|Publication number||USRE43127 E1|
|Application number||US 12/460,974|
|Publication date||Jan 24, 2012|
|Filing date||Jul 27, 2009|
|Priority date||Jun 12, 2002|
|Also published as||USRE45212|
|Publication number||12460974, 460974, US RE43127 E1, US RE43127E1, US-E1-RE43127, USRE43127 E1, USRE43127E1|
|Original Assignee||Intellectual Ventures I Llc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (126), Non-Patent Citations (47), Referenced by (20), Classifications (8), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/353,391 filed Jan. 29, 2003, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,791,962, issued Sep. 14, 2004, which also claims benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/388,569, filed Jun. 12, 2002, entitled “Direct Link Protocol In Wireless Local Area” and also claims benefit of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 60/515,701 filed Oct. 31, 2003 and entitled “Location Awareness in Wireless Networks,” the disclosures of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entireties.
The present invention is also related to U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/880,367 filed concurrently herewith and entitled “Direct Link Relay In a Wireless Network,” U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/880,367 filed concurrently herewith and entitled “Link Margin Notification Using Return Frame,” U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/880,325 filed concurrently herewith and entitled “Time-Scheduled Multichannel Direct Link,” all claiming benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/515,701 filed Oct. 31, 2003, the entireties of which are incorporated by reference herein.
The present invention relates generally to wireless communications between wireless devices and more particularly to utilizing multiple wireless channels to communicate information.
Various wireless standards, such as the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards 802.11 a/b/c/e/g/i (referred to collectively as IEEE 802.11), provide for wireless connectivity between wireless devices, such as, for example, between a wireless station and an access point connected to an infrastructure network. In conventional wireless standards, the communication of information between peer wireless devices typically is routed through the access point. To illustrate, to communicate information between a first wireless device and a second wireless device, the first wireless device wirelessly transmits one or more frames of information to the access point, where the frames designate the second wireless device as their destination. The access point then modifies the headers of the frames and transmits them for reception by the second wireless device.
The process of using the access point as an intermediary has a number of drawbacks. For one, the communication of information is delayed by routing it through the access point. Moreover, the wireless channel used by the wireless devices and access point to communicate information (also referred to as the “base” channel) may be crowded with traffic from other wireless devices similarly seeking to transmit information via the access point. As a result, access contention mechanisms often are implemented, which typically results in additional delay.
Accordingly, an improved technique for communicating information between wireless devices would be advantageous.
The present invention mitigates or solves the above-identified limitations in known solutions, as well as other unspecified deficiencies in known solutions. A number of advantages associated with the present invention are readily evident to those skilled in the art, including economy of design and resources, transparent operation, cost savings, etc.
The present invention is directed to a method of communicating information directly between the first and second wireless devices in a wireless network including an access point logically connected to at least a first wireless device and a second wireless device.
A further aspect of this invention is a method, in a wireless network including an access point operably connected to at least a first wireless device and a second wireless device, of providing information between the access point and at least one of the first and second wireless devices via a first channel for at least a portion of a first period, providing a channel change request from the first wireless device to the second wireless device on the first channel, providing an affirmative response to the channel change request from the second wireless device to the first wireless device on the first channel, switching the second wireless device to a second channel subsequent to the receipt of the acknowledgement to the provision of the affirmative response to the channel change request, switching the first wireless device to the second channel subsequent to the transmission of the acknowledgement to the receipt of the affirmative response to the channel change request; and communicating information directly between the first and second wireless devices via the second channel for at least a portion of a second period.
A further aspect of this invention is a wireless device, in a wireless network having an access point, including a transceiver, and a direct link module operably connected to the transceiver and adapted to facilitate an establishment of a wireless direct link between the wireless device and another wireless device via a second channel, communicate information with the other wireless device via the wireless direct link for at least a portion of a first period, switch the transceiver from the first channel to a second channel in anticipation of a predetermined event; and communicate information with the access point via second channel for at least a portion of a second period.
A further aspect of this invention is a wireless system including an access point and at least a first wireless device and a second wireless device. The first wireless device and a second wireless device are adapted to communicate information via a wireless direct link on a first channel during at least a portion of a first period, switch to a second channel in anticipation of a predetermined event; and communicate information with the access point on the second channel during at least a portion of a second period.
Still further features and advantages of the present invention are identified in the ensuing description, with reference to the drawings identified below.
The purpose and advantages of the present invention will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art from the following detailed description in conjunction with the appended drawings in which like reference characters are used to indicate like elements, and in which:
The following description is intended to convey a thorough understanding of the present invention by providing a number of specific embodiments and details involving the communication of information using multiple wireless channels. It is understood, however, that the present invention is not limited to these specific embodiments and details, which are exemplary only. It is further understood that one possessing ordinary skill in the art, in light of known systems and methods, would appreciate the use of the invention for its intended purposes and benefits in any number of alternative embodiments, depending upon specific design and other needs.
For ease of illustration, the various techniques of the present invention are discussed below in the context of IEEE 802.11-based wireless networking. However, those skilled in the art, using the teachings provided herein, may advantageously implement the disclosed techniques in other wireless networks. Accordingly, reference to techniques and components specific to IEEE 802.11, such as an 802.11-specific frame format or a series of transmissions specific to 802.11, applies also to the equivalent technique or component in other wireless network standards unless otherwise noted. Moreover, various actions standard to IEEE 802.11 and other wireless standards, such as, for example, the transmission of an ACK frame to acknowledge receipt of a frame, are omitted for ease of discussion.
Referring now to
The access point 106 may be connected to an infrastructure network 108 or other network, such as, for example, the Internet, a local area network (LAN), a wide area network (WAN), and the like. Thus, wireless devices 102, 104 may communicate with one or more networked devices on an infrastructure network via the access point 106. Moreover, the wireless devices 102, 104 may communicate with each other via conventional wireless links 112, 114 with the access point 106 or, as discussed in greater detail below, via a wireless direct link 110 between the wireless devices 102, 104 and optionally other wireless devices. Exemplary techniques for establishing and maintaining a wireless direct link are described below and in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 60/515,701, and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 60/388,569 the entirety of which is incorporated by reference herein.
In a conventional wireless network, information is communicated between wireless devices via an access point. A transmitting wireless device transmits the information to the access point on a base channel. The access point then processes the information, such as by changing the headers of one or more frames representing the information, and forwards the information to the receiving wireless device on the base channel. This use of the access point as the intermediary results in a delay in the overall transmission time for the information, as well as crowds the base channel because two transmissions take place, rather than one. Moreover, these transmissions may have been further delayed due to congestion on the base channel by other transmitting devices. Furthermore, the distances to the access point may be much larger than the distance between the communicating devices, which allows the communicating devices to use much higher data rates on direct communications.
