|Publication number||USRE43066 E1|
|Application number||US 12/326,755|
|Publication date||Jan 3, 2012|
|Filing date||Dec 2, 2008|
|Priority date||Jun 13, 2000|
|Also published as||EP1308056A2, EP1308056A4, EP2448130A2, EP2448130A3, EP2451084A2, EP2451084A3, US7146176, US20020002052, USRE44237, USRE44492, USRE45302, WO2001097430A2, WO2001097430A3|
|Publication number||12326755, 326755, US RE43066 E1, US RE43066E1, US-E1-RE43066, USRE43066 E1, USRE43066E1|
|Inventors||Mark Allen McHenry|
|Original Assignee||Shared Spectrum Company|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (207), Non-Patent Citations (46), Referenced by (11), Classifications (10)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Notice: More than one reissue application has been filed for the reissue of U.S. Pat. No. 7,146,176. The reissue applications are application Ser. Nos. 12/336,755 (the present application), 12/944,796, and 13/089,492, all of which are divisional reissues of U.S. Pat. No. 7,146,176.
This application is a reissue of U.S. Pat. No. 7,146,176, which claims priority under 35 USC 119(e) based on of to U.S. Provisional Patent Applications Ser. No. 60/211,215 dated Jun. 13, 2000 and Ser. No. 60/264,265 dated Jan. 29, 2001. Both applications are incorporated by reference in entirety.
1. Field of Invention
This invention relates to communications spectrum allocation and reuse on a non-interference basis in bands which have pre-existing spectrum users (both transmit/receive type and receive-only type).
2. Description of Prior Art
Communication systems commonly use methods to optimize the use of the spectrum. There are several approaches involving radio networks where channels are selected to optimize system capacity.
Cellular phone and other types of systems use low power transmissions and a cellular architecture that enables spectrum to be reused many times in a metropolitan area. These systems assume that within the allocated frequency band, the system is the primary user and that there is a control or signaling channel between all nodes. The goal of these systems is to maximize the number of calls system wide given a fixed amount of bandwidth. This problem is complex because of the nearly innumerable choices of frequency/channel combinations possible, the time varying nature of the calls, and the unpredictable propagation loses between all of the nodes. While global optimization schemes would give the highest capacities, limited communications capacity between the nodes, finite channel measuring capabilities in some of the nodes, and short decisions times require that distributed non-optimal methods be used. Examples are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,672,657 (1987), 4,736,453 (1988), 4,783,780 (1988), 4,878,238 (1989), 4,881,271 (1989), 4,977,612 (1990), 5,093,927 (1992), 5,203,012 (1993), 5,179,722 (1993), 5,239,676 (1993), 5,276,908 (1994), 5,375,123 (1994), 5,497,505 (1996), 5,608,727 (1997), 5,822,686 (1998), 5,828,948 (1998), 5,850,605 (1998), 5,943,622 (1999), 6,044090 (2000), and 6,049,717 (2000).
The above patents describe methods where current channel measurements (noise level, carrier-to-interference ratio (C/I)), previous channel measurement statistics, and traffic loading are used in different ways to optimize capacity while minimizing latency in channel assignment, equipment requirements, and dropped calls. All of these methods assume that the system is the primary spectrum user. This would allow the primary system to select channels where it was jammed, but it would create significant interference to another system.
Several methods to enable a system to operate as the secondary spectrum user with minimal impact to the primary user have been disclosed. The first type assume that there are predetermined spatial “exclusions zones” where if the secondary user avoids transmission while located in these areas, then there will be no interference to the primary user. U.S. Pat. No. 5,422,930 (1995) uses a telephone circuit based keying method where the telephone's location is known and when the secondary user is connected to the specific phone line, authorization is given for operation using a set of frequencies. U.S. Pat. No. 5,511,233 (1996) is similar method where an undefined position location system is used. U.S. Pat. No. 5,794,1511 (1998) uses a GPS (global positioning system) to locate the secondary user.
This geolocation exclusion method has significant short-falls. To determine the exclusion zones, propagation estimates or propagation methods would have to be made. There would be large uncertainties in the antenna type, antenna orientation, antenna height, and power level used by the secondary user. There would be uncertainties in the local propagation conditions between the secondary user and the primary user, and these propagation conditions might change because of ducting or other temporary atmospheric conditions. To mitigate these problems, the exclusion zones would have to have very large margins, which would greatly reduce system capacity, or some unintended interference would be created. These schemes do not address how the interference caused by one specific secondary user would be quickly and economically identified and eliminated.
