as surgical patches may desirably be produced in several sizes and shapes.
Replacement valves such as the aortic valve 20 illustrated in
Once installed, the replacement valve functions much the same as a native aortic valve. During systole, the leaflets 22 are forced apart so that blood flows freely through the valve 20 and into the aorta. During diastole, the leaflets are drawn toward each other and approximate each other, thus sealing the valve. The commissural attachment tabs 56 help prevent the valve leaflets from prolapsing during diastole.
In the illustrated embodiment, the leaflets can be constructed of biological or synthetic materials. For example, explanted human or animal tissue, such as bovine, porcine and kangaroo pericardium tissue may be appropriately used. Synthetic material, such as polyesters, Teflon®, fluoropolymers, woven or knitted cloth, etc. can also be used. Of course, biological and synthetic materials not listed above can be used if appropriate. Leaflet materials for the illustrated heart valve can be selected using a general guideline that the more pliable, thin and strong a material is, the better. Additionally, it is advantageous for the material to be as nonthrombogenic as possible.
In a preferred embodiment, the flexible material comprises equine pericardium that has been crosslinked and fixed in a low-concentration, buffered glutaraldehyde solution. Leaflets formed from this material are pliable and easy to open and close.
Equine pericardium that has been treated as discussed above can be supplied as a generally flat, thin and flexible sheet of material from which a plurality of leaflets can be cut. Other source materials, such as bovine pericardium and woven cloth, can also be obtained in flat sheets. Still further source materials may be obtained in irregular or curved shapes. For example, segments of intestinal tissue, some knitted cloths and some extruded polymers can be supplied having generally tubular geometry. Segments can be cut from such suitable source materials and then assembled to form the desired prosthesis. Various cutting media and methods, such as a razor, die cutter, laser or jet of fluid and/or particles can be used to cut segments from source material. In a preferred embodiment of the aortic heart valve discussed above, individual valve leaflets are cut from a sheet of treated equine pericardium.
With next reference to
As can be seen in
Delaminations of the fibrous layers of a heart valve leaflet can disrupt valve operation and significantly impair valve durability. For example, blood that enters between delaminated layers can cause a cuspal hemotoma or lead to calcification of the valve due to increased turbulence. Additionally, the strength of the leaflet can be reduced. Accordingly, it is desirable to reduce or eliminate delamination of the pericardium layers when constructing valves.
Other flexible materials used for heart valves, especially pericardial tissues, may have similar laminar structure, and may be subject to similar issues with regard to delamination. Challenges also arise when cutting synthetic materials such as woven or knit polymers, because the cut filaments or yarns may have a tendency to fray. Such fraying can cause problems similar to delamination.
In accordance with one embodiment, a laser cutting apparatus 70 is provided for cutting prosthetic segments from source material 90. With reference specifically to
The motion system 78 preferably is arranged to selectively locate and move the position of the focused laser beam 88 relative to the platform 80 in order to cut the segment out of the source material 90. In the illustrated embodiment, the motion system 78 can move the laser beam's position along horizontal X and Y axes. The support platform 80 is vertically movable along a vertical Z axis. It is to be understood that, in other embodiments, other types of motion systems can be employed.
The computer 74 preferably controls the laser system 72 via a printer driver 92, which communicates data from the computer 74 to the laser system 72 in order to control laser parameters and motion. In the illustrated embodiment, a computer assisted design (CAD) software program, such as Corel Draw®, is hosted by the computer 74. The CAD software is used to create designs of segments that will be cut.
In a preferred embodiment, the CAD software also functions as a command interface for submitting cutting patterns 96 to the laser system 72 through the printer driver 92. When directed to do so by the computer 74 and printer driver 92, the laser system 72 precisely cuts the patterns 96 from the source material 90.
The laser cutting apparatus 70 is configured to have a pulse power, cutting speed, and number of pulses per inch that will impart sufficient energy to vaporize portions of the source material along a cut line in order to cut the desired segment shape, and to at least partially melt the cut edges. Melting the cut edges effectively fuses or welds the layers and fibrous matter together.
Welding of the edges is especially advantageous for laminar materials such as pericardium, because the melted edge resists delamination.
