|Publication number||USRE43571 E1|
|Application number||US 09/939,526|
|Publication date||Aug 7, 2012|
|Filing date||Aug 24, 2001|
|Priority date||Nov 13, 1996|
|Also published as||US5943676|
|Publication number||09939526, 939526, US RE43571 E1, US RE43571E1, US-E1-RE43571, USRE43571 E1, USRE43571E1|
|Inventors||David J. Boothby|
|Original Assignee||Intellisync Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (148), Non-Patent Citations (164), Referenced by (2), Classifications (5), Legal Events (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
An appendix (appearing now in paper format to be replaced later in microfiche format) forms part of this application. The appendix, which includes a source code listing relating to an embodiment of the invention, includes 691 frames on 8 microfiche.
This patent document (including the microfiche appendix) contains material that is subject to copyright protection. The copyright owner has no objection to the facsimile reproduction by anyone of the patent document as it appears in the Patent and Trademark Office file or records, but otherwise reserves all copyright rights whatsoever.
This invention relates to synchronizing incompatible databases.
Databases are collections of data entries which are organized, stored, and manipulated in a manner specified by applications known as database managers (hereinafter also referred to as “Applications”). The manner in which database entries are organized in a database is known as the data structure. There are generally two types of database managers. First are general purpose database managers in which the user determines (usually at the outset, but subject to future revisions) what the data structure is. These Applications often have their own programming language and provide great flexibility to the user. Second are special purpose database managers that are specifically designed to create and manage a database having a preset data structure. Examples of these special purpose database managers are various scheduling, diary, and contact manager Applications for desktop and handheld computers. Database managers organize the information in a database into records, with each record made up of fields. Fields and records of a database may have many different characteristics depending on the database manager's purpose and utility.
Databases can be said to be incompatible with one another when the data structure of one is not the same as the data structure of another, even though some of the content of the records is substantially the same. For example, one database may store names and addresses in the following fields: FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, and ADDRESS. Another database may, however, store the same information with the following structure: NAME, STREET_NO., STREET_NAME, CITY_STATE, and ZIP. Although the content of the records is intended to contain the same kind of information, the organization of that information is completely different.
It is often the case that users of incompatible databases want to be able to synchronize the databases. For example, in the context of scheduling and contact manager Applications, a person might use one Application on the desktop computer at work and another on his handheld computer or his laptop computer at home. It is desirable for many of these users to be able to synchronize the entries on one with entries on another. However, the incompatibility of the two databases creates many problems that need to be solved for successful synchronization. The U.S. patent and copending patent application of the assignee hereof, IntelliLink Corp., of Nashua, N.H. (U.S. Pat. No. 5,392,390; U.S. application, Ser. No. 08/371,194, filed on Jan. 11, 1995, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,684,990, incorporated by reference herein) show two methods for synchronizing incompatible databases and solving some of the problems arising from incompatibility of databases. However, other problems remain.
One kind of incompatibility is when one database manager uses recurring records. Recurring records are single records which contain information which indicates that the records actually represent multiple records sharing some common information. Many scheduling Applications, for example, permit as a single record an event which occurs regularly over a period of time. Instances of such entries are biweekly committee meetings or weekly staff lunches. Other scheduling Applications do not use these types of records. A user has to create equivalent entries by creating a separate record for each instance of these recurring events.
Various problems arise when synchronizing these types of records. Let us consider a situation when Application A uses recurring records while Application B does not. A synchronizing application must be able to create multiple entries for B for each recurring entry in A. It also must be able to identify some of the records in database B as instances of recurring records in database A. Also, many Applications which allow recurring records also permit revision and editing of single instances of recurring records without affecting the master recurring record. Moreover, single instances of a recurring event in Application B may be changed or deleted. The recurring master may also be changed which has the effect of changing all instances. These changes make it harder to identify multiple entries in database B as instances of a recurring record in database A. Moreover, synchronization must take these changes into account when updating records in one or the other database.
The invention provides a technique for synchronizing databases in which different techniques are used for storing a recurring event. A database in which the recurring event is, for example, stored as a single recurring record can be synchronized with a database in which the same recurring event is stored as a series of individual records. The individual records are processed to form a synthetic recurring record representing the set of individual records, and synchronization decisions are based on a comparison of the synthetic record to the recurring record of the other database. Following synchronization, the synthetic record can be “fanned” back into the individual records to update the database containing individual records, and the updated recurring record can be written hack to the other database. In this way, the invention avoids the problems encountered with prior methods, in which synchronization resulted in a recurring record being transformed into a series of individual records.
The invention features a computer implemented method of synchronizing at least a first and a second database, wherein the manner of storing a set of recurring instances differs between the first and second databases, and at least the first database uses a recurring record to store the set of recurring instances. A plurality of instances in the second database are processed to generate a synthetic recurring record representing recurring instances in the second database, the synthetic recurring record of the second database is compared to a recurring record of the first database, and synchronization is completed based on the outcome of the comparison.
Preferred embodiments of the invention may include one or more of the following features: Completing synchronization may include adding, modifying, or deleting the synthetic recurring record or the recurring record. Following synchronization, the synthetic recurring record may be fanned back into a plurality of single instances. The set of recurring instances may be stored in the second database as a plurality of single instances. The set of recurring instances may be stored in the second database as a recurring record having a different record structure than the recurring record of the first database. A history file may be stored containing a record representative of the presence of a recurring record or a synthetic recurring record in past synchronizations.
The invention may be implemented in hardware or software, or a combination of both. Preferably, the technique is implemented in computer programs executing on programmable computers that each include a processor, a storage medium readable by the processor (including volatile and non-volatile memory and/or storage elements), at least one input device, and at least one output device. Program code is applied to data entered using the input device to perform the functions described above and to generate output information. The output information is applied to one or more output devices.
Each program is preferably implemented in a high level procedural or object oriented programming language to communicate with a computer system. However, the programs can be implemented in assembly or machine language, if desired. In any case, the language may be a compiled or interpreted language.
Each such computer program is preferably stored on a storage medium or device (e.g., ROM or magnetic diskette) that is readable by a general or special purpose programmable computer for configuring and operating the computer when the storage medium or device is read by the computer to perform the procedures described in this document. The system may also be considered to be implemented as a computer-readable storage medium, configured with a computer program, where the storage medium so configured causes a computer to operate in a specific and predefined manner.
Other features and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following description of preferred embodiments, including the drawings, and from the claims.
A Translator 5 (A_Translator) is assigned to the A_database 13 and another Translator 9 (B_Translator) to the B_database 14. Each of the database Translators 5 and 9 comprises three modules: Reader modules 6 and 10 (A_Reader and B_Reader), which read the data from the databases 13 and 14; Unloader modules 8 and 12 (A_Unloader and B_Unloader), which analyze and unload records from the Workspace into the databases 13 and 14; and Sanitizing modules 7 and 11 (A_Sanitizer and B_Sanitizer), which analyze the records of the other database loaded into the Workspace and modify them according to rules of data value of its own database. In the preferred embodiment, the modules of the A_Translator 5 are designed specifically for interacting with the A_database 13 and the A_Application 17. Their design is specifically based on the record and field structures and the rules of data value imposed on them by the A_Application, the Application Program Interface (API) requirements and limitations of the A_Application and other characteristics of A_Database and A_Application. The same is true of the modules of B_Translator 9. These Translators are not able to interact with any other databases or Applications. They are only aware of the characteristics of the database and the Application for which they have been designed. Therefore, in the preferred embodiment, when the user chooses two Applications for synchronization, the Translation Engine chooses the two Translators which are able to interact with those Applications. In an alternate embodiment, the translator can be designed as a table-driven code, where a general Translator is able to interact with a variety of Applications and databases based on the parameters supplied by the Translation Engine 1.
If in step 150 the user selected to use previously chosen and stored set of preferences (steps 166-171), those preferences are loaded and stored in the Parameter Table (steps 169-170).
In case of date bearing records such as appointments and ToDo lists, the user enters the date range for which the user wants the records to be synchronized (step 172). The preferred embodiment allows the user to use relative date ranges (Automatic_Date_Range) (substeps 171 (a) and (b). For example, the user can select the date range to be 30 days into the past from today's date and 60 days into the future from today's date. The Parameter Table Generator 3 then calculates and stores in the Parameter_Table the Start_Current_Date_Range and End_Current_Date_Range values, the two variables indicating the starting point and the ending point of the date range for the current synchronization session (step 173-174).
In steps 174 and 175, various parameters identifying the characteristics of the A_Database and Application and B_Database and Application are loaded from a database (not shown) holding such data for different Applications. These are in turn stored in the Parameter_Table. One of the sets of parameters loaded and stored in the Parameter_Table is the Field_List for the two databases. The Field_List_A and Field_List_B contain the following information about each field in the data structure of the two databases:
No_Reconcile flag indicates whether a field is a No_Reconcile field, meaning that it will not be used to match records nor will it be synchronized although it will be mapped and possibly used in synchronization. Almost all fields will not be designated as No_Reconcile. However, sometimes it is necessary to do so. Key_Field flag indicates that a field should be considered as a key field by the Synchronizer 15.
Key fields are used by the Synchronizer in various stages of synchronization as will be discussed in detail below. The decision of identifying certain fields as key is based on examining the various Applications to be synchronized, their data structure, and the purpose for which the database is used. Such examination reveals which fields would best function as key fields for synchronization. For example, for an address book database, the lastname, firstname, and company name field may be chosen as key fields. For Appointments, the date field and the description field may be chosen as key fields.
Mapped_Field flag indicates whether a field is mapped at all. The Synchronizer uses this flag to determine whether it should use the A→B_Map or B→A_Map to map this field. Unlike a No_Reconcile field, an unmapped field will not be carried along through the synchronization.
Another set of parameters in the Parameter_Table identify the Translator Modules 13, 14 for the two Applications which the user has selected. Because each Application is assigned its own Translator, it is necessary to identify to the Command Module and the Synchronizer which Translators should he used.
In step 102 of
In step 210, the Synchronizer uses the Field_List for database B to create the Workspace 16. It is a large record array which the Synchronizer uses during synchronization. Referring to
Basic_Repeat_Type contains the variable which indicates whether the recurring record is a daily, weekly, monthly (same date each month), monthly by position (e.g., 3rd Friday of each month), yearly (e.g., July 4th each year), yearly by Position (e.g., 3rd Friday of September each year), quarterly, etc. This variable is set to No_Repeat for non-recurring records.
