|Publication number||USRE42953 E1|
|Application number||US 10/008,788|
|Publication date||Nov 22, 2011|
|Filing date||Dec 7, 2001|
|Priority date||Dec 5, 1997|
|Also published as||CA2309280A1, CA2309280C, CN1173180C, CN1280673A, CN1325914C, CN1591013A, CN1598574A, CN1603821A, CN100476420C, CN100538352C, DE1036320T1, DE29824204U1, DE69839250D1, DE69839250T2, EP1036320A1, EP1036320A4, EP1036320B1, EP1577668A2, EP1577668A3, EP1577668B1, EP1577669A2, EP1577669A3, US5997817, US6254736, US6270637, USRE41309, USRE42560, USRE42924, USRE43815, WO1999030152A1|
|Publication number||008788, 10008788, US RE42953 E1, US RE42953E1, US-E1-RE42953, USRE42953 E1, USRE42953E1|
|Inventors||William F. Crismore, Nigel A. Surridge, Richard J. Bodensteiner, Eric R. Diebold, R. Dale Delk, David W. Burke, Jiaxiong Jason Ho|
|Original Assignee||Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc., Roche Operations Ltd.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (93), Non-Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (5), Classifications (28), Legal Events (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Notice: More than one reissue application has been filed for the reissue of U.S. Pat. No. 5,997,817. The reissue applications are application Ser. Nos. 10/008,788 (the present application); 10/409,721 filed Apr. 9, 2003, which is U.S. Pat. No. Re. 41,309, issued on May 4, 2010; 10/692,031 filed Oct. 23, 2003; and 10/693,305 filed Oct. 24, 2003. Application Ser. Nos. 10/409,721, 10/692,031, and 10/693,305 are divisional reissues of application Ser. No. 10/008,788.
This invention relates to a biosensor and its use in the detection or measurement of analytes in fluids.
The prior art includes test strips, including electrochemical biosensor test strips, for measuring the amount of an analyte in a fluid.
Particular use of such test strips has been made for measuring glucose in human blood. Such test strips have been used by diabetics and health care professionals for monitoring their blood glucose levels. The test strips are usually used in conjunction with a meter, which measures light reflectance, if the strip is designed for photometric detection of a dye, or which measures some electrical property, such as electrical current, if the strip is designed for detection of an electroactive compound.
However, test strips that have been previously made present certain problems for individuals who use them. For example, test strips are relatively small and a vision impaired diabetic may have great difficulty properly adding a sample of blood to the sample application area of the test strip. It would be useful for the test strip to be made so that vision impaired persons could easily dose the test strip.
When the test strip is a capillary fill device, that is, when the chemical reaction chamber of the test strip is a capillary space, particular problems can occur with filling the chamber smoothly and sufficiently with the liquid sample to be tested. Due to the smallness of the capillary space and the composition of materials used to make the test strip, the test sample may hesitate entering the capillary reaction chamber. Further, insufficient sample may also be drawn into the capillary reaction chamber, thereby resulting in an inaccurate test result. It would be very useful if such problems could be minimized.
Finally, test strips, especially those used by diabetics for measuring blood glucose are mass produced. Processes, such as mechanical punching, used to make these test strips can cause a test reagent that has been dried onto a surface of the testing area to crack or break, thereby causing reagent loss or improper placement of the reagent within the strip. It would also be useful to design a test reagent that could withstand processing steps, such as mechanical punching.
The electrochemical, biosensor test strip of the present invention provides solutions to these above-stated problems found in prior art test strips.
The invention is an improved electrochemical biosensor test strip with four new, highly advantageous features.
The first new feature is an indentation along one edge of the test strip for easy identification of the sample application port for vision impaired persons or for use in zero or low lighting conditions.