Accordingly, the present invention provides techniques for enabling wireless devices to communicate information directly without use of the access point, while still permitting the transfer of information from the access point to the wireless devices, and vice versa. In at least one embodiment, conventional wireless links 112, 114 between the access point 106 and the wireless devices 102, 104, respectively, may be used to initiate, establish and maintain a wireless direct link 110 between the wireless devices 102, 104. The wireless direct link 110 preferably is shifted to a parallel wireless channel (i.e., separate from the base channel) so that the transmission of information via the direct link 110 is not significantly impaired by traffic on the base channel, and vice versa.
Additionally, in at least one embodiment, the wireless devices 102, 104 may be configured to switch back to the base channel or other wireless channel to receive buffered downlink information or peer-to-peer information from the access point 106 or to transmit uplink information or peer-to-peer information to the access point 106, for example. The switch between the parallel channel and the base channel may occur in anticipation of a predetermined event, such as the periodic transmission of a delivery traffic indication map (DTIM) beacon frame by the access point 106, or the switch from the parallel channel to the base channel, or vice versa, may be initiated by either of the wireless devices 102, 104.
Referring now to
To illustrate, transmission period 210 may represent a direct link handshake period conducted on the base channel 206 to initiate and establish the direct link 110 on the parallel channel 208 for direct transmission of information between the wireless devices. An exemplary process for initiating and establishing a direct link 110 on a parallel channel is described in greater detail below with reference to
Although the wireless devices 102, 104 may directly communicate information via the direct link 110 on parallel channel 208, the wireless devices 102, 104 may need to return to the base channel 206 or another channel on a periodic basis in order to receive information from the access point 106 or other wireless device and/or to provide uplink information to the access point 106 or peer wireless devices. To illustrate, the wireless devices 102, 104 may be unable to receive information from the access point 106 while their transceivers are tuned to the parallel channel 208 during transmission period 212. Accordingly, the access point 106 may buffer information intended for the wireless devices 102, 104 during the transmission period 212. As detailed in many wireless standards, access points typically periodically transmit information that indicates that the access point has buffered information for one or more wireless devices associated with the access point. For example, IEEE 802.11 provides for the periodic transmission of a delivery traffic indication map (DTIM) beacon frame every DTIM period or at a target beacon transmission time (TBTT). The traffic indication map of the DTIM beacon frame indicates which wireless devices have information buffered at the access point.
Thus, in one embodiment, wireless devices 102, 104 switch back to the base channel 206 in anticipation of a predetermined event 220 (occurring, for example, at time t2), where the predetermined event 220 may include, for example: the transmission of buffered information, broadcast and/or multicast information by the access point 106 on the base channel 206; the transmission of an indication of buffered information by the access point 106, such as, for example, a DTIM beacon frame; and the like. In this instance, the wireless devices 102, 104 may use the indication of buffered information to determine whether they have information buffered at the access point 106 and then may request this information from the access point 106 using, for example, a Power Save (PS)-Poll frame. Thus, the transmission period 214 may represent the transmission of multicast, broadcast, and buffered unicast information from the access point 106 to the wireless devices 102, 104, the transmission of uplink information from the wireless devices 102, 104 to the access point 106, the transmission of peer-to-peer information between the wireless devices 102, 104 and other wireless devices, and the like.
At or about time t3, the wireless devices 102, 104 may switch back to parallel channel 208 and continue communicating information directly via the direct link 110 during transmission period 216. Alternatively, the wireless devices 102, 104 may initiate, establish and use a wireless direct link on a different channel. In either instance, the wireless devices 102, 104 may switch back to the base channel 206 in anticipation of another predetermined event 222, e.g., the transmission of another DTIM map, at or around time t4. Once switched to the base channel 206, information between the access point 106, the wireless devices 102, 104 and/or other wireless devices may be communicated as described above during transmission period 218. The process of switching between channels to alternatively transmit information over a direct link on one channel and communicate with the access point 106 or other wireless device on another channel may continue for any number of cycles as appropriate. Note that the direct link can always be used, irrespective of whether the wireless devices 102 and 104 reside on the parallel channel or on the base channel.
Referring now to
In the illustrated example of
Referring now to
The setup request may be encapsulated inside a regular data frame, using LLC encapsulation. This method is described in more detail in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 60/515,701, which has been referenced before. Security credentials may also be included inside the setup frames. Due to the encapsulation in a regular data frame, any access point will forward the frame to the ultimate destination without processing the data portion, irrespective of whether the access point knows about this protocol or not. The LLC encapsulation effectively creates a transparent tunnel through the access point.
The access point 106 may process the setup request frame as necessary and forward the setup request frame to the wireless device 104 at step 404. Access points will usually forward this data frame without additional processing of the payload. Upon receipt of the setup request frame, the wireless device 104 may consider the proposal to establish a direct link on the proposed channel. If acceptable, the wireless device 104 may transmit an affirmative setup response frame to the access point 106 on the base channel for forwarding to the wireless device 102 at step 406. If the proposal to establish a direct link is acceptable but the proposed channel is not (because, for example, the wireless device 104 cannot operate at the proposed frequency), the wireless device 104 may transmit a conditional setup response frame to the access point 106 on the base channel for forwarding to the wireless device 102. The conditional setup response frame may include a proposal for an alternate channel for consideration by the wireless device 102.
If the proposal to establish a direct link is unacceptable (e.g., the wireless device 104 does not have a multiple channel direct link capability), the wireless device 104 may transmit a negative setup response frame to the wireless device 102 indicating that the wireless device 104 has declined to participate in a direct link with the wireless device 102. In this instance, the wireless device 102 may attempt to set up a direct link 110 on the base channel or it may cease attempts to establish a direct link 110 with the wireless device 104. In at least one embodiment, the setup response frame includes an agreed/denied/conditional field that may be used to indicate whether the setup response is affirmative, negative or conditional. If the responding device does not support direct link, it may not recognize the multi channel capability (i.e. the CIE element), and it may respond with a response message that does not include a multi channel capability element (i.e. the CIE element). In this way, a direct link may still be set up, but possibly without the option of being shifted to another channel.