Frequency indicates whether the pattern is, for example, for every week, every other week, etc. StartDate and StopDate show the first date and last date in the pattern. Some other parameters in the Rep_Basic include, for example, a list of days to be included for the pattern (e.g. I plan to hold a weekly staff meeting every Thursday starting Nov. 15, 1997.)
Rep_Excl is the exclusion list. It is a list of dates which at some point belonged to the recurring record, but have since been deleted or modified and no longer are an event represented by the recurring record.
Since some databases do not provide for recurring types of records, the synchronization process sometimes must create single records for each of the instances of a recurring record for those databases. For example, for a recurring lunch every Thursday, the synchronization must produce a single record for each Thursday in such a database. This is accomplished by the process of fanning which uses Rep_Basic. Each of those instances is called a fanned instance.
Fanning of recurring records also takes into account another set of considerations regarding date range limitations and usefulness of instances to the user.
First, fanning is limited to the applicable date range. Second, the number of fanned instances is limited. When synchronizing Databases A and B, the preferred embodiment permits different sets of limits on fanned instances to be established for each Database. This, for example, assists with managing storage capacity of a memory-constrained handheld device when being synchronized with a database on a desktop PC.
If the current Date Range is large enough to accommodate more than the maximum number of instances which might be generated, those instances will be chosen which are likely to be most useful to the user. In the preferred embodiment, it is assumed that future instances are always more useful than past instances, that near future instances are more useful than distant future instances, and that recent past instances are more useful than distant past instances. Therefore, based on these assumptions, a fanning date range is calculated (
Next_In_CIG is a linkage word, pointing to next member of the same Corresponding Item Group (CIG). A CIG is a group of records, one from each database and the History File, if applicable, which represent the same entry in each of the databases and the History File. There may be one, two or three records in a CIG. Next_In_SKG is a linkage word, pointing to next member of the Same Key Fields Group (SKG). An SKG is a group of records having the same key fields. Next_In_FIG is a linkage word, pointing to the next member of the Fanned Instances Group (FIG). A FIG is the group of fanned instances which correspond to a single recurring record.
Key_Field_Hash is hash of all Key_Fields. A_unique _ID_Hash is hash of unique ID, if any, assigned by A_Database. B_unique_ID_Hash is hash of unique ID, if any, assigned by B_Database. Non_Key_Field_Hash is hash of all Non-Key Match Field, a Match Field being any mapped field which is not flagged as No_Reconcile. Non_Date_Hash is hash of all Non-Date Non-Key Match Fields. Exclusion_List_Hash is hash of recurring record's exclusion list.
Start_Date&Time and End_Date&Time are used for Appointment and ToDo type record only, indicating the start and end date and time of the record. They are used to speed up comparing functions throughout the synchronization. Hash values are also used to speed up the process of comparison. The preferred embodiment uses integer hashes. Hash value computation takes into account certain rules of data value for fields, as will be described in more detail below.
In the preferred embodiment, the record array 21 is stored on magnetic disk of a computer whereas the Extended Index 20 is held resident in memory. The Extended Indexes have record pointer fields which point to each of the records on the disk file.
The Control Module 2 now instructs the synchronizer to load the History File into the Workspace (
The synchronizer then builds SKGs by finding for each history record one record which has matching key fields and by placing that record in the SKG of the history record (step 215-216). Referring to
When comparing two records or two fields, in the preferred embodiment, the COMPARE function is used. The COMPARE function is intelligent comparison logic, which takes into account some of the differences between the rules of data value imposed by the A_Application and the B_Application on their respective databases. Some examples are as follows. The COMPARE function is insensitive to upper and lower case letters if case insensitive field attribute is present. Because some Applications require entries to be in all capital letter, the COMPARE function ignores the differences between upper and lowercase letters. The COMPARE function takes into account any text length limitations. For example, when comparing “App” in the A_Database and “Apple” in the B_Database, the COMPARE function takes into account that this field is limited to only 3 characters in the A_Database. It also takes into account limits on numerical value. For example, priority fields in the A_Application may be limited to only values up to 3, whereas in the B_Application there may not be any limitation. The COMPARE function would treat all values in B_records above 3 as 3.
The COMPARE function may ignore various codes such as end of line characters. It may strip punctuation from some fields such as telephone numbers and trailing white space from text fields (i.e “Hello” is treated as “Hello”). It also considers field mapping. For example, if the only line that is mapped by the A→B_Map is the first line of a field, then only that line is compared. When comparing appointment fields, because different databases handle alarm date and time differently when Alarmflag is false, the COMPARE function treats them as equal even though the values in them are not the same. It skips Alarm Date and Time, if the Alarm Flag is False. It also ignores exclusion lists when comparing recurring records.
In an alternate embodiment, the COMPARE function may take into account more complicated rules for data value of the two Applications, such as the rules for data value imposed by Microsoft Schedule+, described above. Such a COMPARE function may be implemented as a table driven code, the table containing the rules imposed by the A_Application and the B_Application. Because the COMPARE function has a specific comparison logic and takes into account a number of rules, the hashing logic must also follow the same rules. It should be noted that the COMPARE function is used throughout the preferred embodiment for field comparisons.
Now that the History File is loaded into the Workspace, the Control Nodule 2 instructs the B_Translator 13 to load the B_Database records (
The record must also be within the loading date range, which is a concatenation of the previous and current date ranges. The B_Translator sends these records to the Synchronizer which in turn stores them in the Workspace. When synchronizing with a date range limitation, all records which fall within either the previous or the current date ranges are loaded. The current date range is used during unloading to limit the unloading of the records to only those records which fall within the database's current date range. In an alternate embodiment of the invention, each database or Application can have its own date range for each synchronization.
Most Applications or databases permit record-specific and field-specific updates to a Database. But some Applications or databases do not. Instead the Translator for these Application must re-create the whole database from scratch when unloading at the end of synchronization. These databases are identified as Rebuild_All databases. To accommodate this requirement all records from such a database must be loaded into the Workspace, so that they can later be used to rebuild the whole database. These databases records, which would otherwise have been filtered out by the date range or the wrong origin tag filters, are instead marked with special flag bits as Out_Of_Range or Wrong_Section_Subtype. These records will be ignored during the synchronization process but will be written back unmodified into the database from which they came by the responsible Unloader module 6, 10.
Control Module 2 next instructs the A_Translator 5 to sanitize the B-records. Referring to
How a record or a field is sanitized in step 354 and 357 depends on the rules of data value imposed by the A_Application. For example, all of the logic of intelligent comparison in the COMPARE function described above can be implemented by sanitization. However, sanitization is best suited for more complex or unique types of database rules for data value. For example, consider the Schedule+ rules regarding alarm bearing Tasks records described above.
The Control Module 2 of the Translation Engine 3 now instructs the A_Translator 5 to load the records from the A_Database (step 105). The loading process for the A_Records is the same as the loading process for the B_Database, except for some differences arising from the fact that records in the Workspace are stored according to the B_Database data structure. Therefore, as the synchronizer 15 receives each A_record from the A_Reader module 7 of the A_Translator 5, the Synchronizer maps that record using the A→B_Map before writing the record into the next available spot in the Workspace. Since the A records are mapped into the B_Record format, when the B_Sanitizer is instructed by the Control Module 2 to begin sanitizing those records and starts asking for them from the synchronizer, they already have the B_Database format. Therefore, the synchronizer 15 does not need to map them before sending them to the B_Sanitizer module 12 of the B_Translator 19. For the same reason, there is no need for them to be mapped once they are sent back by the B_Sanitizer after having been sanitized. Once all the records are loaded, the records will undergo the same orientation analysis that the B_Records underwent (
At this point, all records are loaded into the Workspace. SKGs are complete since every record at the time of loading is connected to the appropriate SKG. CIGs now contain all records that could be matched based on unique IDs. At this point, the records in the Workspace will be analyzed according to Conflict Analysis and Resolution (“CAAR”) which is set out in
First, in step 500, ID bearing fanned instances in the History File records are matched to the fanned instances in the ID bearing database from which they came. The records from the database which have remained unchanged are formed into a new FIG. A new Synthetic Master is created based on those records and joined to them. The records which have been changed or deleted since last synchronization are set free as single records. They also result in a new exclusion list being created based on an old exclusion list and these new single records.
Second, in step 501, matches are sought for the ID based CIGs which are the only CIGs so far created in order to increase the membership of those CIGs. Preferably an exact all fields match is sought between current members of a CIG and a new one. Failing that, a weaker match is sought.
Third, in step 502, master/instances match is sought between recurring records and non-unique ID bearing instances by trying to find the largest group of instances which match certain values in the Recurring Master.
Fourth, in step 503, the items remaining in the SKGs are matched up based on either exact all field match or master/instance match, or a weaker match.
Fifth, in step 501, the appropriate CIG Types are set for all the CIGs. CIG_Types will determine what the outcome of unloading the records will be.
The analysis is performed for all Recurring Masters (i.e. all recurring records) which have ID-bearing fanned instances (or FIG records) in the H_File (step 550). All FIG records in the History File associated with a Recurring Master are analyzed (steps 551-559). They are all removed from the SKG. If a FIG record is a singleton CIG, it means that it was deleted from the database since the previous synchronization. Therefore, it is added to the New_Exclusion_List (step 553). If a FIG record is a doubleton and is an exact match, it means that the record was not modified since the previous synchronization. In this case, the record from the database is also removed from SKG (step 555). If a FIG record is a doubleton but is not an exact match for its counterpart in the database, it means that the record was changed in the database. The History File record is treated as a deletion and therefore added to the New_Exclusion_List. The modified record in the database, which does not match the recurring record any longer, is treated as a free standing record un-associated with the Recurring Master (step 557).
Upon analysis of all FIG records, a new record, the Synthetic Master, is created and joined in a CIG with the Recurring Master (step 231-236). The Synthetic Master has the same characteristics as the Recurring Master, except that it has a new exclusion list which is a merger of the New_Exclusion_List and the Exclusion_List of the Recurring Master (step 563). Also a new FIG is created between the Synthetic Master and the CIG-mates of all FIG records from the History File (step 565).
In steps 567-569, the Synchronizer checks to see if there are some instances of the Recurring Master which fall within the previous synchronization's date range but fall outside of the current synchronization's date range. If so, the Fan_Out_Creep flag is set, indicating that the date range has moved in such a way as to require the record to be fanned for the database before unloading the record. The Fan_Out_Creep flag is an increase in the value in the Non_Key_Field Hash of the Recurring Master. In this way, the Recurring Master during the unloading of the records will appear as having been updated since the last synchronization and therefore will be fanned for the current date range.