A second type of secondary spectrum allocation method uses detailed propagation modeling of the primary and secondary communication systems and channel occupancy measurements made by the secondary system (U.S. Pat. No. 5,410,737 (1995) and U.S. Pat. No. 5,752,164 (1998)). The channel measurements are use to validate and improve the propagation modeling estimates. Using this information, the spectrum is allocated so that the primary user is not impacted.
Because of the large uncertainties in propagation estimates, the above method must use large margins to insure minimal interference. Using measurements of the propagation losses between the primary and secondary user can be directly used to reduce these margins only if the primary system transmits and receives using the same antenna, at the same frequency and at a known power level. In this case the secondary radio directly estimates it's impact on the primary system and can select its frequency and power level to avoid interference. However, most communication systems use different transmit and receive frequencies and often use different transmit and receive antennas. Hence, the measurements of the primary signal received by the secondary don't provide direct information on the impact the secondary transmitter has on the primary receiver. This method also doesn't describe how unintentional interference would be identified and mitigated.
A third approach insurers that the measurements of the primary signals made by the secondary user can be used to determine the available spectrum is to add a narrow bandwidth “marker” signal to every primary receiver antenna system (U.S. Pat. No. 5,412,658 (1995)). This approach has significant cost impact to the primary user and because the CW marker transmitter is collocated to the primary receiver, it will cause significant interference to the primary user.
A fourth method has the primary and secondary users sharing a spectrum band between the primary and secondary users to reserve bandwidth (U.S. Pat. No. 5,428,819 (1995)). An “etiquette” is observed between the users and each user makes measurements of the open channels to determine priority usage. This method has the disadvantage that the primary system must be modified to communicate with the secondary system, which is cost prohibitive if the primary user is already established. Also, the method will fail in many cases because of the well known “hidden node problem”. This occurs when the secondary nodes are unable to receive transmissions from a primary node because of the particular propagation conditions. Thus, the secondary user incorrectly believes the channel is available and his transmissions cause interference.
A fifth method assumes that the primary and secondary systems are controlled by a central controller (U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,040,238 (1991), 5,093,927 (1992), 5,142,691 (1992), and 5,247,701 (1993)). When interference occurs, the secondary system's power level and/or frequency list is adjusted. Some of the methods use channel measurements at the secondary system to detect changes in the frequency usage that would require a re-prioritization of channels. This method has obvious problems because the primary system would have to be highly modified to interact with the secondary system and to be able to make the required spectrum measurements. The spectrum is now fully allocated and there are primary users in every band. What is needed is a method that enables secondary operation without any modification to the existing primary user.
A sixth method uses field monitors the measure the secondary signal strength at specific locations. One sub-method is intended to enable secondary usage inside buildings (U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,548,809 (1996) and 5,655,217 (1997)). Field monitors are located surrounding the secondary system nodes which determine what channels are not used by nearby primary systems or if the channels are in use, if the coupling between the primary to them where the coupling to detected. The second sub-method is intended to enable adjacent cellular based mobile communication systems (U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,862,487 (1999)).
Accordingly, several objects or advantages of my invention are:
Further objects and advantages of my invention will become apparent from a consideration of the drawings and ensuing description.
This invention allows a secondary user to efficiently use the spectrum on a non-interference basis with an existing primary user.
Determining the secondary transceiver's maximum power level is very difficult since it depends on antennas, cable losses, locations, radio frequency (RF) propagation, and other factors which can't economically be reliably predicted. In the preferred embodiment, a combination of primary signal strength measurements, measurements of signals from nearby primary receivers, and secondary-to-secondary node coupling measurements are made to determine this power level.
The new secondary node 21 then measures the primary signal strength in each of the proposed channels. As will be described later, this measurement is coordinated with the secondary signals in the secondary service area 24. During the measurement interval the secondary signals are switched off to prevent the secondary signals from affecting the primary signal measurement. If the primary signal is below a certain value, then the new secondary node 21 is assumed to be located in a region where the channel is potentially available for spectrum reuse. If the primary signal is above another certain value, then the new secondary node 21 is assumed to be located in the primary service region B 28, the channel is not available for spectrum reuse by this node, and this node can be used to received signal probes.