If the setup response frame is affirmative or conditional, the setup response frame may further include an indication that the wireless device 104 is entering a sleep mode or power-saving mode whereby the access point 106 is to buffer all information intended for the wireless device 104 until the access point 106 is polled for the buffered information. The power-saving mode indicator may include, for example, a power management (PM) bit set or cleared in the header of the setup response frame. Upon receipt of the setup response frame, the access point 106 preferably enacts the buffering mechanism if so directed by the power-saving mode indicator and forwards the setup response frame to the wireless device 102 at step 408.
If the setup response frame is an affirmative response, the wireless device 102 may transmit a setup confirm frame to the access point 106 for forwarding at step 410. If the response is conditional upon acceptance of the use of the channel proposed by the wireless device 104, the wireless device 102 may determine whether this proposed channel is acceptable. If so, the wireless device 102 may transmit the setup confirm frame at step 410. If the response is negative, the wireless device 102 preferably ceases any attempts to establish a direct link. As with the setup response frame, the setup confirmation frame may include an indication (e.g., a set PM bit) that the wireless device 102 is entering a sleep mode or power-saving mode and information intended for the wireless device 102 should be buffered at the access point 106. Upon receipt of the setup confirm frame, the access point 106 may activate the buffering mechanism and forward the setup confirm frame to the wireless device 104 on the base channel at step 412.
Upon transmitting the setup confirm frame at step 410, in one embodiment, the wireless device 102 switches its transceiver 304 to the agreed-to channel and waits for the arrival of the wireless device 104 at step 414. Likewise, the wireless device 104 switches its transceiver 304 to the proposed channel upon receipt of the setup confirm frame at step 416. To announce its presence on the proposed channel, the wireless device 104 may transmit an announcement frame on the proposed channel directly to the wireless device 102 at step 418. At this point, the direct link 110 may be considered to be established and the wireless devices 102, 104 may initiate the communication of information on the parallel channel via the direct link 110 at step 420.
In another embodiment, devices 102 and/or 104 do not set the PM bit on the direct link handshake frames, but separate frames with the PM bit set are transmitted instead. These frames may be Null frames or regular data frames. Shifting the direct link to another channel is postponed until after the transmission of these separate PM frames. Shifting the direct link may be accomplished by a permanent or temporary channel switch, which are discussed in detail below. The direct link handshake may still include a multi channel capability or a set of supported channels to which the direct link could be transferred.
There may be a delay between when the wireless device 102 switches to the parallel channel and when the wireless device 104 switches. In one embodiment, the wireless device 102 may use this waiting period to scan the parallel channel to listen for traffic on the parallel channel. The arrival of wireless device 104 may be announced by the transmission of a first frame, which opens the direct link on the new channel. If the scan reveals that there is excessive traffic, the wireless device 102 may suspend or cancel the direct link by transmitting, for example, a slow resumption mode (SRM) frame or a fast resumption mode (FRM) frame, or the wireless device 104 may transmit a channel switch request to the wireless device 104 once the wireless device 104 has switched to the parallel channel, where the channel switch request represents a proposal to switch the direct link to another parallel channel. Permanent and temporary channel switch requests are discussed in detail below.
During the direct link setup phase described above, peer-to-peer traffic through the access point is preferably is temporarily suspended to avoid any reordering of frames waiting at the access point 106. As noted above, the wireless devices 102, 104 may use a power-saving mode indicator, such as, for example, the PM bit, to notify the access point 106 that the devices 102, 104 are entering a power-save mode and therefore directing the access point 106 to buffer downlink data until it is requested from the wireless devices via, for example, power mode-poll (PM-Poll) frames as described by IEEE 802.11.
Referring now to
In at least one embodiment, the wireless devices 102, 104 are configured to switch back to the parallel channel at steps 508A and 508B after receiving the DTIM beacon frame and any multicast/broadcast information. If one or both of the wireless devices 102, 104 determine that they have buffered information at the access point 106 using the DTIM beacon frame, the wireless device (device 102 in this example) may transmit a permanent channel switch (PCS) request frame on the parallel channel with a request to switch back to the parallel channel to the other wireless device at step 510. In this case, the PCS request frame represents a request to switch to a proposed channel and includes one or more indicators of the proposed channel, such as, for example, the center frequency and channel width or a low frequency and a high frequency for the proposed channel. If the proposed channel switch is acceptable to the receiving wireless device (device 104 in this example), the receiving wireless device sends an affirmative PCS response frame on the parallel channel at step 512. If the proposed channel switch is unacceptable (e.g., the receiving wireless device cannot operate at the proposed frequency), the receiving wireless device may transmit a conditional PCS response frame having an alternate proposed channel or a negative PCS response frame if no alternate channel is acceptable. If conditional, the wireless devices 102, 104 negotiate an channel acceptable to both wireless devices 102, 104 or if negative, the wireless devices 102, 104 may cease communicating on the parallel channel and return to the base channel.
In another embodiment, a parallel channel may have been agreed upon during the setup phase and the PCS request may not contain an explicit channel information element. The receipt of a PCS request simply indicates in that case that a switch to the other channel is requested, i.e. the parallel channel if transmitted on the base channel and the base cannel if transmitted on the parallel channel.
In another embodiment, the wireless devices 102, 104 may stay on the base channel after the end of the broadcast and multicast transmissions, while returning to the parallel channel is signaled by an explicit PCS request.
The PCS request and response frames preferably are transmitted as quality-of-service (QoS) frames having a piggyback contention-free-acknowledgement (CF-Ack) as this type of frame typically requires only a single transmission operation (TXOP). Examples of suitable piggyback frames that may be implemented as PCS request and/or response frames are described in detail in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/880,367 filed concurrently herewith and entitled “Link Margin Notification Using Return Frame.” Other frame formats, such as conventional data frames, may be used without departing from the spirit or the scope of the present invention.
Upon agreeing to a proposed switch to the base channel, the wireless devices 102, 104 make the channel switch at steps 514A, 514B. One or both of the wireless devices 102, 104 then may request and receive buffered information from the access point 106, provide uplink information to the access point 106, and/or communicate information with peer wireless devices via the base channel. To illustrate, the wireless device 102 may use a reverse polling technique by transmitting a PS-Poll frame (e.g., a QoS+CF+Poll frame) to the access point 106 at step 516, where the PS-Poll frame represents a request for buffered information and an indication (e.g., a clearing of the PM bit) that the wireless device 102 has exited the power-saving mode. In response to the PS-Poll frame, the access point 106 may transmit buffered downlink information to the wireless device 102 at step 518. After the wireless device 102 has received the buffered downlink information (as indicated by the expiration of an uplink or downlink timeout), the wireless device 102 may transmit another frame, such as a null frame, to the access point 106 at step 520, where the frame includes an indicator that the wireless device 102 is entering the power-saving mode so that the access point 106 may buffer any downlink information intended for the wireless device 102. Uplink information and peer-to-peer information may be transmitted from the wireless devices 102, 104 in a similar manner.