In step 570, all the FIG records analyzed or created in this analysis are marked as Dependent FIGs. This results in these records being ignored in future analysis except when the recurring records to which they are attached are being analyzed.
At the end of the above analysis, all the records having a unique ID assigned by their databases have been matched based on their unique ID. From this point onward, the records which do not have unique IDs must be matched to other records based on their field values. In the preferred embodiment, there are two categories of field value matches: strong matches and weak matches. A strong match between two records that have matching key fields is when non-key fields of the two records match or it is a Recurring Master and a fanned instance match (
The next step in CAAR is finding non-unique ID bearing instances for recurring items (
The next step in CAAR is completing analysis of records in SKGs (
Throughout the remaining SKG Analysis we are careful not to seek H_Record-A_Record or H_Record-B_Record matches for unique ID-bearing Source, since that would violate the exclusively ID-based matching scheme that applies in such cases. Note however that an A_Record-B_Record match is acceptable even if both A_Database and B_Database are unique ID-bearing databases.
Given that Key Field should not be performed where ID based matches are available (or otherwise there may be matches between records with differing IDs), there are limits to how big CIGs can get at this point. If both A and B_Databases are unique ID-bearing, any remaining H_Record must remain in Singleton CIGs, because they are prohibited from forming key fields based matches with items from either databases. Such H_Records are simply removed from the SKG when they are encountered. If just one of the two databases being synchronized is unique ID-bearing then the maximum population that any CIG can now attain is 2 (
First, strong matches for the H-records are searched for, before trying to find A-B matches. If both Databases are non-unique ID-bearing then two strong matches for each H_Record, an H-A and an H-B match, are sought (steps 715-720). If finding a strong match results in reaching the CIG_Max_Size, all members of the CIG are removed from the SKG (step 721).
When maximum CIG population is 3, weak matches are sought for strong matching CIG doubleton in order to build triplet CIGs. The first weakly matching SKG member is added to the CIG (steps 722-728). Whether or not a weak match is found for any of the doubleton CIGs, its members are removed from the SKG (step 726). As there are no strong matches left in the SKG, weak matches are found for any remaining SKG members and joined to them in CIGs (steps 722-725).
At this stage, all CIGs are built. They must now be examined to determine what needs to be done to these records so that the databases are synchronized, i.e. whether the records in the CIGs need to be added, deleted or changed in the two databases. First step is determining the CIG_TYPE which represents the relation between the records. The following CIG types are defined, all using a 3-digit number that represents values found for A_DATABASE, History File, and B_Database, respectively:
Four of the CIG types assigned above involve conflicts: 102, 213, 012, and 210. Conflicts are those instances where a specific conflict resolution rule chosen by the user or set by default, or the user's case by case decision, must be used to determine how the records from the databases should be synchronized. CIG types 012 and 210 are cases where a previously synchronized record is changed on one side and deleted on the other. In the preferred embodiment, such conflicts are resolved according to the rule that CHANGE overrules the DELETE. So the net result for CIG type 012 is to add a new record to the A_Database to match the record in the B_DATABASE. The reverse is true for CIG type 210, where a new record is added to the B_Database. In an alternate embodiment, the user may be allowed to register an automatic preference for how to resolve such conflicts or decide on a case-by-case basis a conflict resolution option.
The other two conflict types—102 and 213—are resolved in the preferred embodiment according to the Conflict Resolution Option established by the user. First, the user may choose to ignore the conflict. This option leaves all 102 and 213 conflicts unresolved. Every time synchronization is repeated the conflict will be detected again and ignored again, as long as this option remains in effect and as long as the conflicting records are not changed by other means.
The user may choose to add a new record to each of the two databases. This option resolves 102 and 213 conflicts by adding the new A_Record to the B_Database, and adding the new B_Record to the A_Database. This option is implemented by breaking a 102 CIG into two separate CIGs (types 100 and 001) and a 213 CIG into three separate CIGs (types 100, 010, and 001). Subsequent processing of those descendant CIGs causes new records to be added across and stored in the History File.
The user may elect that A_Database records should always trump or win over B_database records. This option is implemented by changing the CIG type to 211—the processing during unloading the records changes the record value in the B_Database to match the current record value in the A_Database.
The user may elect that B_Database records should always trump or win over B_database records. This option is implemented by changing the CIG type to 112—the processing during unloading the records changes the record value in the A_Database to match the current record value in the B_Database.
The user may choose to be notified in case of any conflict. The user is notified via a dialog box 30, shown in
When the user has chosen to be notified in case of conflict, if the user chooses to ignore conflict or that either the record of the A_Database or the B_DATABASE should win, the CIG type is left as a conflict CIG type (102 or 213) and a separate Conflict Resolution Choice is stored in the FLAGS word associated with each CIG member.
The final step in setting CIG_Types is the process for dealing with difficulties which arise from exclusion lists. For example, in a triple Recurring Master CIG, suppose the History File Recurring Master does not have any excluded instances. The A_Record has the following exclusion list:
If comparison of the Recurring Masters includes comparing exclusion list Field Values, this set of changes would cause the Synchronizer to report a CIG type 213 conflict.
If the Conflict Resolution Option is set to A_Database record wins, then the outcome prescribed by the Synchronizer would be for the A_Database to keep its exclusion list as is and for the B_Database to make its exclusion list match that of the A_Database.
The result would be to have a lot of duplicate entries in both Databases. The A_Database would have five duplicate entries in January 97—that is the five unmodified Recurring Master instances, plus the five modified instances added across from B_Database to A_Database. The B_Database would have five duplicate entries in January 97, since synchronization has wiped out the five exclusions that were previously recorded in the B_Database exclusion list.
Two steps are implemented for dealing with this problem. First, the COMPARE function does not take into account exclusion list differences when comparing recurring records. Second, referring to
In most cases where it is necessary to merge exclusion lists, the CIG types and/or the Conflict Resolution Choice to arrange for all necessary updates to be performed during the unloading phases of synchronization.
First, A_Database and B_Database records' exclusion lists are compared. In case of databases which do not permit recurring items, the exclusion list of the Synthetic Master is compared to the recurring record of the other database (step 852). If there is no difference, then nothing is done (step 853). If there are differences, then it is determined which exclusions appear only in one record. This comparison always yields one of the following scenarios: (1) all one-side-only Exclusions are on the A_Database (so Exclusions should be added to the B_Database); (2) all one-side-only Exclusions are on the B_Database (so Exclusions should be added to the A_Database); and (3) there are one-side-only Exclusions on both sides (so Exclusions should be added to both databases).
In each of these cases a separate table is used to look up instructions, for how to handle each specific situation (
The analysis of records is now complete, and the records can be unloaded into their respective databases, including any additions, updates, or deletions. However, prior to doing so, the user is asked to confirm proceeding with unloading (
If the user chooses to proceed with synchronization and to unload, the records are then unloaded in order into the B_Database, the A_Database and the History File. The Unloader modules 6,10 of the Translators 5,9 perform the unloading for the databases. The Synchronizer creates the History File and unloads the records into it. The Control Module 2 of the Translation Engine 1 first instructs the B_Translator to unload the records from Workspace into the B_Database. Referring to
Based on the result obtained from looking up the unloading outcome in the table, the unloader then either adds a new record (steps 920-926), deletes an existing record (steps 914-919), or updates an existing record (steps 927-933). It should be noted that because we only update those fields which need to be updated (step 928), the fields which were sanitized but need not be updated are not unloaded. Therefore, the values in those fields remain in unsanitized form in the database.
Referring to step 914, in sonic Applications when a Recurring Master must be added or updated, the record may have to be fanned out despite the ability of the Application to support recurring records. For example, the Schedule+ Translator is generally able to put almost any Recurring Master Item into Schedule+ without fanning, but there are some exceptions. The Schedule+ Translator uses one Schedule section to handle all appointments and events. For appointments, almost any recurrence pattern is allowed, but for events the only allowable true repeat type is YEARLY. DAILY recurring events can be dealt with by being translated into Schedule+ multi-day events which are not recurring but extend over several days by setting the EndDate some time after the Start Date. But for the DAILY case there are restrictions. In particular exclusions in the midst of a multi-day Schedule+ event cannot be created. So the Translator decides that if section type is ToDos or the item is a non-Event Appointment, then the record need not be fanned out. But if item is a YEARLY or DAILY with no exclusions then it can be stored as a Schedule+ yearly or daily event. Otherwise, it must be fanned.
In the first scenario a record which is a Recurring Master, and its counterpart in the other database is a Recurring Master, must be fanned now for its own database (steps 951-959). If the CIG_TYPE of the record is 132 (i.e. update both records), then it is changed to 13F which is a special value specifically for this situation (step 951). For other CIG_Types, the CIG is broken into three singleton and given CIG Types signifying their singleton status. In both of these cases, the function Fanning_For_Add (steps 986-996, described below) is called.
In the second scenario, the record was fanned previously and is going to be fanned now also. First, the dates of the instances are recorded in a temporary date array (steps 961-963). This array is compared to an array of the fanned instances of the recurrence pattern of the CIG Recurring Master from the other database (steps 965-966). The dates which are not in the array of fanned instance are marked for deletion (step 967). The dates which are not in the temporary date array should be added to the unloading databases and therefore new FIG records are created for those dates (steps 968-973). The dates which appear in both arrays are compared to the Synthetic Master and marked accordingly for UPDATE or Leave_Alone (steps 974-978).
In the third scenario, the record which was previously fanned should now be fanned also. The opposing database's record in this scenario is also fanned instances. This is perhaps the most peculiar of the three cases. For example, a database may be able to handle multi-day (i.e. daily recurring) records but not any exclusion dates for such items. Such database may be synchronized with another database which fans all records in the following manner. A record representing a 7-day vacation in the Planner section of the database is fanned out to form 7 individual vacation days in the other database. One instance is deleted in the other database. Upon synchronizing the two databases, b/c the first databases does not does not provide for exclusion lists, the record must now be fanned.
In this scenario, Master Records in a CIG are marked as Garbage. Any FIG members attached to the H_Record, if any, are also marked as Garbage. All Instances found in the opposing database's FIG are truned to singleton CIGs with CIG type 100 or 001 so that they will be added to the unloader's database when unloading is done. In this way the instances from one database is copied to the database providing for recurring records.