The test strip has a capillary test chamber, and the roof of the test chamber includes the second new feature of the biosensor test strip. The second new feature is a transparent or translucent window which operates as a “fill to here” line, thereby identifying when enough test sample (a liquid sample, such as blood) has been added to the test chamber to accurately perform a test. The window defines the minimum sample amount, or dose, required to accurately perform a test, and, therefore, represents a visual failsafe which reduces the chances of erroneous test results due to underdosing of a test strip.
The length and width of the window are shorter than the length and width of the capillary test chamber. The window is dimensioned and positioned so that it overlays the entire width of the working electrode and at least about 10% of the width of the counter or reference electrode of the biosensor test strip. Preferably, the area of the roof surrounding the window is colored in a way that provides good color contrast between the sample, as observed through the window, and the roof area surrounding the window for ease of identifying sufficient dosing of the strip.
The third new feature of the test strip is the inclusion of a notch, or multiple notches, located at the sample application port. A notch is created in both the first insulating substrate and the roof of the strip. These notches are dimensioned and positioned so that they overlay one another in the test strip. These notches reduce a phenomenon called “dose hesitation”. When a sample is added to the sample application port of a notchless strip, the sample can hesitate in its introduction into the capillary test chamber. This “dose hesitation” adds to the testing time. When the test strip includes a notch, dose hesitation is reduced. Further, including the notch in both the first insulating substrate and the roof makes it possible for the test sample to approach the sample application port from a wide variety of angles. The angle of approach for the test sample would be more limited if the notch were only in the roof.
Finally, the fourth new feature of the test strip is a reagent that includes polyethylene oxide from about 100 kilodaltons to about 900 kilodaltons mean molecular weight at concentrations from about 0.2% (weight:weight) to about 2% (weight:weight), which makes the dried reagent more hydrophilic and sturdier. With the inclusion of polyethylene oxide, the test reagent can more readily withstand mechanical punching during strip assembly and mechanical manipulation by the user of the test strip. Further, the dried reagent, which will include from about 1.75% (weight:weight) to about 17.5% (weight:weight) polyethylene oxide, can easily redissolve, or resuspend, when an aqueous test sample is added to the strip's test chamber.
The components of a preferred embodiment of the present inventive biosensor are shown in
As shown in
Preferably, electrically conductive tracks 5 and 6 are deposited on an insulative backing, such as polyimide or polyester, to reduce the possibility of tearing the electrode material during handling and manufacturing of the test strip. An example of such conductive tracks is a palladium coating with a surface resistance of less than 5 ohms per square on UPILEX polyimide backing, available from Courtalds-Andus Performance Films in Canoga Park, Calif.
Electrically conductive tracks 5 and 6 represent the electrodes of the biosensor test strip. These electrodes must be sufficiently separated so that the electrochemical events at one electrode do not interfere with the electrochemical events at the other electrode. The preferred distance between electrodes 5 and 6 is about 1.2 millimeters (mm).
In the test strip shown in
Three electrode arrangements are also possible, wherein the strip includes an additional electrically conductive track located between conductive track 6 and vent hole 4. In a three electrode arrangement, conductive track 5 would be a working electrode, track 6 would be a counter electrode, and the third electrode between track 6 and vent hole 4 would be a reference electrode.
Overlapping conductive tracks 5 and 6 is second insulating substrate 7. Second insulating substrate 7 is made of a similar, or preferably the same, material as first insulating substrate 1. Substrate 7 has a first surface 8 and a second surface 9. Second surface 9 is affixed to the surface of substrate 1 and conductive tracks 5 and 6 by an adhesive, such as a hot melt glue. An example of such glue is DYNAPOL S-1358 glue, available from Hüls America, Inc., 220 Davidson Street, PO Box 6821, Somerset, N.J. 08873. Substrate 7 also includes first opening 10 and second opening 11. First opening 10 exposes portions of conductive tracks 5 and 6 for electrical connection with a meter, which measures some electrical property of a test sample after the test sample is mixed with the reagent of the test strip. Second opening 11 exposes a different portion of conductive tracks 5 and 6 for application of test reagent 12 to those exposed surfaces of tracks 5 and 6. (In
Test reagent 12 is a reagent that is specific for the test to be performed by the test strip. Reagent 12 may be applied to the entire exposed surface area of conductive tracks 5 and 6 in the area defined by second opening 11. Other applications of reagent 12 in this region are also possible. For example, if conductive track 6 in this region of the strip has a reference electrode construction, such as silver/silver chloride, then test reagent 12 may only need to cover the exposed area of working electrode 5 in this region. Further, the entire exposed area of an electrode may not need to be covered with test reagent as long as a well defined and reproducible area of the electrode is covered with reagent.
