US RE43224 E1 Abstract Data aided carrier phase and symbol timing synchronizers are implemented at baseband as digital modulators isolating input signal inphase and quadrature component signals fed into inphase and quadrature Laurent transforms that function as data detector to provide odd and even data bit multiplexed output data signal while cross coupling the inphase and quadrature transformed outputs for removing data modulation in error signals to correct phase errors and timing errors in the received signal so as to provide reliable data demodulation of noisy received signals having dynamic carrier phase and symbol timing errors as found in continuous phase modulation communications systems such as Gaussian minimum shift keying communications systems.
Claims(27) 1. A symbol timing synchronizer for generating a timing signal from a sampled input signal being a received input signal sampled at a rate of the timing signal, the received input signal being a continuous phase modulated signal modulated by a symbol sequence generated from a precoded data sequence of an input data sequence, sampled input signal having a sampled inphase component and a sampled quadrature component, the symbol timing synchronizer comprising,
an inphase isolator and a quadrature isolator for respectively isolating the sampled inphase component and sampled quadrature component of the sampled input signal for respectively providing an inphase signal and a quadrature signal, an inphase serial data demodulator and a quadrature serial data demodulator for respectively receiving and filtering the inphase signal and the quadrature signal for generating an odd filter response and an even filter response, and for converting and sampling the odd and even filter responses into odd data and even data, the odd data and the even data alternately forming an estimate of the input data sequence, an inphase error magnitude generator and a quadrature error magnitude generator for receiving and filtering the inphase signal- and the quadrature signal, for respectively generating and sampling an inphase error magnitude signal and quadrature error magnitude signal for respectively generating a sampled inphase error magnitude signal and a sampled quadrature error magnitude signal, an inphase mixer and a quadrature mixer for respectively mixing the sampled inphase error magnitude signal with the odd data into an odd error signal, and mixing the quadrature error magnitude signal with the even data for generating an even error signal, the odd data representing an odd sign of the inphase magnitude error signal, the even data representing an even sign of the quadrature magnitude signal, and an oscillator means for generating the timing signal from the even error signal and the odd error signal, the timing signal for controlling the sampling of the inphase serial data demodulator and the quadrature serial data demodulator and for controlling the sampling of inphase error magnitude generator and a quadrature error magnitude generator for generating the timing signal at a rate of the symbol sequence. 2. The symbol timing synchronizer of
a loop filter for receiving the odd error signal and the even error signal for providing a filter error signal,
a controlled oscillator for receiving the filter error signal for generating the timing signal, and
a modulo counter for providing an odd timing signal for sampling the inphase magnitude error signal, and for providing an even timing signal for sampling the quadrature magnitude error signal.
3. The symbol timing synchronizer of
the inphase magnitude error generator generates the inphase magnitude error signal from a difference between a filter response of the inphase signal and an odd modulo count of the timing signal, the inphase magnitude error generator serving to cross correlate a principal Laurent component of the inphase signal with a gate function relative to the odd modulo count of the timing signal, and
the quadrature magnitude error generator generates the quadrature magnitude error signal from a difference between a filter response of the quadrature signal and an even modulo count of the timing signal, the quadrature magnitude error generator serving to cross correlate a principal Laurent component of the inphase signal with a gate function relative to the even modulo count of the timing signal.
4. The symbol timing synchronizer for
inphase and quadrature serial demodulators respectively sample the odd and even Laurent filter responses for generating the odd and even data.
5. The symbol timing synchronizer of
an input sampler for sampling the received signal into the sampled input signal sampled at a rate of the timing signals.
6. The symbol timing synchronizer of the
a multiplexer for multiplexing the odd and even data into the estimate of the input data sequence.
7. The symbol timing synchronizer of
the received input system is a Gaussian minimum shift keying signal have a bit bandwidth product of ⅕ and a modulation index of ½.
8. The symbol timing synchronizer of
the odd modulo count is (2k+1)N where N is the modulo count of the modulo counter, and
the even modulo count is (2k)N where N is the modulo count of the modulo counter, where k is a symbol index.
