US RE43355 E1
The present invention comprises a radio frequency identification device that utilizes multiple operating frequencies. In one embodiment of the present invention, one frequency (e.g., an ultra-high frequency such as 915 MHz, 800 MHz, 915 MHz, or microwave frequency such as 2.45 GHz) is used for data transmission, and another frequency (e.g., a low or high frequency such as 13.56 MHz) is used for field penetration. In another embodiment, one frequency is used for reading information received from the multi-frequency identification device, and another frequency is used for writing to the multi-frequency identification device. In an additional embodiment, the multi-frequency identification device utilizes one antenna for all frequencies. In another embodiment, the multi-frequency identification device utilizes two or more antennas for different frequencies, and one common memory. In other embodiments, one or two digital parts, analog parts, antennas, and memories can be used.
1. In vehicle tracking a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) system comprising a reader that operates on multiple frequencies frequency bands and an RFID tag transponder that operates on multiple frequencies frequency bands, a method for secure vehicle identification, comprising:
the tag RFID transponder engaging in a non-secure interaction with the reader over a first frequency band, the non-secure interaction comprising a first signal modulation technique;
the tag RFID transponder engaging in a secure interaction with the reader over a second frequency band, the secure interaction comprising the first signal modulation technique, wherein the second frequency band limits the range of the RFID system to a shorter distance relative to the first frequency band; and
the tag RFID transponder receiving authentication based on the non-secure and secure interaction.
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8. The method of claim 7 1, wherein the second frequency band is 13.56 MHz.
9. The method of claim 7 1, wherein the second frequency band is 125 KHz.
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16. The method of claim 1, wherein the secure interaction comprises limiting the distance between the transponder and the reader to less than 3 meters.
17. The method of claim 1, wherein the secure interaction comprises checking and validating at least one cryptographic key.
18. The method of claim 1, wherein first signal modulation technique is backscatter modulation.
This application claims priority to provisional U.S. Patent Application Ser. No. 60/401,762 filed Aug. 8, 2002.
This application incorporates by reference provisional U.S. Patent Application Ser. No. 60/401,762 filed Aug. 8, 2002; provisional U.S. Patent Application Ser. No. 60/394,241 filed Jul. 9, 2002 and the corresponding utility U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/615,026, filed Jul. 9, 2003; provisional U.S. patent application Ser. No. 60/428,257 filed Nov. 22, 2002; U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/118,092 filed Apr. 9, 2002; PCT patent application PCT/IB02/01439, filed Apr. 30, 2002; German Patent Application No. 10121126.0 filed Apr. 30, 2001; and Mexican Patent Application No. 010967 filed Oct. 26, 2001; No. 010968 filed Oct. 26, 2001; No. 010969 filed Oct. 26, 2001; No. 010971 filed Oct. 26, 2001; No. 003141 filed Mar. 25, 2002; No. 003202 filed Mar. 26, 2002; No. 004371 filed Apr. 30, 2002; No. 010364 filed Oct. 18, 2002; No. 010364 filed Oct. 18, 2002; No. 100365 filed Oct. 18, 2002; No. 010366 filed Oct. 18, 2002; and 00354 filed Dec. 16, 2002.
The present invention relates generally to transponders and methods of using transponders, and specifically to passive radio frequency identification devices and methods of using radio frequency identification devices.
Additional features and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent from the detailed description set forth below when taken in conjunction with the Figures in which like reference numbers indicate identical or functionally similar elements.
Passive transponder systems are used worldwide for many identification purposes. Standard frequencies are generally 125 kHz (low frequency) and 13.56 MHz (high frequency). Additionally, new frequencies in the range of 900 MHz (ultra-high frequency or UHF) (e.g., 915 MHz for USA, 868 MHz for Europe), and 2.45 GHz (microwave frequency) are also used.
Passive transponder systems have no power supply within the transponder, and are considerably less expensive than active transponders which contain other components, including a battery for power. The passive transponder is powered by an electromagnetic field of the reader. Typically a single internal antenna of the transponder is used for both data transmission and energy transmission between the reader and the transponder, using the same frequency for the data and energy transmission.
In addition, passive transponder systems are capable of “read only” or “read/write” memories, and are thus often used to perform read and write cycles.
Passive transponder systems may have multiple transmission channels, and the same frequency (e.g., 125 KHz or 13.56 MHz) is generally used for all transmissions. The maximum read/write distance of these systems is limited by the limits of data transmission and energy transmission. The energy transmission channel usually has the same frequency as the data transmission because the energy and the data are transmitted simultaneously. For example, the write channel and the energy transmission channel can use the same frequency.