Overlaying a portion of first surface 8 and second opening 11 is roof 13. Roof 13 includes indentation 14 and notch 15. Indentation 14 and notch 15 are shaped and positioned so that they directly overlay indentations 2 and 19, and notch 3. Roof 13 may be made of a plastic material, such as a transparent or translucent polyester foil from about 2 mil to about 6 mil thickness. Roof 13 has first surface 16 and second surface 17. Second surface 17 of roof 13 is affixed to first surface 8 of second insulating substrate 7 by a suitable adhesive, such as 3 M 9458 acrylic, available from 3M, Identification and Converter Systems Division, 3M Center, Building 220-7W-03, St. Paul, Minn. 55144.
Preferably, roof 13 further includes transparent or translucent window 18. Window 18 is dimensioned and positioned so that when roof 13 is affixed to second insulating substrate 7, the window overlays the entire width of conductive track 5 and at least about ten percent of the width of conductive track 6.
Second surface 17 of roof 13, the edges of opening 11, and first surface 22 of insulating substrate 1 (and conductive tracks 5 and 6 affixed to first surface 22 of substrate 1) define a capillary testing chamber. The length and width of this capillary chamber are defined by the length and width of opening 11 and the height of the chamber is defined by the thickness of second insulting substrate 7.
A preferred test strip may be manufactured as shown by the process illustrated by
A test reagent 12 is then dispensed into opening 11 and dried. (
Finally, individual test strips are punched out by a die punch as shown in
As noted above, test reagent 12 is dispensed into the area of the test strip defined by cutout 11. In the manufacturing process described above, it is preferred to provide corona treatment of opening 11 before test reagent 12 is applied. The application of corona treatment serves to increase the surface energy of the portion of surface 22 and conductive tracks 5 and 6 exposed by opening 11, encouraging uniform spreading of reagent 12, and to pre-clean the portion of conductive tracks 5 and 6 exposed by opening 11. Pre-cleaning of conductive tracks 5 and 6 has been found to significantly improve the performance of the test strip. Corona treatment may be applied at Watt densities ranging from about 20 to about 90 watts per centimeter per second (W/cm/s) with an arc gap of about 1 millimeter (0.040 inch).
In the preferred method, the corona treatment is applied in blanket form over the surfaces shown in
It is advantageous to reduce the effects of corona treatment on surface 8 in order to ensure that reagent 12 will fully coalesce in opening 11 and does not have a greater affinity for surface 8 than for the portion of surface 22 and conductive tracks 5 and 6 exposed by opening 11. A corona dissipation process, which allows for the selective reduction of the effects of a blanket corona treatment process, is incorporated to reduce the effects of the treatment on areas of the web (the sheet of test strips being processed) outside of opening 11. This corona dissipation process consists of applying, a thin film of deionized water such that the water contacts surface 8, but will not contact openings 10 and 11. Application of the thin film of water, which is preferably from about 1.5 microns to about 3.0 microns thickness (about 9.1 grams of water per square meter), may be accomplished via wick pad, flexographic print, or other commercially available coating application methods. The thin film of water is then dried from the surface, using forced convection or infrared methods just prior to application of reagent 12. The net effect of this treatment is that the surface energy of surface 8 is effectively reduced to less than 62 dyne prior to the application of reagent 12 while the surface of area within opening 11 is maintained at it's post corona treatment surface energy.