However, there are a variety of factors which may reduce the propagation losses and create interference: (1) The primary or secondary users may have elevated antennas (100 m or more), (2) incorrect information on the secondary user's location, and (3) unusual propagation due to atmospheric conditions. These conditions are rare but exist often enough that the secondary system must mitigate them in order to operate on a non-interference basis. The conditions also vary with time so they must be mitigated on a regular basis.
Unfortunately, the signal level from each secondary transceiver 20 at each primary receiver 10 can't be measured directly because of the expense in deploying the measurement equipment and the location of the primary receivers 10 may be unknown. Simulations and analysis could be used to estimate these effects, they would require extensive detailed knowledge of all primary users, terrain features and atmospheric data, which is impractical to obtain.
Instead, the secondary signal level at the primary receivers 10 is estimated by the use of propagation models and measuring the secondary signal level at secondary transceiver 20 and secondary base stations 22 surrounding the primary receivers 10. In the example shown in
The secondary central controller 30 then tasks the new secondary transceiver 21 to transmit a probe signal for a brief period (several milliseconds). The secondary central controller 30 previously coordinates with the secondary transceivers 20 and secondary base stations 22 in service area B 28 so that they measure the probe signal amplitude. The central controller identifies which nodes are within service area B 28 by comparing the primary signal level measurements to a threshold value as previously described. These amplitude values are sent to the secondary central controller 30. If any of the probe signal amplitudes exceed a threshold value, then the maximum transmit power level that the new secondary transceiver 21 can use on channel B is reduced by the amount the maximum measurement exceeded the threshold. The value of the maximum transmission power level is thus equal to the following formula: P_transmission (dBm)=P_probe (dBm)−P_received (dBm)+“constant”, with “P_probe” the probe transmission power level, “P_received” the maximum received probe power level, and the value of the “constant” depending on the maximum interference level allowed in the “primary region” plus a safety margin.
These measurements are repeated at a regular interval (10's of minutes to a few hours) and the probe signal amplitudes are compared to previous values. If there is a significant change due to changes in the secondary equipment (new location, antenna rotations, changes to the system cabling . . .) or due to unusual propagation conditions, the maximum transmit power level that the new secondary transceiver 21 can use on channel B is changed so that the maximum measurement value equals the threshold value.
If the secondary equipment is mobile, than the measurements are made more frequently and the threshold value is set higher to account for lags in transmitting the data to the secondary central controller 30 and other system delays. The probe duration is adjusted to balance the probe measurement time versus probe waveform detection probability and depends on the number of secondary nodes and the node dynamics. In a secondary service area 26 or 28 with 10,000 users, 10% of the capacity allocated to probing, and probing done every hour, the probe duration is approximately 2 ms.
To decrease the amount of time spent probing, groups of secondary transceiver 20 and secondary base stations 22 can transmit the probe signals simultaneously. If the secondary transceivers 20 and secondary base stations 22 in service area B 28 measure a probe signal amplitude greater than the threshold value, then each of the secondary transceiver 20 and secondary base stations 22 can individually re-transmit the probe signal to determine which link will cause interference.
To minimize the interference to the primary system, the probe waveform is not the same as used to transmit data. The waveform is designed to have minimal effect on the primary waveform, to be easily and quickly acquired by the secondary system, and to have sufficient bandwidth across the channel of interest so that frequency selective fading doesn't introduce large errors. In the preferred embodiment of this invention, one of the following waveforms is used depending of the primary signal modulation.
The value of this waveform is that it has approximately the same level of impact to the TV signal as a broadband waveform used to send data, but this waveform can be received with a narrow bandwidth (˜10 Hz) receiver compared to a wide bandwidth (several MHz) broadband receiver, thus it can be transmitted at much lower (˜50 dB) amplitude and will have minimal impact to the primary signal.
The relative amplitudes of the CW tones in each zone are shown in
To receive this waveform, standard FFT processing techniques are used to measure the amplitude of each CW tone and the amplitudes are normalized by the 30 dB and 10 dB amounts described above. Selective fading will cause the relative amplitude of each tone to vary just as would occur with a data waveform and must be accounted for to estimate the interference caused by a data waveform. To account for fading, the largest of the four CW tone amplitudes is used to estimate the worse case channel conditions. The probability that all four tones are faded causing the propagation losses to be over estimated is very low.