Steps 985-995 describe the Fanning_For_Add Function which is used when outcome is to update or when the function is called by the Translator fanning for update. For each instance generated by fanning out the recurring record, a clone of the Recurring Master is created but excluding Rep_Basic and Rep_Excl field values and the unique ID field. All adjustable Date Fields (e.g. Start Date, End Date, and Alarm Date) are set and hash values for the new record is computed. The new record is then marked as Fanned_For_A or Fanned_For_B, as the case may be. This is then attached to the Recurring Master Item as a FIG member.
Following unloading of the B_RECORDS, the Control Module 2 instructs the A Translator to unload the A_Records from the Workspace (
The Control Module 3 next instructs the Synchronizer to create a new History File (step 112). Referring to
Once all records are unloaded, various information necessary for identifying this History File and for the next synchronization are written into the History File (step 1013).
At this point Synchronization is complete.
Applications, such as scheduling Applications, often have more than one database. Each of these databases are known as sections. Each of these sections contain different data and must be synchronized with their corresponding sections in other Applications. However, there is not necessarily a one to one relationship between sections of various Applications. For example, Application A may comprise of the following sections: Appointments, Holidays, Business Addresses, Personal Addresses, and ToDo. Application B however may comprise of the following sections: Appointments, Addresses, ToDo-Tasks, and ToDo-Calls. Although the general character of the sections are the same, there is not a one to one relation between the sections of these two Applications: Appointments and Holidays in A contain the same type of data as Appointments in B; Business Addresses and
Personal Addresses in A contain the same type of data as Addresses in B; and ToDo in A contains the same type of data as ToDo-Tasks and ToDo-Calls in B. Therefore, when synchronizing the sections of these two Applications, it is necessary to synchronize at least two sections of one Application with one section of another Application.
The preferred embodiment performs this type of synchronization by providing for a number of section categories: Appointment, ToDo, Note, Address, and General Database. All sections of a particular Application are studied and categorized according to this categorization. Therefore, in the above example of Application A, Appointments and Holidays are categorized Appointment type sections (or database), Business Address and Personal Address as Address type sections, and ToDo as a ToDo type section.
For creating the map for mapping sections onto each other, an exact section match is always sought between sections of the two Applications. If not, one of the sections which were categorized as a section type is chosen to be the Main_Section among them. Other sections of the same type are referred to as subsections. All databases of the same type from the other Application will be mapped onto the Main_Section.
To properly synchronize from one time to the next, it is necessary to keep track of the source of records in the Main_Section. In the preferred embodiment, if a record in the Main_Section of the A_Application does not come from the Main_Section of the B_Application, one of fields in the record, preferably a text field, is tagged with a unique code identifying the subsection which is the source of the record. This is the record's Origin Tag. All records in the Workspace and the History File include a hidden internal field called subType which contains the unique subsection code. Main_Section's field value in the preferred embodiment is zero so that it will not be tagged. When a record is loaded from a database into the Synchronization Workspace, the tag is stripped from the TagBearer field and put in the _subType field. If there is no tag, then the _subType is set to be the subtype of the present section. If the TagBearer field is mapped then when reading records into the Workspace the tag, if any, is stripped from the TagBearer field value place it in _subtype.
Conversely when unloading records from the Workspace to a Database, the TagBearer field is tagged by a tag being added if the record is not from the Main_Section.
A Fast Synchronization database is a database which provides a method of keeping track of changes, deletions, and additions to its records from one synchronization to the next. These databases speed up the synchronization process because only those records which have been modified need to be loaded from the database. Since the majority of records loaded by regular Translators are unchanged records, far fewer records are loaded from the database into the Synchronizer.
Certain features are required for a database to be a Fast Synchronization database. The database records must have unique IDs and must have a mechanism for keeping track of which records are added, changed, or deleted from synchronization to synchronization, including a list of deleted records. Unique IDs are required to accurately identify records over a period of time.
There are at least two ways to keep track of additions, changes, and deletions in a database.
First, some databases maintain one Dirty bit per record which is a boolean flag that is set when a record is created or modified and is cleared when a function for clearing Dirty bits is called. Some databases offer a Clear DirtyBit function that clears the bit of an individual record. Other databases offer a ClearDirtyBits function that clears the Dirty bits of all records in a database. The record-specific ClearDirtyBit function allows the preferred embodiment to use the database itself to keep track of additions and changes.
The global ClearDirtyBits function forces the preferred embodiment to clear all Dirty bits at the conclusion of every Synchronization. Then as database edits are made by the user in between synchronizations, the affected records are marked as Dirty. When Synchronization is performed again, only the Dirty records are loaded.
Second, some databases maintain a Date&Time stamp of when the record was added or last time the record was modified. A Translator for such a database finds all records which were added or modified since the previous synchronization by searching for Date&Time stamps more recent than the Date&Time of the Last Synchronization.
A Fast Synchronization database must also keep track of deletions. This is done by maintaining a list of deleted records which can be read by a Translator.
A Translator sending Fast Synchronization database records to the Synchronizer provides only records which have been changed, deleted, and added since the previous synchronization. Therefore, unlike a regular database Translator, a Fast Synchronization Translator does not provide the Synchronizer with unchanged records. Moreover, unlike a regular Translator it provides deleted records, which the regular Translators does not.
In order for such databases to be synchronized without resorting to treating them as regular databases, the Synchronizer transforms Fast Synchronization records from the Translator into the equivalent regular database records. These transformed records are then used by the Synchronizer in the synchronization. There are two transformations which are necessary. First, the Synchronizer needs to transform deleted records received from the Fast Synchronization Translator into a regular database deletions. Second, synchronization needs to transform lack of output by the Fast Synchronization Translator into unchanged records.
The invention performs these transformations by using the History File. During the first synchronization, all records in the Fast Synchronization database are loaded into the history file. As changes, additions, and deletions are made to the Fast Synchronization database, during each of the subsequent synchronizations the same change, additions, and deletions are made to the History File. Therefore, the History File at the end of each subsequent synchronization is an exact copy of the Fast Synchronization database.
When a Fast Synchronization Translator supplies no input for a unique ID H_Record, the Synchronizer finds the corresponding H_Record in the Workspace and copies it into the Workspace as a record supplied as if it were loaded by the Fast Synchronization translator itself.
At the start of an incremental synchronization, the Synchronizer and the Fast Synchronization Translator compare date and time stamps. If time and date stamp synchronization parameters have changed since the previous synchronization, then the synchronization proceeds from scratch (step 1052). In a synchronization from scratch all records in the Fast Synchronization database are loaded into the History File.
In the preferred embodiment, all records supplied as Fast synchronization inputs have a special hidden field called _Delta, which carries a single-letter value—‘D’ for Delete or ‘A’ for Add and ‘C’ for Change. Records are loaded by the Fast Synchronization Translator into the Workspace (step 1054). If necessary the records are mapped when loaded. Records which are marked as changes or additions are sanitized by the Translator for the other database, but deleted records are not because their field values are going to be deleted (step 1055). Orientation analysis (
All History File records and their CIGs are now examined. If there is no corresponding record from the Fast synchronization database, it means that the record was unchanged. A clone of the record is made, labelled as being from Fast Synchronization database, and joined to the H_Record's CIG. At this point the deleted Fast synchronization database records marked as deletions are removed from CIGs (step 1109). The Fast Synchronization records marked as changed are joined in doubleton CIGs. Those marked as additions are singletons. At this point, the synchronization can proceed as if record of a unique ID bearing regular database were just loaded into the Workspace.
Whenever we are loading from a Fast Synchronization database, all records are loaded so that at the end of synchronization the history file will be the same as the Fast Synchronization Database. Therefore, referring to
H_Records for which there are no inputs are transformed in the same manner as before (steps 1164-1165). If a Bystander record falls within the current date range, it is equivalent to a regular database record coming into the current date range. Therefore, the H_Record is cloned and marked as a Fast Synchronizer record while the Bystander record is marked as Garbage (steps 1166-1171). Therefore, just like a new record of a regular database, it has no H Record counterpart.
If the user selects to abort a synchronization or selects the option to ignore a conflict or conflicts in general, some of the records loaded from the Fast Synchronization database will not be accepted and recorded in the History File. Therefore, the Translator should provide that record again at the next synchronization. However, because Fast Synchronization Translators supply only records which have been changed, deleted, or added since the previous synchronization, the records which were not accepted will not be supplied. Therefore, in the invention, Fast Synchronization Translator waits for an acknowledgement from the Synchronizer that the record has been accepted.
In case no such acknowledgement is received for a record, the Translator needs to be able to provide that record again to the Synchronizer. If the database allows resetting individual Dirty bits, the Translator merely does not set that bit. If not, the Translator keeps a separate file in which it keeps a record of which Fast Synchronization records were not accepted. The file may contain the unique IDs of those records. The Translator then uses that file to provide the synchronizer with those records during the next synchronization.