An issue that arises during laser cutting is management of thermal energy. Excessive thermal energy absorbed by a source material such as pericardium can burn the material. Burning of the material can result in several types of damage. For example, the burned material can become stiff and brittle or can become biased to bend in a particular direction. Further characteristics of burning include discoloration or even charring of the material.
Burned portions of a segment of material can jeopardize the integrity and durability of the entire segment, and of a prosthesis constructed using that segment. For example, a stiffened or biased portion of a prosthetic heart valve leaflet will not move in the same manner as the rest of the leaflet during opening and closure of the valve. The hemodynamic performance of the valve thus could be compromised. Further, damage caused by burning of the material generally weakens the material and could reduce the durability of the valve. As such, it is desirable to weld the material at the cut edge, but avoid communicating thermal energy into the cut segment beyond the edge.
Excessive burning of the laser cut edge can also have a negative impact. If excessive laser energy is applied to the cut edge, it is more likely that thermal energy will be conducted beyond the edge and into the segment, resulting in tissue necrosis. Additionally, the tissue at an excessively-burned edge may have a somewhat inconsistent thickness, having portions that are significantly thicker than other portions or developing beads of melted material. Discoloration of the cut edge can indicate application of excessive thermal energy. Inconsistencies in the edge make the segment more difficult to work with during manufacture and can affect performance of the segment. As such, it is desirable to weld the material at the cut edge in a manner so that the melted edge is relatively uniform in thickness and consistency and exhibits minimal, if any, beading.
In a preferred embodiment, a CO2 laser is used to laser cut heart valve leaflets out of a sheet of equine pericardial tissue about 0.35-0.55 mm thick. The laser system preferably is an M-series laser engraving and cutting system available from Universal Laser Systems, Inc. This device employs a 30 watt, pulsed, sealed CO2 laser. The CO2 laser produces laser light with a characteristic wavelength of 10.6 μm. Most non-metals, including equine pericardial tissue, are highly absorptive of laser energy at this wavelength, and also exhibit low thermal conductivity to such laser energy. Hence, the CO2 laser is especially advantageous for cutting pericardial tissue because the tissue absorbs and is vaporized by the CO2 laser light but very little or no thermal energy is conducted to regions of the tissue that are not being cut. Only the boundary/edge of the cut is melted, effectively forming a weld.
In the preferred embodiment, a sheet of equine pericardium is placed on the support surface 80. An operator directs the computer 74 to actuate the laser system 72, which cuts leaflets out of the sheet according to the prescribed pattern 96. To help maintain the tissue in good condition, it preferably is kept moist when being cut.
When cutting equine pericardium, the laser preferably is operated at a power of about 7.5 watts (joules/second). The laser can cut at a linear speed of about 1 inch per second, a pulse rate of about 1000 pulses per inch (PPI), and a laser spot diameter of about 0.003 inches.
A measurement of laser energy per pulse is computed by using the following equation (1):
[laser energy per pulse (joules/pulse)]=[power (joules/second)]/([cutting speed (inches/second)]×[pulse rate (pulses/inch)]).
For the above embodiment, the laser energy per pulse is about:
(7.5 joules/second)/((1 inch/second)×(1000 pulses/inch))=0.0075 joules/pulse.
Other materials, such as bovine or other kinds of pericardium tissues and laminar materials can also be advantageously laser cut with a CO2 laser as discussed above. In another preferred embodiment wherein such materials, including equine pericardium, are laser cut, about 0.005-0.5 joules of laser energy are supplied per pulse, with a laser spot size of about 0.002 to 0.005 inches in diameter, a cutting speed of about 1 inch/second, and a pulse rate of about 1000 PPI. More preferably, about 0.005-0.02 joules of laser energy are supplied per pulse. For the Universal Laser Systems M-series laser discussed above, the following sample settings enable laser cutting within the above-discussed parameters: a 1.5 Lens, 20% power setting, 3.4% speed, 1000 PPI and 1000 dots per inch.
It is to be understood that if parameters such as the pulse rate and cutting speed are adjusted, corresponding adjustments to other parameters can be made so that the energy imparted to the material substantially stays within the desired parameters. In this manner, a generally uniform weld can be formed along a cut edge without discoloring the edge or imparting excessive heat to other portions of the segment.