9. The symbol timing synchronizer of
the odd error signal is an e
_{2k+1 }odd error signal, andthe even error signal is an e
_{2k }even error signal, where k is a symbol index.10. The symbol timing synchronizer of
a carrier phase synchronizer for generating a phase adjustment signal from a sampled phase adjusted input signal and the timing signal,
an input mixer for adjusting the received input signal into a phase adjusted input signal, and
an input sampler for sampling the phase adjusted input signal into the sampled phase adjusted input signal.
11. The symbol timing synchronizer of
an inphase isolator and a quadrature isolator for respectively isolating the sampled inphase component and sampled quadrature component for providing an inphase signal and a quadrature signal,
an inphase serial data demodulator and a quadrature serial data demodulator for respectively receiving and filtering the inphase signal and the quadrature signal for generating an odd filter response and an even filter response, and for converting and sampling the odd and even filter responses into odd data and even data, the odd data and the even data alternately forming an estimate of the input data sequence,
an odd mixer and an even mixer for respectively mixing the even filter response and the odd data signal into an odd error signal and mixing the odd filter response signal and the even data signal into an even error signal, and
an oscillator means for converting the odd and even error signals into the phase adjustment signal.
12. A symbol timing synchronizer for generating a timing signal from a sampled input signal being a received input signal sampled at a rate of the timing signal, the received input signal being a continuous phase modulated signal modulated by a symbol sequence generated from a precoded data sequence of an input data sequence, sampled input signal having a sampled inphase component and a sampled quadrature component, the symbol timing synchronizer comprising,
an inphase isolator and a quadrature isolator for respectively isolating the sampled inphase component and sampled quadrature component of the sampled input signal for respectively providing an inphase signal and a quadrature signal, an inphase early-late gate and a quadrature early-late gate for respectively filtering the inphase signal and the quadrature signal for generating an inphase gate signal and a quadrature gate signal, the inphase and quadrature early-late gates respectively serving to cross correlate the inphase and quadrature signals with gate functions in synchronism with the timing signal, an inphase transformer and a quadrature transformer for respectively transforming the inphase signal and the quadrature signal for generating an inphase transformed signal and a quadrature transformed signal, an inphase gate sampler and a quadrature gate sampler for respectively sampling inphase gate signal and the quadrature gate signal for generating a sampled inphase gate signal and a sampled quadrature gate signal, an inphase transformer sampler and a quadrature transformer sampler for respectively sampling the inphase transformed signal and the quadrature transformed signal for generating a sampled inphase transformed signal and a sampled quadrature transformed signal, an inphase hard-limiter and a quadrature hard limiter for respectively converting the sampled inphase transformed signal into odd data and the sampled quadrature transformed signal into even data, an inphase mixer and a quadrature mixer for respectively mixing the sampled inphase gate signal and odd data into an odd error signal and mixing the sampled quadrature gate signal and even data signal into an even error signal, and an oscillator means for generating the timing signal from the even error signal and the odd error signal, the oscillator means for controlling the sampling of the inphase and quadrature gate samplers and the inphase and quadrature transformer samplers for generating the timing signal at a rate of the symbol sequence. 13. The symbol timing synchronizer of
a loop filter for receiving the odd error signal and the even error signal for providing a filter error signal,
a controlled oscillator for receiving the filter error signal for generating the timing signal, and
a modulo counter for providing an odd timing signal for sampling the inphase magnitude error signal, and for providing an even timing signal for sampling the quadrature magnitude error signal.
14. The symbol timing synchronizer of
the inphase and quadrature early-late gates function as cross correlators for cross correlating a filter response isolating principal Laurent components of the inphase and quadrature signals with a gating function,
the inphase gate signal is an inphase magnitude error signal from the correlation of an inphase early-late gate filter response of the inphase signal and the gating function that is in synchronism with an odd modulo count of the timing signal, and
the quadrature gate signal is a quadrature magnitude error signal from the correlation of a quadrature early-late gate filter response of the quadrature signal and the gating function that is in synchronism an even modulo count of the timing signal.
15. The symbol timing synchronizer for
the inphase and quadrature transformers, transformer samplers and hard-limiters respectively are inphase and quadrature serial demodulators,
the inphase and quadrature transformer are principal Laurent component filters providing the inphase and quadrature transformed signals that respectively are odd and even Laurent filter responses, and
the odd and even data alternately forming an estimate of the input data sequence.