If the primary signal is other than NTSC TV video signals, the probe signal is a conventional BPSK waveform with bandwidth approximately equal to the channel bandwidth. This sets the chip rate at approximately the inverse of the bandwidth (a 10 MHz bandwidth would have a chip rate of 10 Mcps). The waveform transmits a pseudo random sequence with the maximum length that can be coherently integrated when limited by channel conditions or receiver hardware complexity. In non-line-of-sight (LOS) propagation conditions, the maximum channel coherence time is approximately 100 ms. Current low cost receiver hardware is limited to sampling and processing approximately 10,000 samples. Assuming 2 samples per chip, the maximum sequence is approximately 5,000 samples. Thus, the sequence length is set to the minimum of the chip rate (symbols per second) times 100 ms (the maximum sequence duration) and 5,000.
To receive the BPSK probe signal, the secondary receiver samples the signal for a period equal to the transmit period and using a non-linear technique to measure the amplitude of probe signal. Each sample value is squared and the resulting series analyzed using an FFT. At the frequency corresponding to twice the chip rate, a narrow bandwidth spectral line will exist with amplitude that is related to the received probe signal amplitude. It is well known to those familiar in the art that this technique is able identify BPSK signals with amplitude well below the noise level and provides nearly optimal signal detection performance. Thus, the probe signal can be transmitted at a much lower power level than a regular data signal (which reduces interference to the primary signal) and can still be detected.
Once the probe signal amplitudes are measured at the secondary transceivers 20 and secondary base stations 22 in service area B 28, the values are sent to the secondary central controller 30 who then decides what the maximum power level each secondary transceiver 20 and secondary base station 22 can use with this channel as is described above.
In addition to measuring the primary background signal, each secondary transceiver 20 and secondary base station 22 will send data, receive probe signals and transmit probe signals. This information is sent to the central controller 30 via the high capacity network connecting the base stations 22. The notional time line for a transceiver is shown in
An additional innovation is a technique where the secondary transceivers 20 and base stations 22 modify their behavior when there are nearby primary receivers 10 or transmitters 12. Closely spaced (10's of meters) radios are susceptible to significant interference caused by non-linear mixing interference and interference caused by unintended out-of-band transmitted signals (phase noise, harmonics, and spurs). In the preferred approach, the secondary transceiver and base station (20 and 22) measure the spectrum and identify strong signals that indicate proximate primary transceivers. Each secondary node (20 and 22) will then avoid transmitting on frequencies likely to cause interference to that specific radio. The frequencies to avoid can be determined using a simple model that includes harmonically related signals and cross products of the primary signal with the secondary signal. For example, if a strong cell phone transmission is detected at 890 MHz, it can be inferred that a receiver is nearby tuned to 935 MHz (cell phone channels are paired). The secondary system may have a significant harmonic at 935 MHz when it transmits at 233.75 MHz (4th harmonic is 935 MHz) and at 467.5 MHz (2nd harmonic is 935 MHz). To avoid causing interference, this specific secondary node would restrict its transmitted power at these frequencies to low values or change to another frequency.
In broadcast bands (i.e. TV), the primary receiver's 10 local oscillator leakage will be detected to determine if there is a nearby receiver as shown in
To measure the LO signal amplitude, fast Fourier transform (FFT) methods are used to create a narrow (˜10 Hz) bandwidth receiver. The LO signals are detected by searching for stable, narrow bandwidth, continuous wave (CW) signals.
In the preferred embodiment of this invention, the secondary signal waveform is selected based on the interference measurements made by the secondary transceivers 20 and secondary base stations 22. If the interference measurements indicate that the primary signal is below the threshold value used to declare the channel open for use and the primary signal level is well above the noise level, then the secondary signal spectrum is reduced to fit into gaps of the primary spectrum (from 1.5 MHz above the channel start frequency to 5.5 MHz above the channel start frequency) as shown in
There are many types of waveforms that could be used to optimize performance in a high multipath link or in high quality (line-of-sight) link.