To return to the parallel channel to resume communicating via the direct link 110, one of the wireless devices (device 102 in this example) may transmit a PCS request frame on the base channel at step 522, where the PCS request frame may include an indication of the proposed channel to which the wireless devices 102, 104 are to switch. Preferably, the wireless devices 102, 104 switch to the same parallel channel as before. However, it may be appropriate to switch to another channel because, for example, the original parallel channel has become congested with traffic from other wireless devices or significant interference as appeared at one or more frequencies of the original parallel channel.
If the proposed channel is acceptable to the receiving wireless device (device 104 in this example) or if an alternate channel is to be proposed, the wireless device 104 may transmit an affirmative or conditional PCS response frame to the wireless device 102 on the base channel at step 524. After agreeing to the channel switch, the wireless devices switch to the proposed parallel channel and recommence the communication of information between the wireless devices 102, 104 via the direct link 110 on the parallel channel at step 528.
In addition or as an alternate to using a PCS sequence to switch channels, the wireless devices 102, 104 may utilize a temporary channel switch (TCS) sequence to temporarily move the direct link 110 to another channel. The TCS sequence typically includes a TCS request frame that may include a CIE and a timing synchronization function (TSF) to indicate the time at which the direct link 110 is scheduled to return to the current channel. The TCS sequence also may include a TCS response frame that includes an agreed/denied/conditional field similar to the field used for the PCS response frame. If the responding wireless device can not leave the current channel, for instance if it is not yet in a power-save mode with the access point 106, it may set the denied field inside the TCS response frame. Otherwise, if the responding wireless device is ready to move to the proposed channel, it may set the agreed field inside the TCS response frame.
The TCS sequence also may be used to temporarily move the direct link 110 to the base channel for the exchange of information with the access point 106 (e.g., buffered information) or with peer devices. The direct link 110 preferably remains active during this time, so that information can be exchanged via the direct link 110 on the base channel as well. Devices 102 and 104 should not leave the power save state with the access point during this temporary stay on the base channel (for instance, by transmitting a frame to the access point with the PM bit reset), because it can not be ensured that they will be able to re-enter the power save state prior to the scheduled departure to the parallel channel with TCS.
Although the above techniques are described in the context of a direct link established between two devices, in some cases, multiple devices each may establish a direct link with a single device. The presence of multiple direct links raises the issue of selecting a common parallel channel for the multiple direct links. In one embodiment, the wireless device acting as the “hub” for the multiple peer devices may identify a suitable parallel channel that the multiple direct links may use by, for example, proposing a parallel channel currently in use, by scanning one or more other parallel channels, or by picking a channel at random. Another issue raised by multiple direct links includes channel switching. In one embodiment, if a device having multiple direct links wants to perform a channel switch, it preferably transmits a PCS request frame to each of the other direct link peer devices before switching to the proposed channel.
Yet another issue includes the implementation of power saving or the sleep mode. In one embodiment, this issue may be addressed by assuming that the traffic pattern has a star topology, so that there is a central node that communicates with the peripheral nodes, but the peripheral nodes do not communicate with each other. Under this assumption, the central node may be treated as a constantly awake node (CAN) that acts as a surrogate access point by buffering information for all of the peripheral nodes, while maintaining a client association with the real access point at the same time. The peripheral nodes find can find the central node through its beacon transmissions and may associate with it instead of with the access point. The peripheral nodes then may use reverse polling to retrieve buffered information, as described above. This solution is suited for applications like gaming and multimedia, where a single central node maintains connections with several remote nodes, like game controllers or actuators, respectively.
Other embodiments, uses, and advantages of the invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art from consideration of the specification and practice of the invention disclosed herein. The specification and drawings should be considered exemplary only, and the scope of the invention is accordingly intended to be limited only by the following claims and equivalents thereof.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US5371734||Jan 29, 1993||Dec 6, 1994||Digital Ocean, Inc.||Medium access control protocol for wireless network|
|US5463659||Nov 3, 1994||Oct 31, 1995||At&T Ipm Corp.||Apparatus and method of configuring a cordless telephone for operating in a frequency hopping system|
|US5465398||Oct 7, 1993||Nov 7, 1995||Metricom, Inc.||Automatic power level control of a packet communication link|
|US5487069||Nov 23, 1993||Jan 23, 1996||Commonwealth Scientific And Industrial Research Organization||Wireless LAN|
|US5537414||Jul 7, 1993||Jul 16, 1996||Hitachi, Ltd.||Method of wireless communication between base station and mobile station and multiple access communication system|
|US5636220||Mar 1, 1994||Jun 3, 1997||Motorola, Inc.||Packet delivery method for use in a wireless local area network (LAN)|
|US5752201||Feb 9, 1996||May 12, 1998||Nokia Mobile Phones Limited||Mobile terminal having power saving mode that monitors specified numbers of filler messages|