16. The symbol timing synchronizer of
an input sampler for sampling the received signal into the sampled input signal sampled at a rate of the timing signal, and
a multiplexer for multiplexing the odd and even data into the estimate of the input data sequence.
17. The symbol timing synchronizer of
the received input system is a Gaussian minimum shift keying signal have a bit bandwidth product of ⅕ and a modulation index of ½,
the odd modulo count is (2k+1)N where N is the modulo count of the modulo counter,
the even modulo count is (2k)N where N is the modulo count of the modulo counter,
the odd error signal is an e
_{2k+1 }odd error signal, andthe even error signal is an e
_{2k }even error signal, where k is a symbol index.18. The symbol timing synchronizer of
a carrier phase synchronizer for generating a phase adjustment signal from a sampled phase adjusted input signal and the timing signal,
an input mixer for adjusting the received input signal into a phase adjusted input signal, and
an input sampler for sampling the phase adjusted input signal into the sampled phase adjusted input signal.
19. The symbol timing synchronizer of
a carrier inphase isolator and a carrier quadrature isolator for respectively isolating the carrier sampled inphase component and carrier sampled quadrature component for providing a carrier inphase signal and a carrier quadrature signal,
an inphase sampler and a quadrature sampler for respectively sampling at the rate of the timing signal the carrier inphase signal and the carrier quadrature signal for providing a carrier sampled inphase signal and a carrier sampled quadrature signal,
a carrier inphase transformer and a carrier quadrature transformer for respectively transforming the carrier sampled inphase signal and carrier sampled quadrature signal into a carrier inphase transformed signal and a carrier quadrature-transformed signal,
a carrier inphase hard limiter and a carrier quadrature hard limiter for respectively converting the carrier inphase transformed signal and carrier quadrature transformed signal into a carrier odd hard limited signal and a carrier even hard limited signal,
a carrier modulo counter for receiving the timing signal and generating a carrier odd timing signal and a carrier even timing signal,
a carrier odd sampler and a carrier even sampler for respectively sampling at the rate of the carrier odd and even timing signals for sampling the carrier odd and even hard limited signals into carrier odd data and carrier even data,
a carrier odd mixer and a carrier even mixer for respecting mixing the carrier quadrature transformed signal and the carrier odd data signal into a carrier odd error signal and the carrier inphase transformed signal and the carrier even data signal into a carrier even error signal, and
a carrier oscillator for converting the carrier odd and even error signals into the phase adjustment signal.
20. A data-aided symbol timing estimator to obtain a symbol timing, comprising:
means for obtaining an odd timing error estimate using at least a first detector based on an in-phase component, the odd timing error estimate to be based on odd symbols of a symbol sequence modulated onto a received continuous phase modulated (CPM) signal, including obtaining a sign of the odd timing error estimate based on a principal component of said received CPM signal obtained from said in-phase component; means for obtaining an even timing error estimate using at least a second detector based on a quadrature component, the even timing error estimate to be based on even symbols of said symbol sequence, including obtaining a sign of the even timing error estimate based on a principal component of said received CPM signal obtained from said quadrature component; and means for generating said symbol timing based on said odd timing error estimate and said even timing error estimate. 21. The data-aided symbol timing estimator of claim 20 wherein the means for generating said symbol timing comprises means for providing a filter error signal.
22. The data-aided symbol timing estimator of claim 21 wherein the means for generating said symbol timing further comprises means for receiving said filter error signal.
23. A symbol timing synchronizer for generating a timing signal from a sampled input signal being a received input signal sampled at a rate of the timing signal, the received input signal being a continuous phase modulated signal modulated by a symbol sequence generated from a precoded data sequence of an input data sequence, sampled input signal having a sampled inphase component and a sampled quadrature component, the symbol timing synchronizer comprising:
means for isolating the respective in-phase and quadrature components of the received continuous-phase modulated (CPM) signal based on one or more signal samples obtained using said symbol timing; means for filtering said in-phase components using at least a first transformer to obtain an odd filter response corresponding to a Laurent component of said received CPM signal; means for filtering said quadrature components using at least a second transformer to obtain an even filter response corresponding to a Laurent component of said received CPM signal; means for modifying said odd filter response based upon a sign of said even filter response to obtain an odd error signal; and means for modifying said even filter response based upon a sign of said odd filter response to obtain an even error signal. 24. The symbol timing synchronizer of claim 23 further comprising means for obtaining said phase adjustment signal based on said odd error signal and said even error signal.