Depending upon application requirements, certain operating frequencies offer advantages over other frequencies. Ultra high frequency systems, using a frequency of 915 MHz, provide a read distance that is longer than low 125 KHz or high 13.56 MHz frequencies (e.g., 5 meters v. a few feet). High frequency 13.56 MHz systems offer the security of limited broadcast range when writing sensitive data to a transponder memory. Low and high frequency systems also allow greater field penetration of fluid-containing objects, such as the human body, while ultra-high frequencies are generally blocked by these objects.
The present invention includes a radio frequency identification device that uses different operating frequencies (e.g., the most effective frequencies for different types of transmissions) in one identification device, thereby combining the respective advantages of each frequency. In one embodiment of the present invention, one frequency (e.g., a frequency such as 868 MHz or 915 MHz to 2.45 GHz) is used for data transmission, and another frequency (e.g., a low frequency such as 125 kHz) is used for proximity detection, such as in an electronic article surveillance device. In another embodiment, one frequency is used for reading information received from the identification device, and another frequency is used for writing to the identification device.
In one embodiment, the identification device utilizes one antenna for all frequencies. In another embodiment, the identification device utilizes two or more antennas for different frequencies, and one common memory. In other embodiments, one or two digital parts, one or two analog parts, and one or two antennas can be used in conjunction.
The present invention utilizes the advantages of a device (e.g., a semiconductor chip) that is frequency-independent. In one embodiment, all transponder functions, such as encode/decode, modulate/demodulate, digital and analog functions, and memory, are embodied in this single device or chip. However, these functions can also be embodied in multiple chips. In one embodiment, the present invention combines the secure and proximity features of 13.56 MHz with the long read range feature of 915 MHz or 2.45 GHz. In an additional embodiment, it is possible to utilize different security levels on different channels.
In another embodiment, the present invention integrates two high frequency (HF) or two ultra-high frequency (UHF) interfaces on one chip. These two interfaces are connected to two different antennas. Each antenna is tuned to its ideal working frequency. Thus, for example, one digital part of the chip is provided that has an ability to communicate via two HF channels through two antennas. Both channels handle the data coming from the same memory. The chip detects which field the transmission is in and automatically switches the communication to the active channel.
In other embodiments of the present invention (e.g., for multi application systems), different memory areas are used for the different frequency channels.
Multi-Frequency Identification Device
Electronic vehicle registration allows integration of a passive identification device into a license plate (e.g., on the license plate or on a sticker on the license plate) of a vehicle. To identify the vehicle on the road using the identification device, in some embodiments, it is preferable to have a read distance of more than 3 meters, which can be only achieved with an ultra-high frequency (e.g., 915 MHz) system.
For the write cycle to program the license plate, however, a shorter distance is sufficient, because the write cycle is typically performed only by local authorities in a nearby office. The write cycle, using 13.56 MHz, will be more secure than the read cycle in order to prevent illegal changing of the data.
The multi-frequency identification device 100 comprises: a base layer; and at least one radio frequency device comprising at least one chip and at least one antenna disposed on the at least one base layer, wherein the at least one antenna is in electrical communication with the at least one chip. In one embodiment, the chip can be a frequency-independent chip. In this case, a single manufactured silicon chip, when properly connected and matched to an appropriate antenna, will operate at any of the relevant frequencies assigned for identification devices. In other embodiments, the chip can also be a one-frequency or multi-frequency chip. In these cases, the chip is uniquely designed and characterized to operate with a specific antenna at one or a few specific frequencies.
In one embodiment, the multi-frequency identification device 100 is a radio frequency system that comprises an analog control unit 101, which is a dual interface with the combination of two frequencies: a 915 MHz or 2.45 GHz system 105; and a 13.56 MHz system 110. The 915 MHz system 105 is used, for example, for a reading data function that enables speed. In one embodiment, the 915 MHz system 105 includes a dipole antenna 106. The 13.56 MHz system 110 is used, for example, for the writing (personalization) of the identification information for the vehicle having the license plate. In one embodiment, the 13.56 MHz system 110 includes a coil antenna 107 (i.e., a wound spiral of insulated wire).
The multi-frequency identification device 100 also includes a digital control unit 115 and memory 120. The analog control unit 101 is a device or circuit that is continuously varying in signal strength or quantity, rather than based on discrete units, such as the binary digits 1 and 2. The digital control unit 115 is a device or circuit that is based on discrete units, such as binary digits 1 and 0.
Method of Using Multi-Frequency Identification Device
The present invention is described in terms of the above embodiments. This is for convenience only and is not intended to limit the application of the present invention. In fact, after reading the description of the present invention, it will be apparent to one skilled in the relevant arts how to implement the present invention in alternative embodiments.
In addition, it should be understood that the Figures described above, which highlight the functionality and advantages of the present invention, are presented for example purposes only. The architecture of the present invention is sufficiently flexible and configurable, such that it may be utilized in ways other than that shown in the Figures.