|US5768531||Mar 27, 1995||Jun 16, 1998||Toshiba America Information Systems||Apparatus and method for using multiple communication paths in a wireless LAN|
|US5812968||Aug 28, 1996||Sep 22, 1998||Ericsson, Inc.||Vocoder apparatus using the link margin|
|US5862142||Jun 5, 1995||Jan 19, 1999||Hitachi, Ltd.||Frequency hopping wireless communication system and communication equipment|
|US5991287||Dec 30, 1996||Nov 23, 1999||Lucent Technologies, Inc.||System and method for providing seamless handover in a wireless computer network|
|US5995849||Nov 26, 1997||Nov 30, 1999||Direct Wireless Communication Corp.||Direct wireless communication system and method of operation|
|US5999127||Oct 6, 1998||Dec 7, 1999||The Aerospace Corporation||Satellite communications facilitated by synchronized nodal regressions of low earth orbits|
|US6047178||Dec 19, 1997||Apr 4, 2000||Nortel Networks Corporation||Direct communication wireless radio system|
|US6052557||Jan 11, 1996||Apr 18, 2000||Nokia Telecommunication Oy||Direct mode repeater in a mobile radio system|
|US6084865||Jul 23, 1997||Jul 4, 2000||Ericsson Inc.||Dual mode satellite/cellular terminal|
|US6119014||Apr 1, 1998||Sep 12, 2000||Ericsson Inc.||System and method for displaying short messages depending upon location, priority, and user-defined indicators|
|US6192230||Sep 27, 1993||Feb 20, 2001||Lucent Technologies, Inc.||Wireless data communication system having power saving function|
|US6208627||Dec 10, 1997||Mar 27, 2001||Xircom, Inc.||Signaling and protocol for communication system with wireless trunk|
|US6222842||Sep 30, 1997||Apr 24, 2001||Hewlett-Packard Company||System providing for multiple virtual circuits between two network entities|
|US6292672||Oct 29, 1998||Sep 18, 2001||Avaya Technology Corp.||Call pickup group controlled by wireless terminals|
|US6301609||Sep 8, 1999||Oct 9, 2001||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Assignable associate priorities for user-definable instant messaging buddy groups|
|US6339713||Aug 11, 1998||Jan 15, 2002||Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson||Decreasing battery consumption of mobile terminals by decreasing monitoring of the multiple access channel downlinks|
|US6343083||Apr 9, 1998||Jan 29, 2002||Alcatel Usa Sourcing, L.P.||Method and apparatus for supporting a connectionless communication protocol over an ATM network|
|US6347095||Jun 13, 2000||Feb 12, 2002||Pango Networks, Inc.||System, devices and methods for use in proximity-based networking|
|US6360277||Jul 22, 1998||Mar 19, 2002||Crydom Corporation||Addressable intelligent relay|
|US6415146||May 25, 1999||Jul 2, 2002||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Wireless system enabling mobile-to-mobile communication|
|US6424820||Apr 2, 1999||Jul 23, 2002||Interval Research Corporation||Inductively coupled wireless system and method|
|US6430604||Aug 3, 1999||Aug 6, 2002||International Business Machines Corporation||Technique for enabling messaging systems to use alternative message delivery mechanisms|
|US6463290||Oct 3, 2000||Oct 8, 2002||Trueposition, Inc.||Mobile-assisted network based techniques for improving accuracy of wireless location system|
|US6470058||Jun 11, 2001||Oct 22, 2002||Xm Satellite Radio||System for and method of jointly optimizing the transmit antenna patterns of two geostationary satellites in a satellite broadcasting system|
|US6484027||Jun 15, 1998||Nov 19, 2002||Sbc Technology Resources, Inc.||Enhanced wireless handset, including direct handset-to-handset communication mode|
|US6487180||Nov 3, 1999||Nov 26, 2002||Motorola, Inc.||Personal information system using proximity-based short-range wireless links|
|US6496694||Jan 13, 2000||Dec 17, 2002||Intel Corporation||Wireless local loop with intelligent base station|
|US6507739||Jun 26, 2000||Jan 14, 2003||Motorola, Inc.||Apparatus and methods for controlling a cellular communications network having airborne transceivers|
|US6525690||May 21, 2001||Feb 25, 2003||Prolink, Inc.||Golf course yardage and information system with zone detection|
|US6529748||Sep 30, 1999||Mar 4, 2003||Motorola, Inc.||Bilateral power management system|
|US6539232||Jun 8, 2001||Mar 25, 2003||Telcontar||Method and system for connecting mobile users based on degree of separation|
|US6542748||Jun 8, 2001||Apr 1, 2003||Telcontar||Method and system for automatically initiating a telecommunications connection based on distance|
|US6542749||Jun 8, 2001||Apr 1, 2003||Telcontar||Method and system for connecting proximately located mobile users based on compatible attributes|
|US6542750||Jun 8, 2001||Apr 1, 2003||Telcontar||Method and system for selectively connecting mobile users based on physical proximity|
|US6574266||Jun 25, 1999||Jun 3, 2003||Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson (Publ)||Base-station-assisted terminal-to-terminal connection setup|
|US6580704||Aug 26, 1999||Jun 17, 2003||Nokia Corporation||Direct mode communication method between two mobile terminals in access point controlled wireless LAN systems|
|US6594666||Sep 25, 2000||Jul 15, 2003||Oracle International Corp.||Location aware application development framework|
|US6618005||Jun 29, 2001||Sep 9, 2003||Intel Corporation||Determining wireless device locations|
|US6625456||Sep 8, 2000||Sep 23, 2003||Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson (Publ)||Mobile communication system enabling location associated messages|
|US6631271||Aug 29, 2000||Oct 7, 2003||James D. Logan||Rules based methods and apparatus|
|US6665520||Aug 23, 2001||Dec 16, 2003||Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.C.||Power management method of and apparatus for use in a wireless local area network (LAN)|
|US6744743||Oct 23, 2002||Jun 1, 2004||Qualcomm Incorporated||Method and apparatus for controlling transmissions of a communications system|
|US6759956||Sep 19, 2001||Jul 6, 2004||Royal Thoughts, L.L.C.||Bi-directional wireless detection system|
|US6763240||Nov 20, 1997||Jul 13, 2004||Inmarsat Ltd.||High margin notification method and apparatus|
|US6778515||Mar 12, 2002||Aug 17, 2004||Interdigital Technology Corporation||Receiving station for wireless telephone system with diversity transmission and method|