In the preferred embodiment, test reagent 12 is formulated for the measurement of glucose in a human blood sample. A protocol for the preparation of a liter of a preferred glucose reagent utilizing the enzyme quinoprotein (pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-containing) glucose dehydrogenase and the redox mediator ferricyanide is shown immediately below. (Quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase is Enzyme Commission No. 188.8.131.52.)
The apoenzyme of quinoprotein glucose dehygrogenase, specified above, is obtained from Boehringer Mannheim GmbH in Germany (Boehringer Marinheim GmbH identification number 1464221). Alternatively, this apoenzyme may be obtained from Acinetobacter Calcoaceticus by the following protocol, recited in Duine et al., FEBS Letters, vol. 108, no. 2, pps. 443-46.
Acinetobacter Calcoaceticus are grown on a mineral salt medium supplemented with 0.02 molar (M) sodium succinate or 0.10 M ethanol at 22° C. with good aeration. The cells are harvested at the end of the logarithmic phase and a wet-cell yield of ˜4 g/l can be obtained.
Frozen cells (10 g) are thawed and mixed with 15 milliliters (ml) of 36 millimolar (mM) Tris/39 mM glycine buffer. After adding 6 milligrams (mg) lysozyme, the suspension is stirred at room temperature for 15 min. and centrifuged for 10 min. at 48,000×g. The supernatant is discarded and the pellet extracted twice with 36 mM Tris/39 mM glycine buffer, containing 1% TRITON X-100 surfactant. The supernatants of the centrifugation steps are combined and used immediately.
The cell-free extract is added to a DEAE-Sephacel column (13×2.2 centimeters (cm)), equilibrated with 36 mM Tris/39 mM glycine buffer, containing 1% TRITON X-100 surfactant and the column is washed with the same buffer. The enzyme does not adhere to the column material and the combined active fractions are titrated with 2 M acetic acid to pH 6.0. This solution is added immediately to a column of CM-Sepharose CL-6 B (5×1 cm), equilibrated with 5 mM potassium phosphate (pH 6.0). After washing the column with the same buffer until no TRITON X-100 surfactant is present in the eluate, the enzyme is eluted with 0.1 M potassium phosphate (pH 7.0).
The enzyme is then dialyzed against 0.1 M sodium acetate (pH 4.5), containing 3 M potassium bromide at 4° C. for 72 hours. The enzyme is then dialyzed against 0.02 M potassium phosphate (pH 7.0) for 12 hours, resulting in the apoenzyme.
In the preferred test strip, opening 11 is about 3.2 millimeters by about 6.7 millimeters. In the preferred embodiment of a glucose test strip, 4.5 microliters of test reagent made by the above protocol is added to opening 11. (See
The resulting, preferred, dried glucose reagent film will contain from about 2,000 to about 9,000 units of enzyme activity per gram of reagent. The preferred reagent will contain the following additional components per gram of reagent:
Importantly, including from about 0.2% by weight to about 2% by weight polyethylene oxide having a mean molecular weight from about 100 kilodaltons to about 900 kilodaltons, and preferably about 0.71% by weight polyethylene oxide having a mean molecular weight of 300 kilodaltons, in the wet reagent referred to above provides a test reagent that, when dried, is sturdier to strip processing steps, such as mechanical punching, sturdier to mechanical manipulation by test strip user, and that will redissolve or resuspend when an aqueous sample, such as human blood, is added to it. After drying, the percentage of polyethylene oxide ranges from about 1.75% (weight:weight) to about 17.5% (weight:weight). In the preferred, dried reagent, the percentage of polyethylene oxide is about 6.2% (weight:weight).