Other embodiments are within the following claims.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4162610||Dec 31, 1975||Jul 31, 1979||Levine Alfred B||Electronic calendar and diary|
|US4432057||Nov 27, 1981||Feb 14, 1984||International Business Machines Corporation||Method for the dynamic replication of data under distributed system control to control utilization of resources in a multiprocessing, distributed data base system|
|US4807154||Jan 29, 1987||Feb 21, 1989||International Business Machines Corporation||Method for developing automatic replies in an interactive electronic calendaring system|
|US4807155||Jan 29, 1987||Feb 21, 1989||International Business Machines Corporation||Electronic calendaring method for confirmation of resource availability during event calendaring|
|US4807182||Mar 12, 1986||Feb 21, 1989||Advanced Software, Inc.||Apparatus and method for comparing data groups|
|US4817018||Jan 29, 1987||Mar 28, 1989||International Business Machines Corporation||Electronic calendaring method which provides for automatic assignment of alternates in requested events|
|US4819156||Jun 13, 1986||Apr 4, 1989||International Business Machines Corporation||Database index journaling for enhanced recovery|
|US4819191||Jan 29, 1987||Apr 4, 1989||International Business Machines Corporation||Electronic calendaring method to establish calendar floating triggers for calendared events and processes|
|US4827423||May 26, 1987||May 2, 1989||R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company||Computer integrated manufacturing system|
|US4831552||Jan 29, 1987||May 16, 1989||International Business Machines Corporation||Method for concurrently displaying entries from a plurality of different electronic calendars based on interactively entered non-temporal criteria|
|US4866611||Jan 29, 1987||Sep 12, 1989||International Business Machines Corporation||Method for automatically reconciling entries on two copies of independently maintained electronic calendars|
|US4875159||Dec 22, 1987||Oct 17, 1989||Amdahl Corporation||Version management system using plural control fields for synchronizing two versions of files in a multiprocessor system|
|US4939689||Apr 9, 1987||Jul 3, 1990||Crowninshield Software, Inc.||Outline-driven database editing and retrieval system|
|US4956809||Dec 29, 1988||Sep 11, 1990||Mark Williams Company||Method for canonical ordering of binary data for portable operating systems|
|US4980844||May 27, 1988||Dec 25, 1990||Victor Demjanenko||Method and apparatus for diagnosing the state of a machine|
|US5065360||Jan 10, 1989||Nov 12, 1991||Kelly Douglas J||Portable data storage and editing device|
|US5124912||May 15, 1987||Jun 23, 1992||Wang Laboratories, Inc.||Meeting management device|
|US5134564||Oct 19, 1989||Jul 28, 1992||Dunn Eric C W||Computer aided reconfiliation method and apparatus|
|US5136707||Oct 28, 1988||Aug 4, 1992||At&T Bell Laboratories||Reliable database administration arrangement|
|US5142619||Aug 23, 1991||Aug 25, 1992||International Business Machines Corporation||Method and apparatus for visually comparing files in a data processing system|
|US5155850||Feb 23, 1990||Oct 13, 1992||International Business Machines Corporation||Method and system for maintaining a time frame selective document history log in a data processing system|
|US5170480||Sep 25, 1989||Dec 8, 1992||International Business Machines Corporation||Concurrently applying redo records to backup database in a log sequence using single queue server per queue at a time|
|US5187787||Jul 27, 1989||Feb 16, 1993||Teknekron Software Systems, Inc.||Apparatus and method for providing decoupling of data exchange details for providing high performance communication between software processes|
|US5197000||May 15, 1991||Mar 23, 1993||International Business Machines Corporation||Method of scheduling meetings|
|US5201010||May 19, 1992||Apr 6, 1993||Credit Verification Corporation||Method and system for building a database and performing marketing based upon prior shopping history|
|US5204958||Jun 27, 1991||Apr 20, 1993||Digital Equipment Corporation||System and method for efficiently indexing and storing a large database with high data insertion frequency|
|US5210868||Dec 19, 1990||May 11, 1993||Hitachi Ltd.||Database system and matching method between databases|
|US5220540||Feb 12, 1992||Jun 15, 1993||Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha||Data processing apparatus with schedule creation, prioritization, display and control functions|
|US5228116||May 17, 1991||Jul 13, 1993||Aicorp., Inc.||Knowledge base management system|
|US5237678||Mar 2, 1989||Aug 17, 1993||Kuechler William L||System for storing and manipulating information in an information base|
|US5251151||Dec 24, 1990||Oct 5, 1993||Research Foundation Of State Univ. Of N.Y.||Method and apparatus for diagnosing the state of a machine|
|US5251291||Jul 30, 1992||Oct 5, 1993||International Business Machines Corporation||Method of selectively transferring video displayed information|
|US5261045||Apr 19, 1991||Nov 9, 1993||International Business Machines Corporation||Method of exchanging entries from a plurality of different electronic calendars based on interactively entered criteria|
|US5261094||Apr 8, 1991||Nov 9, 1993||International Business Machines Corporation||Asynchronous replication of data changes by distributed update requests|
|US5272628||Apr 16, 1990||Dec 21, 1993||Microsoft Corporation||Method and system for aggregating tables having dissimilar formats|
|US5276876||May 16, 1990||Jan 4, 1994||International Business Machines Corporation||Registration of resources for commit procedures|
|US5278978||Mar 26, 1990||Jan 11, 1994||International Business Machines Corporation||Method and system for describing and exchanging data between heterogeneous database systems with data converted by the receiving database system|
|US5278982||Dec 23, 1991||Jan 11, 1994||International Business Machines Corporation||Log archive filtering method for transaction-consistent forward recovery from catastrophic media failures|
|US5283887||Dec 19, 1990||Feb 1, 1994||Bull Hn Information Systems Inc.||Automatic document format conversion in an electronic mail system based upon user preference|
|US5293627||May 22, 1991||Mar 8, 1994||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Method for adjusting curent clock counts in a distributed computer system|
|US5301313||Jul 15, 1991||Apr 5, 1994||Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd.||Manipulating data in a relational data base having operational manipulations defined in an input table and displayed results in an output table with a line displayed designating direction of data flow|
|US5315709||Dec 3, 1990||May 24, 1994||Bachman Information Systems, Inc.||Method and apparatus for transforming objects in data models|
|US5323314||Dec 31, 1991||Jun 21, 1994||International Business Machines Corporation||Method and system for graphic representation of meeting parameters in a data processing system|
|US5327555||Feb 14, 1991||Jul 5, 1994||Hewlett-Packard Company||Method for reconciling entries in a plurality of schedules|
|US5333252||Jun 30, 1993||Jul 26, 1994||Claris Corporation||Interface for arranging order of fields|
|US5333265||Oct 22, 1991||Jul 26, 1994||Hitachi, Ltd.||Replicated data processing method in distributed processing system|
|US5333316||Aug 16, 1991||Jul 26, 1994||International Business Machines Corporation||Locking and row by row modification of a database stored in a single master table and multiple virtual tables of a plurality of concurrent users|
|US5339392||Dec 28, 1990||Aug 16, 1994||Risberg Jeffrey S||Apparatus and method for creation of a user definable video displayed document showing changes in real time data|
|US5339434||Dec 7, 1992||Aug 16, 1994||Trw Inc.||Heterogeneous data translation system|
|US5355476||Dec 2, 1991||Oct 11, 1994||Casio Computer Co., Ltd.||File update apparatus for generating a matrix representing a subset of files and the update correspondence between directories and files|
|US5375234||Jan 28, 1994||Dec 20, 1994||International Business Machines Corporation||Data dictionary manager for maintaining an active data dictionary|
|US5392390||Apr 10, 1992||Feb 21, 1995||Intellilink Corp.||Method for mapping, translating, and dynamically reconciling data between disparate computer platforms|
|US5396612||May 2, 1991||Mar 7, 1995||At&T Corp.||Data tracking arrangement for improving the quality of data stored in a database|
|US5412801||Jan 17, 1990||May 2, 1995||E-Net||Gap recovery for off-site data storage and recovery systems|
|US5421012||May 20, 1993||May 30, 1995||Wang Laboratories, Inc.||Multitasking computer system for integrating the operation of different application programs which manipulate data objects of different types|
|US5434994||May 23, 1994||Jul 18, 1995||International Business Machines Corporation||System and method for maintaining replicated data coherency in a data processing system|
|US5444851||Jan 21, 1994||Aug 22, 1995||Johnson Service Company||Method of accessing configured nodes in a facilities management system with a non-configured device|
|US5455945||May 19, 1993||Oct 3, 1995||Vanderdrift; Richard||System and method for dynamically displaying entering, and updating data from a database|
|US5463735||Feb 3, 1994||Oct 31, 1995||Johnson Service Company||Method of downloading information stored in an arching device to destination network controller through intermediate network controllers in accordance with routing information|
|US5475833||Sep 4, 1991||Dec 12, 1995||International Business Machines Corporation||Database system for facilitating comparison of related information stored in a distributed resource|
|US5511188||Dec 30, 1993||Apr 23, 1996||Johnson Service Company||Networked facilities management system with time stamp comparison for data base updates|
|US5519606||Jan 21, 1992||May 21, 1996||Starfish Software, Inc.||System and methods for appointment reconciliation|
|US5530853||Mar 6, 1995||Jun 25, 1996||International Business Machines Corportaion||Method for filtering items in a computer application program container object using filter data for related entries in a container object of another application program|
|US5530861||Nov 28, 1994||Jun 25, 1996||Hewlett-Packard Company||Process enaction and tool integration via a task oriented paradigm|
|US5530939||Sep 29, 1994||Jun 25, 1996||Bell Communications Research, Inc.||Method and system for broadcasting and querying a database using a multi-function module|
|US5557518||Apr 28, 1994||Sep 17, 1996||Citibank, N.A.||Trusted agents for open electronic commerce|
|US5560005||Feb 25, 1994||Sep 24, 1996||Actamed Corp.||Methods and systems for object-based relational distributed databases|