|US6785251||Mar 12, 2002||Aug 31, 2004||Interdigital Technology Corporation||Receiving station for wireless telephone system with diversity transmission and method|
|US6788688||Nov 10, 2001||Sep 7, 2004||Harold Herman Trebes, Jr.||System and method for providing peer-oriented control of telecommunications services|
|US6791962||Jan 29, 2003||Sep 14, 2004||Globespan Virata, Inc.||Direct link protocol in wireless local area networks|
|US6795701||Oct 22, 2002||Sep 21, 2004||Transat Technologies, Inc.||Adaptable radio link for wireless communication networks|
|US6799056||Jan 31, 2001||Sep 28, 2004||Joseph Curley||Computer system including multi-channel wireless communication link to a remote station|
|US6810246||Oct 23, 2000||Oct 26, 2004||Verizon Laboratories Inc.||Method and system for analyzing digital wireless network performance|
|US6826162||Sep 28, 2001||Nov 30, 2004||Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.||Locating and mapping wireless network devices via wireless gateways|
|US6842460||Jun 27, 2001||Jan 11, 2005||Nokia Corporation||Ad hoc network discovery menu|
|US6904055||Jun 24, 2002||Jun 7, 2005||Nokia Corporation||Ad hoc networking of terminals aided by a cellular network|
|US6925286||Jun 22, 2000||Aug 2, 2005||Sony International (Europe) Gmbh||Transmit power control for network devices in a wireless network|
|US6978151||Oct 10, 2001||Dec 20, 2005||Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.||Updating path loss estimation for power control and link adaptation in IEEE 802.11h WLAN|
|US6985461||Mar 22, 2001||Jan 10, 2006||Symbol Technologies, Inc.||Software for installation and configuration management of network nodes|
|US7068615||Jan 9, 2002||Jun 27, 2006||The Boeing Company||Adaptable forward link data rates in communications systems for mobile platforms|
|US7133909||Jan 12, 2001||Nov 7, 2006||Microsoft Corporation||Systems and methods for locating mobile computer users in a wireless network|
|US7212827||Nov 9, 2000||May 1, 2007||Agere Systems Inc.||Intelligent reminders for wireless PDA devices|
|US7233792||Mar 10, 2003||Jun 19, 2007||Ting-Mao Chang||Proximity triggered job scheduling system and method|
|US7245592||Apr 10, 2002||Jul 17, 2007||Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.||Aligning 802.11e HCF and 802.11h TPC operations|
|US7251235||Jun 30, 2004||Jul 31, 2007||Conexant, Inc.||Event-based multichannel direct link|
|US7260392 *||Sep 25, 2002||Aug 21, 2007||Intel Corporation||Seamless teardown of direct link communication in a wireless LAN|
|US7277692||Jul 10, 2002||Oct 2, 2007||Sprint Spectrum L.P.||System and method of collecting audio data for use in establishing surround sound recording|
|US7308202||Feb 1, 2002||Dec 11, 2007||Cubic Corporation||Secure covert combat identification friend-or-foe (IFF) system for the dismounted soldier|
|US7359727||Dec 16, 2003||Apr 15, 2008||Intel Corporation||Systems and methods for adjusting transmit power in wireless local area networks|
|US7421466||Oct 29, 2001||Sep 2, 2008||Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.||Dynamic mapping of wireless network devices|
|US7450550 *||May 21, 2004||Nov 11, 2008||Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.||Apparatus and method for enhancing transfer rate using a direct link protocol (DLP) and multiple channels in a wireless local area network (LAN) using a distributed coordination function (DCF)|
|US7508799||Jan 29, 2002||Mar 24, 2009||Arch Wireless Operating Company, Inc.||Managing wireless network data|
|US7545771||Nov 1, 2004||Jun 9, 2009||Xocyst Transfer Ag L.L.C.||Independent direct link protocol|
|US20010031626||Jan 10, 2001||Oct 18, 2001||Jan Lindskog||Power status for wireless communications|
|US20020025839||Apr 13, 2001||Feb 28, 2002||Hisayoshi Usui||Mobile communication device capable of carrying out both indirect and direct communication|
|US20020087724||Dec 28, 2001||Jul 4, 2002||Ragula Systems D/B/A Fatpipe Networks||Combining connections for parallel access to multiple frame relay and other private networks|
|US20020159544||Sep 10, 2001||Oct 31, 2002||Jeyhan Karaoguz||Multi-mode quadrature amplitude modulation receiver for high rate wireless personal area networks|
|US20020168040||Dec 21, 2001||Nov 14, 2002||Coffey John T.||Sequential decoding with backtracking and adaptive equalization to combat narrowband interference|
|US20020168993||Oct 10, 2001||Nov 14, 2002||Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.||Updating path loss estimation for power control and link adaptation in IEEE 802.11h WLAN|
|US20020172186||Apr 8, 2002||Nov 21, 2002||Peter Larsson||Instantaneous joint transmit power control and link adaptation for RTS/CTS based channel access|
|US20020191573||May 31, 2002||Dec 19, 2002||Whitehill Eric A.||Embedded routing algorithms under the internet protocol routing layer of a software architecture protocol stack in a mobile Ad-Hoc network|
|US20030010524||Jul 10, 2001||Jan 16, 2003||Connor Brian W.||Electrical compression connector|
|US20030036354||Feb 15, 2002||Feb 20, 2003||Lee Wayne A.||Dual mode bluetooth/wireless device with power conservation features|
|US20030063589||Sep 28, 2001||Apr 3, 2003||Haines Robert E.||Locating and mapping wireless network devices via wireless gateways|
|US20030080992||Oct 29, 2001||May 1, 2003||Haines Robert E.||Dynamic mapping of wireless network devices|
|US20030096576||Dec 29, 2000||May 22, 2003||Theodoros Salonidis||Method and apparatus for connecting devices via an ad hoc wireless communication network|
|US20030126213||Jan 2, 2002||Jul 3, 2003||International Business Machines Corporation||Establishing direct instant messaging communication between wireless devices|
|US20030140084||Feb 28, 2003||Jul 24, 2003||D'angelo Leo A.||System controlling use of a communication channel|
|US20030142641||Jan 29, 2002||Jul 31, 2003||Arch Wireless Holdings, Inc.||Managing wireless network data|
|US20030185241||Aug 16, 2002||Oct 2, 2003||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Wireless network scheduling data frames including physical layer configuration|
|US20030198196||Apr 17, 2002||Oct 23, 2003||Microsoft Corporation||Reducing idle power consumption in a networked battery operated device|