25. The symbol timing synchronizer of claim 23 further comprising means for sampling the received input signal into the sampled input signal sampled at a rate of the timing signals.
26. The symbol timing synchronizer of claim 23 further comprising means for multiplexing the odd filter response and the even filter response.
27. The symbol timing synchronizer of claim 23 wherein the received input system is a Gaussian minimum shift keying signal having a bit bandwidth product of ⅕ and a modulation index of ½.
Description The present applicationNotice: More than one reissue application has been filed for the reissue of U.S. Pat. No. 6,862,324. The present application claims priority as a continuation reissue application to Ser. No. 11/713,119, filed Feb. 28, 2007, which claims priority as a reissue application to U.S. Pat. No. 6,862,324 issued Mar. 1, 2005, which is related to applicant's previously copending application entitled Data Aided Carrier Phase Timing Tracking System for Precoded Continuous Phase Modulated Signals, Ser. No. 09/694,650, filed Oct. 24, 2000, by the same inventors. The invention was made with Government support under contract No. F04701-93-C-0094 by the Department of the Air Force. The Government has certain rights in the invention. The invention relates to the field of continuous phase modulation communications systems. More particularly, the present invention relates to symbol time tracking for continues phase modulations communications systems, such as Gaussian minimum shift keying communications systems having small bandwidth time products. In synchronous digital data communication systems, the carrier phase and symbol timing of the received signal must be acquired and tracked by the receiver in order to respectively demodulate the received signal and to recover the transmitted data from the received signal. Typically, receivers require carrier phase tracking for signal demodulation and symbol time tracking for data detection for generating received data streams. Continuous phase modulation (CPM) provides a class of digital phase modulation signals that have a constant envelope. The spectral occupancy of a CPM signal can be controlled or tailored to the available bandwidth of a transmission channel. The constant envelope CPM signals allow saturated power amplifier operation for maximum power efficiency. The use of CPM signals in communications systems can potentially achieve significant improvement in both power and spectral efficiency over other conventional modulation techniques, at the cost of a moderate increase in receiver complexity. Bit error rate reduction has been achieved using trellis CPM demodulation with ideal synchronization. There is a continuing need to develop hardware implementation of the symbol time and carrier phase synchronizers that provides required tracking functions for the coherent CPM receiver. Often, symbol time tracking and carrier phase tracking limit the performance of CPM systems. A particular type of CPM system is a Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK) system where a data sequence is precoded and the precoded data symbols are used for continuous phase modulation. The GMSK received signals are filtered using Laurent filters and samplers for providing data samples subject to trellis demodulation for generating an estimate of the data sequence. Carrier phase tracking loops are used for demodulating the received signal by tracking the carrier phase, and symbol time tracking loops are used for synchronized sampling of Laurent matched filter signals for generating the data samples that used to generate estimates of the transmitted bit stream using trellis demodulation. These carrier phase and symbol time tracking loops are often referred to as synchronizer. These synchronizers often lose track during noisy communications. A binary continuous phase modulation signal can be described by complex envelop equations.