It is also to be understood that other types of lasers, such as an erbium laser that generates a laser beam having a wavelength of about 2.7-3.0 μm, can suitably be used to cut segments. Such alternative lasers can be operated at settings so that the cut edges are welded as discussed above.
Alternative techniques may be employed for laser cutting of segments for use in prosthetics, such as disclosed in U.S. Patent Application Publication No. U.S. 2002/0091441, which was published on Jul. 11, 2002. The entire disclosure of this publication is hereby incorporated herein by reference.
Various types of tissue and man-made materials can be cut with a laser by using generally the same principles as discussed above. For example, other types of laminar tissue can be cut so that the cut edges are welded and have a generally uniform consistency with little or no discoloration. Similarly, for man-made materials such as woven or knitted polymers, the cut edges preferably are melted so that fraying of the woven filaments or yarns is minimized or avoided, but discoloration is also avoided.
With reference next to
Although this invention has been disclosed in the context of certain preferred embodiments and examples, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that the present invention extends beyond the specifically disclosed embodiments to other alternative embodiments and/or uses of the invention and obvious modifications and equivalents thereof. In addition, while a number of variations of the invention have been shown and described in detail, other modifications, which are within the scope of this invention, will be readily apparent to those of skill in the art based upon this disclosure. It is also contemplated that various combinations or subcombinations of the specific features and aspects of the embodiments may be made and still fall within the scope of the invention. Accordingly, it should be understood that various features and aspects of the disclosed embodiments can be combined with or substituted for one another in order to form varying modes of the disclosed invention. Thus, it is intended that the scope of the present invention herein disclosed should not be limited by the particular disclosed embodiments described above, but should be determined only by a fair reading of the claims that follow.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3608097||Jan 3, 1969||Sep 28, 1971||Bellhouse Brian John||Non-return valves particularly as prosthetics|
|US3671979||Sep 23, 1969||Jun 27, 1972||Univ Utah||Catheter mounted artificial heart valve for implanting in close proximity to a defective natural heart valve|
|US4056854||Sep 28, 1976||Nov 8, 1977||The United States Of America As Represented By The Department Of Health, Education And Welfare||Aortic heart valve catheter|
|US4106129||Aug 26, 1977||Aug 15, 1978||American Hospital Supply Corporation||Supported bioprosthetic heart valve with compliant orifice ring|
|US4222126||Dec 14, 1978||Sep 16, 1980||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Department Of Health, Education & Welfare||Unitized three leaflet heart valve|
|US4261342||Jun 29, 1979||Apr 14, 1981||Iker Aranguren Duo||Process for installing mitral valves in their anatomical space by attaching cords to an artificial stent|
|US4274437||Feb 28, 1980||Jun 23, 1981||Watts Len S||Heart valve|
|US4297749||Feb 27, 1980||Nov 3, 1981||Albany International Corp.||Heart valve prosthesis|
|US4388735||Nov 3, 1980||Jun 21, 1983||Shiley Inc.||Low profile prosthetic xenograft heart valve|
|US4470157||Apr 19, 1983||Sep 11, 1984||Love Jack W||Tricuspid prosthetic tissue heart valve|
|US4501030||Aug 17, 1981||Feb 26, 1985||American Hospital Supply Corporation||Method of leaflet attachment for prosthetic heart valves|