The primary user reports his location, the channel with interference and the time of the interference. The central controller identifies all secondary transceivers 20 and secondary base stations 22 within a distance X of the primary user active within the time period in question, and identifies what additional channels may have caused the interference due to adjacent channel or image rejection problems. Using propagation and interference models, the maximum power each secondary transceiver 20 and secondary base station 22 is allowed to transmit, the probability of each secondary node is calculated. The secondary nodes are sorted by this probability. If the interference is still present, a secondary central controller 30 tasks the most probable secondary node to temporarily cease transmitting and then asks the primary user if the problem has cleared. If not, the secondary central controller 30 goes to the next probable node and repeats this process (expanding the distance X as required) until the offending secondary node is identified.
If the primary user had reported the interference as intermittent (due to variations in the secondary traffic loading), the secondary central controller 30 commands the secondary nodes to transmit for each of the above tests instead of ceasing to transmit.
Once the secondary node causing the interference is identified, the maximum transmit power level that node can transmit in that channel is reduced until there is no interference. This is accomplished by the secondary central controller 30 iteratively tasking the secondary node to transmit signal at varying power levels until the primary user reports no interference.
Secondary transceivers 20 and base stations 22 that are highly elevated compared to the surrounding terrain have line-of-sight to a large area and will have much lower propagation losses to the surround primary nodes compared to secondary nodes that are at low altitude. Because they are more likely to cause interference, they are assigned frequencies that are the least likely to cause interference as determined by the probe measurements described above. To determine if a secondary node is elevated, the node measures the strength of several primary signals (at different frequencies) in the area as shown in
In some system applications, the frequency range of the secondary system will not include the standard broadcast bands. The elevation of a secondary node can still be inferred using signals from primary cellular, PCS, or other systems (that are not constant amplitude). These systems use frequency re-use schemes where channels are assigned to different cell towers. If the node is elevated, it will receive strong amplitude signals at many frequencies within the frequency re-use scheme. If the node is not elevated, it will receive strong amplitude signals at only one or two frequencies within the frequency re-use scheme.
As mentioned above, the system will use a slightly different scheme to allocate frequencies for mobile nodes. To determine if a node is stationary or mobile, the system will periodically (approximately once per second) measure the amplitude of background primary signals. As shown in
Accordingly, the reader will see that the method described above allows efficient secondary use of spectrum while causing minimum interference to the primary user. The method has minimal impact to the choices of the secondary system could be added as an applique to existing or planned communication systems. It requires no modification to the existing primary user. The technology can be economically built with existing component technology.
The invention will provide 100's of megahertz of spectrum to be used which before was unavailable to new uses and will provide this spectrum below 2 GHz which is the most useful portion for mobile and non-line-of-sight applications. Because the method has minimal effect on the present primary users, it allows a gradual transition from the present fixed frequency based, broadcast use of the spectrum set-up in the 1930's to the computer controlled, fully digital, packet based, frequency agile systems coming in the near future. With the advent of the Internet and the need for high-speed connectivity to rural and mobile users, the present spectrum use methods are inadequate and will not be able to meet this need. This invention will provide spectrum for the new Internet driven demand while not significantly impacting the present spectrum users.
The invention described here has many advantages. The technique used by each secondary node uses multiple effective ways (propagation models, measuring the primary signal level and probing) to identify what channels are available. The technique of amplitude modulating the secondary signals allows accurate measurement of the primary signal levels while the secondary system is operating. Using the special probe waveforms allows these measurements to me made with minimal impact to the primary system. Varying the secondary waveform greatly reduces the impact to the primary system while increasing the capacity of the secondary system. The methods to detect node elevation and node motion allow for rapid checking and adjustment of spectrum allocations making this technique applicable to mobile applications.
Although the description above contains many specifications, these should not be construed as limiting the scope of the invention but as merely providing illustrations of some of the presently preferred embodiments of this invention. For example, the primary system could be the present broadcast TV system. However, the methods described here would be equally effective with sharing between commercial and military systems, with sharing between radar and communications systems and others.
Thus the scope of the invention should be determined by the appended claims and their legal equivalents, rather than by the examples given.
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|U.S. Classification||455/454, 455/447, 455/450, 455/452.2, 455/452.1|
|Cooperative Classification||H04W72/08, H04W16/14|
|European Classification||H04W16/14, H04W72/08|