|US5568402||Apr 11, 1994||Oct 22, 1996||Gse Process Solutions, Inc.||Communication server for communicating with a remote device|
|US5581753||Sep 28, 1994||Dec 3, 1996||Xerox Corporation||Method for providing session consistency guarantees|
|US5581754||Dec 7, 1994||Dec 3, 1996||Xerox Corporation||Methodology for managing weakly consistent replicated databases|
|US5583793||Mar 4, 1996||Dec 10, 1996||Gse Process Solutions, Inc.||Communication server for communicating with a remote device|
|US5596574||Jul 6, 1995||Jan 21, 1997||Novell, Inc.||Method and apparatus for synchronizing data transmission with on-demand links of a network|
|US5600834||Apr 5, 1995||Feb 4, 1997||Mitsubishi Electric Information Technology Center America, Inc.||Method and apparatus for reconciling different versions of a file|
|US5608865||Mar 14, 1995||Mar 4, 1997||Network Integrity, Inc.||Stand-in Computer file server providing fast recovery from computer file server failures|
|US5613113||Jun 7, 1995||Mar 18, 1997||International Business Machines Corporation||Consistent recreation of events from activity logs|
|US5615109||May 24, 1995||Mar 25, 1997||Eder; Jeff||Method of and system for generating feasible, profit maximizing requisition sets|
|US5615364||Jul 6, 1995||Mar 25, 1997||Siemens Energy & Automation, Inc.||Apparatus and method for performing the backup of a primary database using a back up database|
|US5619689||Oct 19, 1993||Apr 8, 1997||Hughes Electronics||Method and apparatus for confirming delivery of files in a file broadcast system with rebroadcast timing at the receiver|
|US5623540||Oct 5, 1994||Apr 22, 1997||Siemens Rolm Communications, Inc.||PBX data retrieval and reporting system and method|
|US5630081||Sep 7, 1995||May 13, 1997||Puma Technology, Inc.||Connection resource manager displaying link-status information using a traffic light iconic representation|
|US5649182||Mar 17, 1995||Jul 15, 1997||Reitz; Carl A.||Apparatus and method for organizing timeline data|
|US5649195||May 22, 1995||Jul 15, 1997||International Business Machines Corporation||Systems and methods for synchronizing databases in a receive-only network|
|US5659741||Apr 17, 1995||Aug 19, 1997||Stuart S. Bowie||Computer system and method for storing medical histories using a carrying size card|
|US5666530||Dec 2, 1992||Sep 9, 1997||Compaq Computer Corporation||System for automatic synchronization of common file between portable computer and host computer via communication channel selected from a plurality of usable channels there between|
|US5666553||Jul 22, 1994||Sep 9, 1997||Puma Technology, Inc.||Method for mapping, translating, and dynamically reconciling data between disparate computer platforms|
|US5671407||Dec 7, 1994||Sep 23, 1997||Xerox Corporation||Application-specific conflict detection for weakly consistent replicated databases|
|US5682524||May 26, 1995||Oct 28, 1997||Starfish Software, Inc.||Databank system with methods for efficiently storing non-uniform data records|
|US5684984||Sep 29, 1994||Nov 4, 1997||Apple Computer, Inc.||Synchronization and replication of object databases|
|US5684990||Jan 11, 1995||Nov 4, 1997||Puma Technology, Inc.||Synchronization of disparate databases|
|US5689706||Oct 10, 1996||Nov 18, 1997||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Distributed systems with replicated files|
|US5701423||Apr 7, 1994||Dec 23, 1997||Puma Technology, Inc.||Method for mapping, translating, and dynamically reconciling data between disparate computer platforms|
|US5704029||May 23, 1994||Dec 30, 1997||Wright Strategies, Inc.||System and method for completing an electronic form|
|US5706452||Dec 6, 1995||Jan 6, 1998||Ivanov; Vladimir I.||Method and apparatus for structuring and managing the participatory evaluation of documents by a plurality of reviewers|
|US5706509||Apr 28, 1995||Jan 6, 1998||Intel Corporation||Application independent record level synchronization|
|US5708812||Jan 18, 1996||Jan 13, 1998||Microsoft Corporation||Method and apparatus for Migrating from a source domain network controller to a target domain network controller|
|US5708840||Mar 4, 1996||Jan 13, 1998||Elonex I.P. Holdings, Ltd.||Micro personal digital assistant|
|US5710922||Dec 18, 1995||Jan 20, 1998||Apple Computer, Inc.||Method for synchronizing and archiving information between computer systems|
|US5727202||Oct 18, 1995||Mar 10, 1998||Palm Computing, Inc.||Method and apparatus for synchronizing information on two different computer systems|
|US5729735||Feb 8, 1995||Mar 17, 1998||Meyering; Samuel C.||Remote database file synchronizer|
|US5737539||Oct 28, 1994||Apr 7, 1998||Advanced Health Med-E-Systems Corp.||Prescription creation system|
|US5745712||Dec 28, 1995||Apr 28, 1998||Borland International, Inc.||Graphical programming system and methods for assisting a user with creating screen objects on a screen device|
|US5758083||Oct 30, 1995||May 26, 1998||Sun Microsystems, Inc.||Method and system for sharing information between network managers|
|US5758150||Oct 6, 1995||May 26, 1998||Tele-Communications, Inc.||System and method for database synchronization|
|US5758337||Aug 8, 1996||May 26, 1998||Microsoft Corporation||Database partial replica generation system|
|US5758355||Aug 7, 1996||May 26, 1998||Aurum Software, Inc.||Synchronization of server database with client database using distribution tables|
|US5778388||Sep 15, 1995||Jul 7, 1998||Hitachi, Ltd.||Method of processing a synchronization point in a database management system to assure a database version using update logs from accumulated transactions|
|US5781908||Dec 18, 1995||Jul 14, 1998||J.D. Edwards World Source Company||File data synchronizer in a distributed data computer network|
|US5790789||Aug 2, 1996||Aug 4, 1998||Suarez; Larry||Method and architecture for the creation, control and deployment of services within a distributed computer environment|
|US5790974||Apr 29, 1996||Aug 4, 1998||Sun Microsystems, Inc.||Portable calendaring device having perceptual agent managing calendar entries|
|US5799072||Mar 4, 1996||Aug 25, 1998||Callmanage||Telecommunications call management system|
|US5809494||Nov 16, 1995||Sep 15, 1998||Applied Language Technologies, Inc.||Method for rapidly and efficiently hashing records of large databases|
|US5813009||Jul 28, 1995||Sep 22, 1998||Univirtual Corp.||Computer based records management system method|
|US5813013||Jun 6, 1996||Sep 22, 1998||Microsoft Corporation||Representing recurring events|
|US5819272||Jul 12, 1996||Oct 6, 1998||Microsoft Corporation||Record tracking in database replication|
|US5819274||Jun 6, 1997||Oct 6, 1998||Xcellenet, Inc.||Methods, systems and computer program products for transferring files from a data processing server to a remote/mobile data processing node|
|US5832218||Dec 14, 1995||Nov 3, 1998||International Business Machines Corporation||Client/server electronic mail system for providng off-line client utilization and seamless server resynchronization|
|US5832489||Oct 8, 1997||Nov 3, 1998||3 Com Corporation||Method and apparatus for synchronizing information on two different computer systems|
|US5838923||Jul 22, 1996||Nov 17, 1998||Microsoft Corporation||Method and system for synchronizing computer mail user directories|
|US5845293||Mar 26, 1997||Dec 1, 1998||Microsoft Corporation||Method and system of associating, synchronizing and reconciling computer files in an operating system|
|US5857201||Jun 18, 1996||Jan 5, 1999||Wright Strategies, Inc.||Enterprise connectivity to handheld devices|
|US5870759||Oct 9, 1996||Feb 9, 1999||Oracle Corporation||System for synchronizing data between computers using a before-image of data|
|US5870765||Oct 9, 1996||Feb 9, 1999||Oracle Corporation||Database synchronizer|
|US5875242||Jul 26, 1996||Feb 23, 1999||Glaser; Lawrence F.||Telecommunications installation and management system and method|
|US5877760||Jun 6, 1996||Mar 2, 1999||Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha||User interface for synchronously and independently scrolling windows|
|US5884323||Oct 13, 1995||Mar 16, 1999||3Com Corporation||Extendible method and apparatus for synchronizing files on two different computer systems|
|US5884324||Jul 23, 1996||Mar 16, 1999||International Business Machines Corporation||Agent for replicating data based on a client defined replication period|
|US5884325||Oct 9, 1996||Mar 16, 1999||Oracle Corporation||System for synchronizing shared data between computers|
|US5892909||Jan 31, 1997||Apr 6, 1999||Diffusion, Inc.||Intranet-based system with methods for co-active delivery of information to multiple users|
|US5897640||Mar 26, 1997||Apr 27, 1999||Microsoft Corporation||Method and system of associating, synchronizing and reconciling computer files in an operating system|
|US5924094||Nov 1, 1996||Jul 13, 1999||Current Network Technologies Corporation||Independent distributed database system|
|US5926816||Oct 9, 1996||Jul 20, 1999||Oracle Corporation||Database Synchronizer|
|US5926824||Nov 14, 1995||Jul 20, 1999||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||System and method for retrieving a document by inputting a desired attribute and the number of areas in which the attribute occurs as a retrieval condition|
|US5928329||May 20, 1997||Jul 27, 1999||Compaq Computer Corporation||System for automatic synchronization of common file between portable computer and host computer via communication channel selected from a plurality of usable channels therebetween|
|US5943676||Nov 13, 1996||Aug 24, 1999||Puma Technology, Inc.||Synchronization of recurring records in incompatible databases|
|US5956508||Apr 7, 1997||Sep 21, 1999||International Business Machines Corporation||Creation of manageable management collections using filters|
|US5966714||Apr 30, 1996||Oct 12, 1999||Intel Corporation||Method and apparatus for scaling large electronic mail databases for devices with limited storage|
|US5970502||Apr 23, 1996||Oct 19, 1999||Nortel Networks Corporation||Method and apparatus for synchronizing multiple copies of a database|
|US5974238||Aug 7, 1996||Oct 26, 1999||Compaq Computer Corporation||Automatic data synchronization between a handheld and a host computer using pseudo cache including tags and logical data elements|
|US5978813||Sep 25, 1995||Nov 2, 1999||International Business Machines Corporation||System for providing synchronization between a local area network and a distributing computer environment|
|US5995980||Jul 23, 1996||Nov 30, 1999||Olson; Jack E.||System and method for database update replication|
|US6098078||Dec 23, 1996||Aug 1, 2000||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Maintaining consistency of database replicas|