The term Z
The pulse response f(t) is limited to the time interval [0,LT] for some integer L and having the properties that f(t)=f(LT−t) and g(Lf)=1. The pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) representation of signal CPM envelope is well known. Laurent has shown that the complex envelope z
In this PAM representation of the baseband CPM signal envelope, also referred to as the Laurent decomposition, the a
In the pseudo data symbol equation, for all k, 0≦k≦2
The set of pulse functions {h
Among these h An object of the invention is to provide data aided symbol timing tracking in continuous phase modulation communication systems. Another object of the invention is to provide data aided symbol timing tracking in a Gaussian minimum shift keying communications systems. Yet another object of the invention is to provide data aided carrier phase tracking in continuous phase modulation communication systems. Still another object of the invention is to provide data aided carrier phase tracking in a Gaussian minimum shift keying communications systems. Still another object of the invention is to provide data aided carrier phase synchronizers and symbol time synchronizers in Gaussian minimum shift keying communications systems using principal Laurent responses for generating carrier phase and symbol time errors. The present invention is directed to data aided synchronization in digital carrier phase and symbol timing synchronizers applicable to precoded continuous phase modulation (CPM) signal formats, such as in Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK) communications systems having, for example, a modulation index of ½ with a bandwidth time product (BT) of ⅕. The imbedded synchronizers enable simple implementations for data demodulation for CPM signals, such as GMSK signals with small BT values. Data aided tracking is applied in one form to symbol time tracking, and in another form, to carrier phase tracking. An advantage of the proposed data aided symbol timing synchronizer is the combination of both symbol timing tracking and data demodulation functions into an integrated process obviating the need for a separate data demodulator in the receiver. For example, for GMSK signals with BT values of ⅓ and larger, the data demodulation performance in the symbol timing synchronizer can provide optimum performance. An advantage of the data aided carrier phase synchronizer is the combination of both carrier phase tracking and data demodulation functions into one integrated process obviating a need for separate data demodulator in the receiver. For example, for GMSK signals with BT values of ⅓ and larger, the data demodulation performance provided by the carrier phase synchronizer can also be optimum. In the first form, the symbol time tracking synchronizer includes a data aided symbol timing error discriminator that extracts the timing error of the received CPM signal from the principal Laurent amplitude modulation component by an early and late gating operation followed by a multiplication of the data decision to remove the data modulation in the error signal. This symbol timing error signal is then tracked by a second order digital loop operating at the symbol rate. In the second form, the carrier phase tracking synchronizer includes a data aided phase error discriminator that extracts the phase error of the received CPM signal from the principal Laurent amplitude modulation component by a cross correlation operation with the data decision produced by a serial data demodulator. This error signal is then tracked by a second order digital loop also operating at the symbol rate. These digital synchronizers are use to track the symbol timing or carrier phase of a continuous phase modulation signal received in the presence of noise with the receiver operating in a data demodulation mode. These synchronizers have a nondegraded bit error rate (BER) performance with reduced design complexity. The GMSK signal with a BT=⅕ can be used as a typical partial response CPM signal. The hardware implementation of such a GMSK receiver with both synchronizers can be modeled for providing simulated BER performance. With data precoding of the original data bit stream prior to transmission of the CPM signal, the synchronizers can function as serial demodulators that achieve absolute phase data detection. The data preceding and data aided synchronization approach for detecting symbol timing and carrier phase error is central to providing accurate symbol time and carrier phase tracking in the synchronizers with reduced design complexity. These and other advantages will become more apparent from the following detailed description of the preferred embodiment. An embodiment of the invention is described with reference to the figures using reference designations as shown in the figures. Referring to Referring to Referring to The carrier phase synchronizer Referring to all of the Figures, the Laurent pulse function is shown in The carrier phase synchronizer The symbol time synchronized data demodulator includes the symbol time synchronizer In the symbol timing synchronizer During data demodulation, the transmitted data symbol can be obtained by differentially decoding two successively received pseudo data symbols a Because the Laurent pulse function h
The early-late gate function G(t) provides an ideal timing error detection curve D Carrier phase error detection is formulated based on a unit amplitude CPM signal received in the absence of channel noise with a carrier phase offset θ. The phase offset complex signal envelope is defined by an r(t,θ) equation.
When the r(t,θ) signal is applied to the transformed and hard limited serial demodulator, the demodulator output at time t=mT is defined by an r
With the data d Because both timing and carrier phase error detection use serial demodulation to provide the required data decision for error generation, the transformed and hard limited serial demodulator, such as in the synchronizers The mean error output or discriminator characteristics of the symbol timing error and carrier phase error detectors is shown for the BT=⅕ GMSK signal, in Both the symbol time synchronizer
In the H(s) equation, the term ζ is the damping factor and ω The symbol time synchronizer The precoded PCM signal allows the use of the principal Laurent pulse response for extracting the sign of the symbol timing error or carrier phase error that is also the data of the original data uncoded sequence. In the symbol time synchronizer In the carrier phase synchronizer receives the t The symbol timing synchronizer Patent Citations
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