|US4624822||Jul 25, 1984||Nov 25, 1986||Sorin Biomedica S.P.A.||Methods for manufacture of valve flaps for cardiac valve prostheses|
|US4626255||Sep 19, 1984||Dec 2, 1986||Christian Weinhold||Heart valve bioprothesis|
|US4629459||Dec 28, 1983||Dec 16, 1986||Shiley Inc.||Alternate stent covering for tissue valves|
|US4739487||May 22, 1985||Apr 19, 1988||Etablissements G. Imbert||Method and apparatus for a reciprocating lay system of profile pieces on a base for the purpose of plotting and/or cutting|
|US4787901||Dec 23, 1986||Nov 29, 1988||Doguhan Baykut||Two-way acting valve and cardiac valve prosthesis|
|US4790844||Jan 30, 1987||Dec 13, 1988||Yoel Ovil||Replacement of cardiac valves in heart surgery|
|US4960424||Jun 30, 1988||Oct 2, 1990||Grooters Ronald K||Method of replacing a defective atrio-ventricular valve with a total atrio-ventricular valve bioprosthesis|
|US5032128||Jul 7, 1988||Jul 16, 1991||Medtronic, Inc.||Heart valve prosthesis|
|US5037434||Apr 11, 1990||Aug 6, 1991||Carbomedics, Inc.||Bioprosthetic heart valve with elastic commissures|
|US5089971||Apr 9, 1990||Feb 18, 1992||Gerber Garment Technology, Inc.||Method and apparatus for cutting parts from hides or similar irregular pieces of sheet material|
|US5163955||Jan 24, 1991||Nov 17, 1992||Autogenics||Rapid assembly, concentric mating stent, tissue heart valve with enhanced clamping and tissue alignment|
|US5258917||Apr 19, 1991||Nov 2, 1993||Durkopp Systemtechnik Gmbh||Method for nesting contours to be cut out of natural leather|
|US5326370||Aug 3, 1992||Jul 5, 1994||Autogenics||Prefabricated sterile and disposable kits for the rapid assembly of a tissue heart valve|
|US5332402||May 12, 1992||Jul 26, 1994||Teitelbaum George P||Percutaneously-inserted cardiac valve|
|US5344442||May 15, 1992||Sep 6, 1994||Mures Cardiovasular Research, Inc.||Cardiac valve|
|US5370685||Jul 16, 1991||Dec 6, 1994||Stanford Surgical Technologies, Inc.||Endovascular aortic valve replacement|
|US5411552||Jun 14, 1994||May 2, 1995||Andersen; Henning R.||Valve prothesis for implantation in the body and a catheter for implanting such valve prothesis|
|US5415667||Jun 4, 1991||May 16, 1995||Frater; Robert W. M.||Mitral heart valve replacements|
|US5422899 *||May 10, 1994||Jun 6, 1995||Premier Laser Systems, Inc.||High repetition rate mid-infrared laser|
|US5480424||Nov 1, 1993||Jan 2, 1996||Cox; James L.||Heart valve replacement using flexible tubes|
|US5489298||Mar 7, 1995||Feb 6, 1996||Autogenics||Rapid assembly concentric mating stent, tissue heart valve with enhanced clamping and tissue exposure|
|US5500015||Aug 17, 1994||Mar 19, 1996||Mures Cardiovascular Research, Inc.||Cardiac valve|
|US5554184||Jul 27, 1994||Sep 10, 1996||Machiraju; Venkat R.||Heart valve|
|US5713950||Jun 2, 1995||Feb 3, 1998||Cox; James L.||Method of replacing heart valves using flexible tubes|
|US5713953||Feb 15, 1996||Feb 3, 1998||Sorin Biomedica Cardio S.P.A.||Cardiac valve prosthesis particularly for replacement of the aortic valve|
|US5757950||Jun 21, 1996||May 26, 1998||Durkoff Adler AG||Process for the cutting or stamping of individual parts from an animal skin|
|US5824063||Nov 14, 1996||Oct 20, 1998||Cox; James L.||Method of replacing atrioventricular heart valves using flexible tubes|
|US5824065||Jul 7, 1997||Oct 20, 1998||Medtronic, Inc.||Sewing tube for a xenograft mitral valve|
|US5824067||Jul 7, 1997||Oct 20, 1998||Medtronic, Inc.||Physiologic mitral valve bioprosthesis|
|US5838569||Apr 27, 1995||Nov 17, 1998||Letra Systemes||Method of digitizing and cutting up remnants of non-repetitive shapes|
|US5849006||Apr 25, 1994||Dec 15, 1998||Autonomous Technologies Corporation||Laser sculpting method and system|