The preferred, dried, glucose reagent film thickness will be such that, in combination with the inherent properties of the test chemistry, the sensitivity of the test to interference from hematocrit variation is mitigated. In this preferred embodiment of the invention, the film thickness (as gauged by the ratio of wet reagent dispense volume to the surface area exposed by opening 11) is such that 4.5 microliters of reagent is dispensed into an area of approximately 22.5 square millimeters (the preferred area of opening 11). Including polyethylene oxide from about 100 kilodaltons to about 900 kilodaltons mean molecular weight in a film with the thickness described above, results in a sensor possessing a reduced sensitivity to hematocrit variation when glucose is measured from a human blood sample.
After test reagent 12 is dried in opening 11, roof 13 is laid over opening 11 and adhesively affixed to surface 8 as described above. Roof 13 itself is made in a separate process according to procedures described below.
Preferably, roof 13 is made of MELINEX 561 polyester foil, having a thickness of 5 mil. A substantially opaque ink is printed on first surface 16 in pattern 27 such that window 18 remains transparent or translucent. The window is positioned and dimensioned so that when the roof is affixed to surface 8, it will align with opening 11 as shown in
On second surface 17, an adhesive system is laminated in order that the roof may be ultimately affixed to surface 8. This adhesive system can conveniently be an acrylic adhesive such as available from many commercial sources, but preferably part number 9458 from 3M Inc.
In addition, prior to placing the roof on surface 8, a piece of coated transparent or translucent plastic, preferably a polyethylene terephthalate (PET), such as Melinex S plastic from about 0.001 to about 0.004 inch thick, is placed against the adhesive system on second surface 17, and aligned with, and extending beyond the dimensions of window 18. This coated plastic is hydrophilic coating 25. Coating 25 is specifically chosen to impart a hydrophilic nature to the internal surface of the capillary test chamber to encourage flow of an aqueous sample, such as blood, into the test chamber. Coating 25 can be chosen from many available coatings designed to present a hydrophilic surface, but product number ARCARE 8586, available from Adhesives Research, Inc., is preferred. Coating 25 also acts to prevent direct contact of the roof's adhesive to reagent 12.
Finally, roof 13 is placed onto surface 8. (See
Completed test strips 26 are used in conjunction with a meter capable of measuring some electrical property of the test sample after addition of the test sample to sample application port 20. (See
An example of measuring electrical current to perform an analytical test is illustrated by U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,288,636 and 5,508,171, the disclosures of which are hereby incorporated by reference.
In the preferred embodiment, test strip 26 is connected to a meter, which includes a power source (a battery). Improvements in such meters and a biosensor system can be found in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,999,632; 5,243,516; 5,366,609; 5,352,351; 5,405,511; and 5,438,271, the disclosures of which are hereby incorporated by reference.
Many analyte-containing fluids may be analyzed by the electrochemical test strip of the present invention. For example, analytes in human body fluids, such as whole blood, blood serum, urine and cerebrospinal fluid may be measured. Also, analytes found in fermentation products and in environmental substances, which potentially contain environmental contaminants, may be measured.
For determining the concentration of glucose in a human blood sample with the preferred test strip recited above, wherein tracks 5 and 6 are palladium of substantially the same size and the glucose reagent is the reagent specified above, a blood sample may be added to sample application port 20. The sample will be drawn into the test chamber by capillary action. Once inside the test chamber, the blood sample will mix with test reagent 12. After an incubation period of some desired time, for example, 30 seconds, a potential difference will be applied by the power source of the meter between tracks 5 and 6. In the preferred embodiment, the applied potential difference is 300 millivolts. Current may be measured at any time from 0.5 seconds to about 30 seconds after the potential difference of 300 millivolts is applied. The measured current may be correlated to the concentration of glucose in the blood sample.