|US6141664||Nov 13, 1996||Oct 31, 2000||Puma Technology, Inc.||Synchronization of databases with date range|
|US6272074||Jul 1, 1997||Aug 7, 2001||Oracle Corporation||Method and apparatus for generating recurring events in a calendar/schedule system|
|US6321236||Aug 3, 1999||Nov 20, 2001||Arkona, Inc.||Distributing database differences corresponding to database change events made to a database table located on a server computer|
|US6330568||Nov 5, 1997||Dec 11, 2001||Pumatech, Inc.||Synchronization of databases|
|US6449640||Jun 19, 1998||Sep 10, 2002||International Business Machines Corporation||Web server with unique identification of linked objects|
|US6678715||Aug 27, 1999||Jan 13, 2004||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Systems and apparatus for switching execution of a process in a distributed system|
|US20020156798||Apr 9, 1999||Oct 24, 2002||Larue Chris||System and methods for synchronizing datasets using version indicators to detect obsolete changes|
|1||"All I need is a miracle; computer-aided educational packages; Small Wonders," Coastal Associates Publishing L.P. (Mar. 1992).|
|2||"Automatically Synchronized Objects", Research Disclosure #29261, p. 614 (Aug. 1988).|
|3||"Automatically Synchronized Objects," Research Disclosure #29261, p. 614 (Aug. 1988).|
|4||"Claris Ships FileMaker Pro 3.0 for Macintosh and Windows", Business Wire, Inc. (1995).|
|5||"FRx extends reporting power of Platinum Series: (IBM Desktop Software's line of accounting software)", Doug Dayton, PC Week, v. 8, n. 5, p. 29(2), Feb. 1991.|
|6||"HP announces expanded memory version of palmtop PC, introduces 1-Megabyte HP 95LX and 1-Megabyte memory cards," Business Wire, Inc. (Mar. 4, 1992).|
|7||"IntelliLink 2.2: the software connection from desktop to palmtop; Software Review; IntelliLink 2.2; Evaluation," PC Magazine (Apr. 28, 1992).|
|8||"IntelliLink transfers palmtop, PC data; communications software from IntelliLink Inc; brief article; Product Announcement," PC Week (Nov. 18, 1991).|
|9||"Logical Connectivity: Applications, Requirements, Architecture, and Research Agenda," Stuart Madnick & Y. Richard Wang, MIT, Systems Sciences, 1991 Hawaii Int'l, vol. 1, IEEE (Jun. 1991).|
|10||"Logical Connectivity: Applications, Requirements, Architecture, and Research Agenda," Stuart Madnick & Y. Richard Wang, MIT, Systems Sciences, 1991, Hawaii Int'l, vol. 1, IEEE, Jun. 1991.|
|11||"Now Calendar/Scheduler/Contact Mgr for Mac Update", Post-Newsweek Business Information Inc. (1995).|
|12||"Now Software Announces Updated Synchronization Software for Newton 2.0 Devices; Now Synchronize Simultaneously Updates MessagePad, Now Up-to-Date & Contact", Business Wire, Inc. (1995).|
|13||"Open Network Computing-Technical Overview," Sun Technical Report, Microsystems, Inc., pp. 1-32 (1987).|
|14||"Open Network Computing—Technical Overview," Sun Technical Report, Microsystems, Inc., pp. 1-32 (1987).|
|15||"PackRat PIM gets older and wiser with Release 4.0; PIM update sports enhanced interface, greater ease of use," InfoWorld (Dec. 23, 1991).|
|16||"Palmtop PCs: power by the ounce; Hardware Review; overview of six evaluations of palm-top computers; includes related articles on Editor's Choices, suitability-to-task ratings, impressions by individual users; evaluation," PC Magazine (Jul. 1991).|
|17||"Pen-based PCs ready for prime time; includes related article on comparison of operating systems, list of vendors of pen-based products," PC-Computing (Nov. 1991).|
|18||"Product comparison: Atari Portfolio, Casio Executive BOSS, HP 95LX, Poqet PC, Psion series 3, Sharp Wizard," InfoWorld (Dec. 16, 1991).|
|19||"Product Comparison: Personal information managers," InfoWorld, vol. 17 (Aug. 7, 1995).|
|20||"Riding the NewWave from PC to Palmtop: IntelliLink lets NewWave users transfer files," InfoWorld (Jun. 3, 1991).|
|21||"The Big Picture (Accessing information on remote data management systems)", UNIX Review, v. 7, n. 8, p. 38(7), Aug. 1989.|
|22||Adly et al., "A Hierarchical Asynchronous Replication Protocol for Large Scale Systems," Computer Laboratory, Cambridge University, United Kingdom, Computer Science Department, Alexandria University, Egypt (undated).|
|23||Adly, "HARP: A Hierarchical Asynchronous Replication Protocol for Massively Replicated Systems," Computer Laboratory, Cambridge University, United Kingdom (undated).|
|24||Alexander, "Designed, sold, delivered, serviced," Computerworld Client/Server Journal, pp. 43 (Oct. 1, 1995).|
|25||Alfieri, "The Best Book of: WordPerfect Version 5.0", Hayden books (1988), pp. 153-165 and 429-435.|
|26||Alfieri, "The Best of WordPerfect Version 5.0," Hayden Books, pp. 153-165, 429-435 (1988).|
|27||Alonso et al., "Database System Issues in Nomadic Computing," Matsushita Information Technology Laboratory, New Jersey (undated).|
|28||Alsop, "Distributed Thinking; Realizing the gravity of its PDA problems, Apple has drawn me back to Newton", InfoWorld Media Group (1995).|
|29||An Introduction to DataPropagator Relational Version 1, IBM Corporation (1993).|
|30||Badrinath et al., "Impact of Mobility on Distributed Computations," Operating Systems Review (Apr. 1, 1993).|
|31||Barbara et al., "Sleeper and Workaholics: Caching Strategies in Mobile Environments (Extended Version)" (Aug. 29, 1994).|
|32||Baum, "Designing Moble applications; A new approach needed for on-the-road systems", InfoWorld Media Group (1994).|
|33||Bishop et al., "The Big Picture (Accessing information on remote data management system)", UNIX Review, v. 7, n. 8, p. 38(7), Aug. 1989.|
|34||Bowen, M. et al., Achieving Throughput and Functionality in a Common Architecture: The Datacycle Experiment, IEEE, pp. 178, 1991.|
|35||Brandel, "New offerings fuel revival of PIM," Computerworld, p. 39 (Sep. 12, 1994).|
|36||Cobb et al., "Paradox 3.5 Handbook 3rd Edition", Bantam (1991), pp. 803-816.|
|37||Cobb et al., "Paradox 3.5 Handbook 3rd Edition," Bantam, pp. 803-816 (1991).|
|38||Connectivity Pack User's Guide for the HP 200LX and the HP 100LX, Hewlett Packard.|
|39||Danberg, "A Database Subsetting Tool" (patent application) (Apr. 12, 1993).|
|40||Data Propagator Relational Guide Release 1, IBM Corporation (May 1994).|
|41||Database Subsetting Tool: Introduction to DST and DST Designer's Guide, Syware, Inc. (1993).|
|42||DataPropagator NonRelational MVS/ESA Version 2 Utilities Guide, IBM Corporation (Jul. 1994).|
|43||DataPropagator Relational Capture and Apply for OS/400 Version 3, IBM Corporation (Nov. 1996).|
|44||DataPropagator Relational Capture and Apply/400 Version 3, IBM Corporation (Jun. 1996).|
|45||DataPropagator Relational Guide Release 2, IBM Corporation (Dec. 1994).|
|46||Defendant and Cross-Complainant Extended Systems, Inc.'s Amended Identification of Prior Art Publications Pursuant to Patent L.R. 3-3(a) (Oct. 31, 2003).|
|47||Defendant and Cross-Complainant Extended Systems, Inc.'s Identification of Prior Art Publications Pursuant to Patent L.R. 3-3(a) (Oct. 17, 2003).|
|48||Demers et al., "The Bayou Architecture: Support for Data Sharing Among Mobile Users," Computer Science Laboratory, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, California (undated).|
|49||DeVoe et al., "Software: Day-Timer Organizer 2.0 based on format of paper-based PIM," InfoWorld, vol. 17 (Aug. 21, 1995).|
|50||Distributed Management of Replicated Data: Final Report, Computer Corporation of America (Oct. 9, 1984).|
|51||DPROPR Planning and Design Guide, IBM Corporation (Nov. 1996).|
|52||Expert Report of John P. J. Kelly, Ph.D. (Oct. 24, 2003).|
|53||Extended Systems' Final Invalidity Contentions (Oct. 10, 2003).|
|54||Extended Systems' First Supplemental Preliminary Invalidity Contentions.|
|55||Extended Systems' Preliminary Invalidity Contentions.|
|56||Extended Systems' Second Supplemental Preliminary Invalidity Contentions [Re: Reexamination Requests for the '390, '664, and '529 Patents].|
|57||Extended Systems, Inc.'s Preliminary Claim Constructions and Preliminary Identification of Extrinsic Evidence.|
|58||Extended Systems, Inc.'s Responsive Claim Construction Brief; Declaration of Jordan Trent Jones in Support of Extended Systems, Inc.'s Responsive Claim Construction Brief.|
|59||FileMaker Pro Server Administrator's Guide, Claris Corporation (1994).|
|60||FileMaker Pro User's Guide, Claris Corporation (1990, 1992).|
|61||Froese, "File System Support for Weakly Connected Operation," pp. 229-238 (undated).|
|62||FRx Extends Reporting Power of Platinum Series: (IBM Desktop Software's Line of Accounting Software), Doug Dayton, PC Week, v. 8, n. 5, p. 29(2) (Feb. 4, 1991).|
|63||Goldberg et al., "Using Collaborative Filtering to Weave an Information Tapestry," Communications of the ACM, vol. 35, No. 12, pp. 61-70 (Dec. 1992).|
|64||Greenberg et al., "Real Time Groupware as a Distributed System: Concurrency Control and its Effect on the Interface," Procs. Of the ACM CSCW Conf. On Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Oct. 22-26, North Carolina, ACM Press (Jan. 1, 1994).|
|65||Guy et al., "Implementation of the Ficus Replicated File System," appeared in Procs. Of the Summer USENIX Conf., Anaheim, CA, pp. 63-71 (Jun. 1, 1990).|
|66||Guy, "Ficus: A Very Large Scale Reliable Distributed File System," Technical Report CSD-910018, Computer Science Dept. UCLA (Technical Report) (Jun. 3, 1991).|
|67||Haber, "Renegade PIMS," Computerworld, p. 109 (Dec. 12, 1994).|
|68||Hammer et al., "An Approach to Resolving Semantic Heterogeneity in a Federation of Autonomous, Heterogeneous Database Systems," Computer Science Department, University of Southern California (undated).|
|69||Hammer et al., "Object Discovery and Unification in Federated Database Systems," University of Southern California (undated).|
|70||HP and IntelliLink connect HP 95LX with HP NewWave; IntelliLink for the HP NewWave; product announcement, HP Professional (Aug. 1991).|
|71||Huston et al., "Disconnected Operation of AFS," CITI Technical Report 93-3, Center for Information Technology Integration, University of Michigan (Jun. 18, 1993).|
|72||IBM Dictionary of Computing, Tenth Edition, 1993, pp. 165, 268, 349, 370, 417.|
|73||IBM Dictionary of Computing, Tenth Edition, 1993, pp. 268, 269, 31.|
|74||IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms, Fourth Edition, 1988, p. 372, 368, 509, 563.|
|75||Imielinski, "Mobile Computing-DataMan Project Perspective," Rutgers University (undated).|
|76||Imielinski, "Mobile Computing—DataMan Project Perspective," Rutgers University (undated).|
|77||Informix Guide to SQL Tutorial Version 7.1, Dec. 1994.|
|78||IntelliLink Brochure (1990).|
|79||IntelliLink for Windows User's Guide, Version 3.0, IntelliLink Corporation (1993).|