|US20030210658||May 8, 2002||Nov 13, 2003||Microsoft Corporation||Method and system for managing power consumption of a network interface module in a wireless computing device|
|US20030220765||May 24, 2002||Nov 27, 2003||Overy Michael Robert||Method and apparatus for enhancing security in a wireless network using distance measurement techniques|
|US20030232598||Jun 13, 2002||Dec 18, 2003||Daniel Aljadeff||Method and apparatus for intrusion management in a wireless network using physical location determination|
|US20040005861||Jul 3, 2003||Jan 8, 2004||Nobutaka Tauchi||Wireless communication terminal|
|US20040048609||Nov 30, 2001||Mar 11, 2004||Minoru Kosaka||Radio communication system|
|US20040056901||Sep 24, 2002||Mar 25, 2004||March Wendy A.||Method, apparatus and system for representing relationships using a buddy list|
|US20040078598||May 5, 2003||Apr 22, 2004||Instant802 Networks Inc.||Key management and control of wireless network access points at a central server|
|US20040095907||Jun 10, 2001||May 20, 2004||Agee Brian G.||Method and apparatus for optimization of wireless multipoint electromagnetic communication networks|
|US20040125775||Dec 31, 2002||Jul 1, 2004||Rios Carlos A.||Multiprotocol WLAN access point devices|
|US20040125776||Feb 19, 2003||Jul 1, 2004||Haugli Hans C.||Peer-to-peer wireless data communication system with progressive dynamic routing|
|US20040127214||Sep 29, 2003||Jul 1, 2004||Interdigital Technology Corporation||Wireless communication method and system with controlled WTRU peer-to-peer communications|
|US20040147249||Feb 28, 2003||Jul 29, 2004||Wentink Maarten Menzo||Embedding class of service information in MAC control frames|
|US20040184456||Apr 11, 2002||Sep 23, 2004||Carl Binding||Packet-oriented data communications between mobile and fixed data networks|
|US20040192413||Mar 31, 2003||Sep 30, 2004||Frank Edward H.||Wireless user input device providing host link indication|
|US20040203698||Apr 22, 2002||Oct 14, 2004||Intel Corporation||Pre-notification of potential connection loss in wireless local area network|
|US20040236850||Sep 30, 2003||Nov 25, 2004||Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington||Client proximity detection method and system|
|US20040242154||May 21, 2003||Dec 2, 2004||Shinji Takeda||Mobile communication system, transmission station, reception station, relay station, communication path deciding method, and communication path deciding program|
|US20040246934||Dec 5, 2003||Dec 9, 2004||Kim Sang-Hee||Wireless local area networks and methods for establishing direct link protocol (DLP) communications between stations of wireless local area networks|
|US20050030976||Jun 30, 2004||Feb 10, 2005||Globespan Virata Incorporated||Link margin notification using return frame|
|US20050094588||Jun 30, 2004||May 5, 2005||Globespan Virata Incorporated||Direct link relay in a wireless network|
|US20050122927||Jan 14, 2005||Jun 9, 2005||Conexant, Inc.||Power management for wireless direct link|
|US20050135305||Nov 1, 2004||Jun 23, 2005||Globespanvirata, Inc.||Automatic peer discovery|
|US20050157674||Jun 30, 2004||Jul 21, 2005||Globespanvirata Incorporated||Time-scheduled multichannel direct link|
|US20050265305||Aug 5, 2005||Dec 1, 2005||Nec Corporation||Radio network, relay node, core node, relay transmission method used in the same and program thereof|
|US20060148406||Feb 28, 2006||Jul 6, 2006||Jay Strater||Dynamic upstream attenuation for ingress noise reduction|
|US20070077894||Mar 10, 2004||Apr 5, 2007||Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.||Automatic gain control with two power detectors|
|US20080095126||Oct 12, 2007||Apr 24, 2008||Mahany Ronald L||Low-Power Wireless Beaconing Network Supporting Proximal Formation, Separation and Reformation|
|DE10228342A1||Jun 25, 2002||Sep 4, 2003||Siemens Ag||Adjusting transmission power of mobile station in radio system involves adjusting transmission power depending on positional information relating to mobile station|
|EP1168676A1||Feb 16, 2001||Jan 2, 2002||Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.||Mobile communication system and mobile communication method|
|WO2005046134A1||Oct 13, 2004||May 19, 2005||Conexant Inc.||Link margin notification using return frame|
|1||802.11 Wireless Networks: The Definitive Guide. O'Reilly & Associates, 2002. pp. 1-14.|
|2||A. Soomro and S. Choi Philips Research USA, Proposal to Add Link Margin Field in IEEE 802.11h Submission, Sep. 2001, Slides 9-14. (whole document included 14 pages).|
|3||ANSI/IEEE Std. 802.11, Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specification, pp. 1-513, 1999.|
|4||Communication from the European Patent Office for EP Application 04794757.7, dated Jul. 28, 2009.|
|5||Diepstraten et al., 802.11 Tutorial, IEEE, pp. 1-22, Mar. 1996.|
|6||Donovan, Jeremey, "Location awareness beyond E911," EETimes, Jun. 9, 2003, 1 page.|
|7||ETSI TR 101 683 V1.1.1, Broadband Radio Access Networks; HIPERLAN Type 2; System Overview, pp. 1-19, 2000.|
|8||European Search Report and Written Opinion for Application No. PCT/US2004/033487 dated Feb. 2, 2005, 14 pages.|
|9||Final Office Action for U.S. Appl. No. 10/977,469, mailed Aug. 8, 2008.|
|10||Final Office Action on U.S. Appl. No. 10/880,366, mailed Sep. 11, 2009.|
|11||Final Office Action on U.S. Appl. No. 10/880,370, mailed Nov. 3, 2006.|
|12||Final Office Action on U.S. Appl. No. 10/977,470, mailed Jul. 17, 2008.|
|13||Ho et al., MediaPlex-An IEEE 802.11 Enhanced Protocol for QoS-Driven Wireless LANs, IEEE, pp. 1-25, Nov. 3, 2000.|
|14||Ho et al., MediaPlex—An IEEE 802.11 Enhanced Protocol for QoS-Driven Wireless LANs, IEEE, pp. 1-25, Nov. 3, 2000.|
|15||IEEE Standard 802.11h Amendment 5: Spectrum and transmit power management extensions in the 5 GHz band in Europe, published Oct. 14, 2003, IEEE, 75 pages.|
|16||IEEE Std 801.11e/D3.0, Draft Supplemental to Standard for Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems-LAN/MAN Specification, pp. 1-140, May 2002.|
|17||IEEE Std 801.11e/D3.0, Draft Supplemental to Standard for Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems—LAN/MAN Specification, pp. 1-140, May 2002.|
|18||International Preliminary Report on Patentability for PCT/US2004/033487, issued May 1, 2006.|
|19||International Preliminary Report on Patentability for PCT/US2005/001303, issued Nov. 29, 2006.|