The current measured during the assay of an analyte from a fluid sample may be correlated to the concentration of the analyte in the sample by application of an algorithm by the current measuring meter. The algorithm may be a simple one, as illustrated by the following example:
wherein [Analyte] represents the concentration of the analyte in the sample (see
By making measurements with known concentrations of analyte, calibration curve 30 (
In a preferred method for analysis of glucose from a sample of human whole blood, current measurements are made at 0.5 second intervals from 3 seconds to 9 seconds after the potential difference is applied between the electrodes. These current measurements are correlated to the concentration of glucose in the blood sample.
In this example of measuring glucose from a blood sample, current measurements are made at different times (from 3 seconds to 9 seconds after application of the potential difference), rather than at a single fixed time (as described above), and the resulting algorithm is more complex and may be represented by the following equation:
[Glucose]=C1i1+C2i2+C3i3+ . . . Cnin+d,
wherein i1 is the current measured at the first measurement time (3 seconds after application of the 300 millivolt potential difference), i2 is the current measured at the second measurement time (3.5 seconds after application of the 300 millivolt potential difference), i3 is the current measured at the third measurement time (4 seconds after application of the 300 millivolt potential difference), in is the current measured at the nth measurement time (in this example, at the 13th measurement time or 9 seconds after application of the 300 millivolt potential difference), C1, C2, C3, and Cn are coefficients derived from a muiltivariate regression analysis technique, such as Principle Components Analysis or Partial Least Squares, and d is the regression intercept (in glucose concentration units).
Alternatively, the concentration of glucose in the sample being measured may be determined by integrating the curve generated by plotting current, i, versus measurement time over some time interval (for example, from 3 seconds to 9 seconds after application of the 300 millivolt potential difference), thereby obtaining the total charge transferred during the measurement period. The total charge transferred is directly proportional to the concentration of glucose in the sample being measured.
Further, the glucose concentration measurement may be corrected for differences between environmental temperature at the time of actual measurement and the environmental temperature at the time calibration was performed. For example, if the calibration curve for glucose measurement was constructed at an environmental temperature of 23° C., the glucose measurement is corrected by using the following equation:
wherein T is the environmental temperature (in ° C.) at the time of the sample measurement and K is a constant derived from the following regression equation:
In order to calculate the value of K, each of a multiplicity of glucose concentrations is measured by the meter at various temperatures, T, and at 23° C. (the base case). Next, a linear regression of Y on T−23 is performed. The value of K is the slope of this regression.
Various features of the present invention may be incorporated into other electrochemical test strips, such as those disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,120,420; 5,141,868; 5,437,999; 5,192,415; 5,264,103; and 5,575,895, the disclosures of which are hereby incorporated by reference.
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|US8858884||Mar 15, 2013||Oct 14, 2014||American Sterilizer Company||Coupled enzyme-based method for electronic monitoring of biological indicator|
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|WO2014140164A1||Mar 13, 2014||Sep 18, 2014||Roche Diagnostics Gmbh||Methods of using information from recovery pulses in electrochemical analyte measurements as well as devices, apparatuses and systems incorporating the same|
|WO2014140172A1||Mar 13, 2014||Sep 18, 2014||Roche Diagnostics Gmbh||Methods of failsafing electrochemical measurements of an analyte as well as devices, apparatuses and systems incorporating the same|
|WO2014140177A2||Mar 13, 2014||Sep 18, 2014||Roche Diagnostics Gmbh||Methods of detecting high antioxidant levels during electrochemical measurements and failsafing an analyte concentration therefrom as well as devices, apparatuses and systems incorporting the same|
|U.S. Classification||422/402, 422/76, 422/425, 435/817, 204/403.01, 324/692, 422/68.1, 422/82.01|
|International Classification||G01N27/02, G01N27/416, G01N27/00, G01N33/66, C12Q1/00, G01N33/543, G01N33/48, C12M1/34, G01N27/28, G01N27/327, G01N27/30, G01N33/487|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S435/817, G01N27/3272, C12Q1/001, G01N33/5438|
|European Classification||C12Q1/00B, G01N33/543K2B, G01N27/327B1, G01N27/327B|
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