|US5861028||Sep 9, 1996||Jan 19, 1999||Shelhigh Inc||Natural tissue heart valve and stent prosthesis and method for making the same|
|US5928281||Mar 27, 1997||Jul 27, 1999||Baxter International Inc.||Tissue heart valves|
|US5961549||Apr 3, 1997||Oct 5, 1999||Baxter International Inc.||Multi-leaflet bioprosthetic heart valve|
|US6092529||Feb 3, 1999||Jul 25, 2000||3F Therapeutics, Inc.||Replacement semilunar heart valves using flexible tubes|
|US6129758||Oct 3, 1996||Oct 10, 2000||Cardiomend Llc||Products and methods for circulatory system valve repair|
|US6254636||Jun 26, 1998||Jul 3, 2001||St. Jude Medical, Inc.||Single suture biological tissue aortic stentless valve|
|US6338740||Jan 26, 2000||Jan 15, 2002||Edwards Lifesciences Corporation||Flexible heart valve leaflets|
|US6350282||Dec 11, 1995||Feb 26, 2002||Medtronic, Inc.||Stented bioprosthetic heart valve|
|US6378221||Feb 29, 2000||Apr 30, 2002||Edwards Lifesciences Corporation||Systems and methods for mapping and marking the thickness of bioprosthetic sheet|
|US6454799||Apr 6, 2000||Sep 24, 2002||Edwards Lifesciences Corporation||Minimally-invasive heart valves and methods of use|
|US6461382||Sep 22, 2000||Oct 8, 2002||Edwards Lifesciences Corporation||Flexible heart valve having moveable commissures|
|US6463351||Jan 8, 1997||Oct 8, 2002||Clynch Technologies, Inc.||Method for producing custom fitted medical devices|
|US6475239||Oct 13, 1998||Nov 5, 2002||Sulzer Carbomedics Inc.||Method for making polymer heart valves with leaflets having uncut free edges|
|US6553681||Apr 30, 2002||Apr 29, 2003||Carl Roger Ekholm, Jr.||Methods for measuring a bio-material for use in an implant|
|US6652578||May 11, 2001||Nov 25, 2003||Abps Venture One, Ltd.||Endoluminal cardiac and venous valve prostheses and methods of manufacture and delivery thereof|
|US6801643||Mar 11, 2002||Oct 5, 2004||Medical Media Systems||Anatomical visualization system|
|US6911043||Jan 5, 2004||Jun 28, 2005||3F Therapeutics, Inc.||Prosthetic heart value|
|US7594974||Dec 8, 2004||Sep 29, 2009||3F Therapeutics, Inc.||Method of cutting material for use in implantable medical device|
|US20010021872||May 11, 2001||Sep 13, 2001||Bailey Steven R.||Endoluminal cardiac and venous valve prostheses and methods of manufacture and delivery thereof|
|US20020091441||Jan 5, 2001||Jul 11, 2002||Guzik Donald S.||Focused beam cutting of materials|
|US20020157271||Apr 30, 2002||Oct 31, 2002||Ekholm Carl Roger||Systems and methods for mapping and marking bioprosthetic sheet to form heart valve leaflets|
|US20020191822||Mar 11, 2002||Dec 19, 2002||Pieper Steven D.||Anatomical visualization system|
|EP0051451A2||Oct 29, 1981||May 12, 1982||Shiley Incorporated||Low profile prosthetic xenograft heart valve|
|EP0103546A1||Aug 8, 1983||Mar 21, 1984||Domenico Iorio||Surgical instrument for implanting prosthetic heart valves or the like|
|EP0276975A1||Jan 26, 1988||Aug 3, 1988||Yoel Ovil||Replacement of cardiac valves in heart surgery|
|EP0515324A1||May 19, 1992||Nov 25, 1992||SORIN BIOMEDICA CARDIO S.p.A.||A cardiac valve prosthesis, particularly for replacement of the aortic valve|
|FR2591100A1||Title not available|
|GB1599407A||Title not available|
|WO1991017720A1||May 16, 1991||Nov 28, 1991||Henning Rud Andersen||A valve prosthesis for implantation in the body and a catheter for implantating such valve prosthesis|
|WO1991019465A1||Jun 4, 1991||Dec 26, 1991||Robert William Mayo Frater||Mitral heart valve replacements|
|WO1992020303A1||May 15, 1992||Nov 26, 1992||Mures Cardiovascular Research, Inc.||Cardiac valve|
|WO1997024081A1 *||Dec 27, 1996||Jul 10, 1997||Ramus Medical Technologies||Method and apparatus for forming vascular prostheses|