|80||Jacobs et al., "A Generalized Query-by-Example Data Manipulation Language Based on Database Logic," IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. SE-9, No. 1 (Jan. 1983).|
|81||Jenkins, "Users struggle with E-mail Woes," Computerworld, p. 97 (Oct. 24, 1994).|
|82||Johnson et al., "Hierarchical Matrix Timestamps for Scalable Update Propogation," submitted to the 10th Int. Workshop on Distributed Algorithms (Jun. 25, 1996).|
|83||Joint Claim Construction and Prehearing Statement.|
|84||Joshi et al., "A Survey of Mobile Computing Technologies and Applications," (Oct. 29, 1995).|
|85||Kistler et al., "Disconnected Operation in the Coda File System," School of Computer Science, Carnegie Melon University, Pennsylvania (undated).|
|86||Krill, "Networking: Tech Update," InfoWorld, vol. 18 (Feb. 12, 1996).|
|87||Kumar et al., "Log-Based Directory Resolution in the Coda File System," School of Computer Science, Carnegie Melon University, Pennsylvania (undated).|
|88||Lamb et al., "The Objectstore Database System," Communications of the ACM, vol. 34, No. 10, pp. 50-63 (Oct. 1991).|
|89||Larson et al., "A Theory of Attribute Equivalence in Databases with Application to Schema Integration," IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 15, No. 4, Apr. 1989.|
|90||Lomet, D., Using timestamping to optimize two phase commit; Parallel and Distributed Information Systems, 1993, Proceeding of the Second International Conference, Jan. 20-22, 1993: pp. 48-55.|
|91||Lotus cc:Mail Release 2, Lotus Development Corporation (1991-1993).|
|92||Mannino et al., "Matching Techniques in Global Schema Design," IEEE 1984.|
|93||Marshall, "Product Reviews: Windows contact managers," InfoWorld, vol. 18 (Mar. 25, 1996).|
|94||McGoveran, "Distributed not yet delivered," Computerworld, p. 112 (Jun. 6, 1994).|
|95||Meckler Corporation, "Palmtop-to-desktop linkage software," Database Searcher (Jun. 1992).|
|96||Microsoft Press Computer Dictionary, Second Edition, 1994, p. 164.|
|97||Microsoft Press Computer Dictionary, Second Edition, 1994, pp. 105, 217, 227, 228.|
|98||Milliken, "Resource Coordination Objects: A State Distribution Mechanism," (Draft) (Dec. 10, 1993).|
|99||Nash, "Replication falls short," Computer world, p. 65 (Nov. 21, 1994).|
|100||Negrino, "ACT 2.5.1, ACT for Newton 1.0", UMI, Inc. (1996).|
|101||Newton Backup Utility User's Guide for the Macintosh Operating System, Apple Computer, Inc. (1995).|
|102||Newton Backup Utility User's Guide for the Windows Operating System, Apple Computer, Inc. (1995).|
|103||Newton Connection Utilities User's Manual for Macintosh, Apple Computer, Inc.|
|104||Newton Connection Utilities User's Manual for the Macintosh Operating System, Apple Computer, Inc. (1996).|
|105||Newton Connection Utilities User's Manual for Windows, Apple Computer, Inc.|
|106||Newton Utilities User Manual, Apple Computer, Inc. (1995).|
|107||Noble et al., "A Research Status Report for Adaptation for Mobile Data Access," School of Computer Science, Carnegie Melon University (undated).|
|108||Now Up-to-Date Version 2.0 User's Guide, Now Software, Inc. (1992).|
|109||Oracle 7 Distributed Database Technology and Symmetric Replication, Oracle White Paper, Apr. 1995.|
|110||Oracle 7 Server Distributed Systems, vol. II: Replicated Data, Release 7.3, Feb. 1996.|
|111||Oracle 7™ Server SQL Manual Release 7.3, Feb. 1996.|
|112||Organizer Link II Operation Manual, Sharp Electronics Corporation, (No date).|
|113||Organizer Link II Operation Manual, Sharp Electronics Corporation, no date.|
|114||Parkinson, "Remote users get in sync with office files; News Analysis", Information Access Company (1994).|
|115||Patent Local Rule 4-2 Preliminary Claim Constructions and Extrinsic Evidence.|
|116||Perera, "Synchronization Schizophrenia," Computerworld Client/Server Journal, p. 50 (Oct. 1, 1995).|
|117||Petersen et al., "Bayou: Replicated Database Services for World-wide Applications," Computer Science Laboratory, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, California (undated).|
|118||Poesio et al., "Metric Constraints for Maintaining Appointments: Dates and Repeated Activities".|
|119||Pumatech, Inc.'s Opening Claim Construction Brief; Declaration of Marc David Peters in Support of Pumatech, Inc.'s Opening Claim Construction Brief.|
|120||Pumatech, Inc.'s Reply Claim Construction Brief.|
|121||Pumatech's [Proposed] Claim Construction Order.|
|122||Pumatech's Revised [Proposed] Claim Construction Order.|
|123||Quaglia, F. et al., Grain Sensitive Event Scheduling in Time Warp Parallel Discrete Event Simulation, Fourteenth Workshop on Parallel Distributed Simulation, PADS 2000, May 28-31, 2000: pp. 173-180.|
|124||Radosevich, "Replication mania," Computerworld Client/Server Journal, p. 53 (Oct. 1, 1995).|
|125||Ratner et al., "The Ward Model: A Replication Architecture for Mobile Environments," Department of Computer Science, University of California (undated).|
|126||Reiher et al., "Peer-to-Peer Reconciliation Based Replication for Mobile Computers," UCLA (undated).|
|127||Reiher et al., "Resolving File Conflicts in the Ficus File System," Department of Computer Science, University of California (undated).|
|128||Ricciuti, "Object database server," InfoWorld, vol. 18 (Jan. 29, 1996).|
|129||Rubin, "Now Software stays in sync; Now Synchronize file synchronization software for Macs and Newton PDAs; Software Review; EvaluationBrief Article", Information Access Company (1995).|
|130||Saltor et al., "Suitability of data models as canonical models for federated databases," Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Spain (undated).|
|131||Salzberg, B., Timestamping After Commit, Procs. Of the Third Int. Conf. On Parallel and Distributed Information Systems, Sep. 28-30, 1994: pp. 160-167.|
|132||Sarin et al., "Overview of SHARD: A System for Highly Available Replicated Data", Computer Corporation of America (Apr. 8, 1988).|
|133||Sarin, "Robust Application Design in Highly Available Distributed Databases," Proc. 5th Symp. Reliability in Distributed Software and Database Systems, pp. 87-94 (Jan. 13-15, 1986, Los Angeles).|
|134||Satyanarayanan, "Coda: A Highly Available File System for a Distributed Workstation Environment," School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University (undated).|
|135||Satyanarayanan, "Fundamental Challenges in Mobile Computing," School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University (undated).|
|136||Satyanarayanan, "Mobile Information Access," IEEE Personal Communications, vol. 3, No. 1 (Feb. 1996).|
|137||Schilit et al., "The ParcTab Mobile Computing System," Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, California (undated).|
|138||Sherman, "Information Technology: ‘What Software Should I Use to Organize My Life’," (undated).|
|139||Sheth et al., "A Tool for Integrating Conceptual Schemas and User Views," IEEE 1988.|
|140||Slater, "Newton's Legacy; 3COM and Microsoft Battle for Market Share; Apple Newton, 3Com Palm III, Microsoft Palm-size PC peronal digital assistants; Product Information", Information Access Company (1998).|
|141||SPI Database Software Technologies Record Displays: Record 2, Serial No. TDB0291.0094 and Record 4, Serial No. iets0901.0073 (undated).|
|142||SRI Int'l, Network Reconstitution Protocol, RADC-TR-87-38, Final Technical Report (Jun. 1987).|
|143||Statement of Recent Decision.|
|144||Staten, "csInStep middleware lets Newton talk to PIMs; Concierge Software LC's csInStep; Brief Article; Product Announcement; Brief Article", Information Access Company (1995).|
|145||Staten, "PowerMerge 2.0 ships; syncs moved filed," MacWEEK, vol. 8, p. 38(1) (Jan. 3, 1994).|
|146||Supplemental Decalaration of Marc David Peters in Support of Pumatech, Inc.'s Reply Claim Construction Brief.|
|147||Synchrologic's Preliminary Invalidity Contentions.|
|148||Tait, Doctoral Thesis entitled "A File System for Mobile Computing," (Jan. 1, 1993).|
|149||Terry et al., "Managing Update Conflicts in Bayou, a Weakly Connected Replicated Storage System," Procs. Of the Fifteenth ACM Symposium on Operating Systems Principles, pp. 172-182, Dec. 1995. ACM Press.|
|150||Tolly, "Enhanced Notes 4.0 gets thumbs-up," Computerworld, p. 54 (Dec. 18, 1995).|
|151||TT Interchange, Time Technology, AVG Sales & Marketing Ltd. (1995).|
|152||User Manual for Connectivity Pack for the HP 95 LX, Hewlett Packard Company (1991).|
|153||User Manual for Connectivity Pack for the HP 95LX, Hewlett Packard Company (1991).|
|154||User Manual for PC-Link for the B.O.S.S. and the PC-Link for the B.O.S.S., Traveling Software, Inc. (1989).|
|155||User's Guide Lotus Organizer Release 1.0, Lotus Development Corporation (1992).|
|156||Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary, 1986, pp. 114, 436, 440, 462, 573, 597, 620, 717, 906, 963, 979, 989, 1000, 1053, 1130, 1142, 1152, 1162, 1166.|
|157||Wiederhold, Gio and Qian Xiaolei, Consistency Control of Replicated Data In Federal Database, IEEE, pp. 130-132. 1990.|
|158||Wiederhold, Gio, Database Design, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1983, p. 2.|
|159||Wingfield, "Desktop to Newton connectivity", UMI, Inc. (1996).|
|160||Zahn et al., Network Computing Architecture, pp. 1-11; 19-31; 87-115; 117-133; 187-199; 201-209 (1990).|
|161||Zaino, "Tapping the Top Values in PDAs—Personal digital assistants that sell for as little as $300 can put a PC in the palm of your hand. Get the scoop on 8 contenders," HomePC, pp. 97 (Oct. 1, 1996).|
|162||Zhang et al., Impact of Workload and System Parameters on Next Generation Cluster Scheduling Mechanisms, IEEE Trans. On Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 12, No. 9, Sep. 2001: pp. 967-985.|
|163||Zilber, "Toy story; personal digital assistants; Product Information", Information Access Company (1996).|
|164||Zisman et al., "Towards Inoperability in Heterogeneous Database Systems," Imperial College Research Report No. DOC 95/11 (Dec. 1, 1995).|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US20110320406 *||Dec 29, 2011||International Business Machines Corporation||Method, apparatus or software for transferring a storage replication system between storage systems|
|US20140129514 *||Oct 30, 2013||May 8, 2014||SageTea Inc.||System and Method to Transform a Complex Database Into a Simple, Faster, and Equivalent Database|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S707/99952, G06F17/30578|
|Mar 12, 2004||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: INTELLISYNC CORPORATION, CALIFORNIA
Effective date: 20040217
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME AS REFLECTED IN CERTIFICATE OF OWNERSHIP AND MERGER;ASSIGNOR:PUMATECH, INC.;REEL/FRAME:015083/0806