|20||International Search Report for PCT/US2004/033487 dated Feb. 2, 2005.|
|21||International Search Report for PCT/US2005/01303 dated Nov. 1, 2006.|
|22||Kamerman et al., WaveLan-II: A High-Performance Wirelss LAN for the Unlicensed Band, Bell Labs Technical Journal, pp. 118-133, 1997.|
|23||Kandala et al., "Suggested changes to normative text of WARP," IEEE, pp. 1-11, Jun. 2002.|
|24||Kitchin, Wireless Address Resolution Protocol, IEEE, pp. 1-13 Jan. 2002.|
|25||Ni et al., QoS Issues and Enhancements for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN, INRIA, pp. 1-34, Nov. 2002.|
|26||Non-Final Office Action for U.S. Appl. No. 10/880,366, mailed Jan. 12, 2010.|
|27||Non-Final Office Action for U.S. Appl. No. 10/977,470, mailed Feb. 26, 2009.|
|28||Non-Final Office Action for U.S. Appl. No. 10/977,470, mailed Jan. 14, 2008.|
|29||Non-Final Office Action on U.S. Appl. No. 10/880,366, mailed Feb. 20, 2009.|
|30||Non-final Office Action on U.S. Appl. No. 10/880,367, mailed Aug. 3, 2010.|
|31||Non-final Office Action on U.S. Appl. No. 10/880,367, mailed Jan. 21, 2011.|
|32||Non-Final Office Action on U.S. Appl. No. 10/880,370, mailed Apr. 6, 2006.|
|33||Non-Final Office Action on U.S. Appl. No. 10/977,469, mailed Jan. 9, 2008.|
|34||Non-Final Office Action on U.S. Appl. No. 10/977,490, mailed Sep. 14, 2011.|
|35||Notice of Allowance for U.S. Appl. No. 10/880,370, mailed Jun. 12, 2007.|
|36||Notice of Allowance for U.S. Appl. No. 10/977,469, mailed Feb. 10, 2009.|
|37||Notice of Allowance on U.S. Appl. No. 10/880,366, mailed May 28, 2010.|
|38||Notice of Allowance on U.S. Appl. No. 10/880,366, mailed Nov. 26, 2010.|
|39||Notice of Allowance on U.S. Appl. No. 10/880,367, mailed Jul. 21, 2011.|
|40||Notice of Allowance on U.S. Appl. No. 10/977,470, mailed Jan. 6, 2011.|
|41||Palm, Palm: Providing Fluid Connectivity in a Wireless World, 2002, 10 pages.|
|42||PanGo Networks, "Mobile Applications Suite," Intelligent Wireless, Copyright 2003, 1 page.|
|43||PanGo Networks, "Overview," Intelligent Wireless, Copyright 2003, 1 page.|
|44||PanGo Networks, "Technology, How it Works," Intelligent Wireless, Copyright 2003, 1 page.|
|45||PanGo Networks, PanGo "Proximity Platform," Intelligent Wireless, Copyright 2003, 2 pages.|
|46||PanGo Networks, PanGo Mobile Applications Suite, Intelligent Wireless, Copyright 2003, 2 pages.|
|47||Wentink, "Direct Stream Request Protocol (DSRP)," IEEE, pp. 1-16, Jul. 2002.|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US8407682||Oct 1, 2004||Mar 26, 2013||Intellectual Ventures I Llc||Software and method that enables selection of one of a plurality of online service providers|
|US8499030||Apr 20, 2000||Jul 30, 2013||Intellectual Ventures I Llc||Software and method that enables selection of one of a plurality of network communications service providers|
|US8635272||Apr 20, 2012||Jan 21, 2014||Intellectual Ventures I Llc||Method for distributing a list of updated content to a user station from a distribution server wherein the user station may defer installing the update|
|US8719339||Jul 21, 2010||May 6, 2014||Intellectual Ventures I Llc||Software and method that enables selection of one of a plurality of online service providers|
|US8788700 *||Sep 15, 2011||Jul 22, 2014||Aruba Networks, Inc.||Initiating peer-to-peer tunnels|
|US8812620 *||Oct 30, 2007||Aug 19, 2014||Intellectual Property I LLC||Software and method that enables selection of one of a plurality of online service providers|
|US8825872||Mar 9, 2009||Sep 2, 2014||Intellectual Ventures I Llc||Software and method for monitoring a data stream and for capturing desired data within the data stream|
|US9049045||Apr 24, 2009||Jun 2, 2015||Aruba Networks, Inc.||Peer-to-peer forwarding for packet-switched traffic|
|US9111604||Aug 31, 2006||Aug 18, 2015||Intellectual Ventures I Llc||Software and method that enables selection of on-line content from one of a plurality of network content service providers in a single action|
|US9444888||Jun 2, 2014||Sep 13, 2016||Aruba Networks, Inc.||Initiating peer-to-peer tunnels|
|US20050044280 *||Oct 1, 2004||Feb 24, 2005||Teleshuttle Technologies, Llc||Software and method that enables selection of one of a plurality of online service providers|
|US20070073845 *||Aug 31, 2006||Mar 29, 2007||Twintech E.U., Limited Liability Company||Content distribution over a network|
|US20080235106 *||Oct 30, 2007||Sep 25, 2008||Twintech E.U., Limited Liability Company||Software and Method That Enables Selection of One of A Plurality of Online Service Providers|
|US20100042478 *||Oct 21, 2009||Feb 18, 2010||Twintech E.U., Limited Liability Company||Providing Services From A Remote Computer System To A User Station Over A Communications Network|
|US20100287155 *||Jul 21, 2010||Nov 11, 2010||Twintech E.U., Limited Liability Company||Software And Method That Enables Selection Of One Of A Plurality Of Online Service Providers|
|US20110016192 *||Jan 20, 2011||Twintech E.U., Limited Liability Company||Providing services from a remote computer system to a user station over a communications network|
|US20110082939 *||Aug 25, 2010||Apr 7, 2011||Michael Peter Montemurro||Methods and apparatus to proxy discovery and negotiations between network entities to establish peer-to-peer communications|
|US20110082940 *||Apr 7, 2011||Michael Peter Montemurro||Methods and apparatus to establish peer-to-peer communications|
|US20120072532 *||Sep 15, 2011||Mar 22, 2012||Iyer Pradeep J||Initiating Peer-to-Peer Tunnels|
|US20120120892 *||May 17, 2012||Interdigital Patent Holdings, Inc.||Method and apparatus for wireless direct link operation|
|U.S. Classification||370/338, 370/401, 370/465|
|Cooperative Classification||Y02B60/50, H04W52/0216, H04W92/18|
|Aug 26, 2009||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: XOCYST TRANSFER AG L.L.C., DELAWARE
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:CONEXANT, INC.;REEL/FRAME:023150/0565
Effective date: 20081016
|Jul 22, 2011||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: INTELLECTUAL VENTURES I LLC, DELAWARE
Free format text: MERGER;ASSIGNOR:XOCYST TRANSFER AG L.L.C.;REEL/FRAME:026637/0603
Effective date: 20110718
|Aug 14, 2012||CC||Certificate of correction|