|WO1999030884A2||Dec 14, 1998||Jun 24, 1999||Adiam Medizintechnik Gmbh & Co. Kg||Method for machining preformed plastic film by separation and/or ablation|
|WO2000042950A2||Jan 26, 2000||Jul 27, 2000||Edwards Lifesciences Corporation||Flexible heart valve|
|WO2001054624A1||Jan 29, 2001||Aug 2, 2001||3F Therapeutics, Inc.||Prosthetic heart valve|
|WO2001076510A2||Apr 5, 2001||Oct 18, 2001||Edwards Lifesciences Corporation||Minimally-invasive heart valves and methods of use|
|WO2002024118A1||Sep 14, 2001||Mar 28, 2002||Edwards Lifesciences Corporation||Flexible heart valve having moveable commissures|
|WO2002053069A2||Jan 4, 2002||Jul 11, 2002||St. Jude Medical, Inc.||Focused beam cutting of materials|
|1||Athanasuleas, et al., "The Autologous Rectus Sheath Cardiac Valve", The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 65, No. 1, Jan. 1973, pp. 118-123.|
|2||Edwards, W. Sterling, et al., "Partial and Complete Reconstruction of the Mitral Valve with Pericardium", Prosthetic Heart Valves, 1969, pp. 820-831.|
|3||Endre Bodnar, M.D., et al., Replacement Cardiac Valves, Pergamon Press, (New York), 1991, pp. 307-332.|
|4||Holdefer, et al., "An Experimental Approach to Mitral Valve Replacement with Autologous Pericardium", The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 55, No. 6, Jun. 1968, pp. 873-881.|
|5||Hubka, et al., "Replacement of Mitral and Tricuspid Valves by Mitral Homograft", The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 51, No. 2, Feb. 1966, pp. 195-204.|
|6||Love, Charles S., B.A., et al.,"The Autogenous Tissue Heart Valve: Current Status", Journal of Cardiac Surgery, 1991, pp. 499-507, vol. 6, No. 4, Futurua Publishing Company Inc., New York.|
|7||Mickleborogh, et al.,"A Simplified Concept for a Bileaflet Atrioventricular Valve That Maintains Annular-Papillary Muscle Continuity", The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 4, No. 1, Mar. 1989, pp. 58-65.|
|8||Roe, Benson B., "‘Extinct’ Cardiac Valve Prostheses", Replacement Cardiac Valves, 1991, pp. 307-332, Pergamon Press, Inc., New York.|
|9||Roe, Benson B., "'Extinct' Cardiac Valve Prostheses", Replacement Cardiac Valves, 1991, pp. 307-332, Pergamon Press, Inc., New York.|
|10||Schimert, George, M.D., et al., "Fabrication of Mitral Leaflets and Aortic Cusps From Silastic Rubbercoated Teflon Felt", Prosthetic Valves for Cardiac Surgery, pp. 368-384.|
|11||Suzuki, Akio, M.D., et al., "Mitral Valve Replacement with Transplant Valves", The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 60, No. 1, Jul. 1970, pp. 13-25.|
|12||Van Der Spuy, J.C., "Completely Anatomical Autogenous Whole Mitral Valve", Thorax, 1964, 19, pp. 526-529.|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US8764818||Jul 19, 2012||Jul 1, 2014||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Heart valve replacement|
|US20120004499 *||Jul 1, 2010||Jan 5, 2012||Lexion Medical, Llc||Surgical Method for Performing a Coronary Blood Vessel Bypass|
|U.S. Classification||623/2.13, 600/36|
|International Classification||A61F2/24, B23K26/32, B23K26/40|
|Cooperative Classification||B23K2203/50, B23K26/32, A61F2/2415, B23K26/324, B23K2203/30, B23K2203/42, B23K2203/38, B23K26/40, B23K2203/16, Y10T156/1054, A61F2220/0075|
|European Classification||A61F2/24D2, B23K26/40B7H, B23K26/32F7, B23K26/32J, B23K26/32F7B, B23K26/40B7F8, B23K26/40J, B23K26/40B7|
|Apr 1, 2011||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: MEDTRONIC ATS MEDICAL INC., MINNESOTA
Free format text: MERGER;ASSIGNORS:ATS MEDICAL INC;PILGRIM MERGER CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:026064/0197
Effective date: 20100812
|Nov 1, 2011||CC||Certificate of correction|
|Oct 1, 2012||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8
|Sep 29, 2016||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 12