Improvement in lawn-mowers
US RE8560 E
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
E. G. PASSMORE.
No. 8,560. Reissued Jan. 28,1879.
Fig. 5. the same on the line 5 5 of Fig. 4 and Fig. 6
ground and guided by means of a bail.
' UNITED STATES PATENT Orr-Ion;
EVERETT G. PASSMORE, OF PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA.
IMPROVEMENT IN LAWN-MOWERS.
Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 87,986, dated February 23, 1869; Reissue No. 6,,305, dated February 23, 1875; Reissue No. 8,560, dated January 28, 1879 application filed December 3, 1878.
lawn-mowing machine, partlyin section, on the line 1 1 of Fig. 2, and partly in elevation, as seen from the front. Fig. 2 is a vertical section through the machine on the line 2 2 of Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is a similar section on the line 3 3 of Fig. 1. Fig. 4 is alongitudinal section through the backing-ratchet on the line 4 4 of Fig. 5 is a transverse section through is a transverse vertical section through the revolvin g cutter;
My improvements pertain to that class of machines for cutting grass which are designated as lawn-mowers, by reason of the fact that they are used for shearing, cropping, and trimming grass plats, generally having irregular outlines, and are operated by hand. These machines dill'er from the ordinary mowing-machines or grass-harvesters in construction and mode of operation, not being intended to leave the cut grass as long as possible and in the best condition and position for curing and gathering to,be stored as hay, but only to crop, shear, or trim to a level surface without regard to the cuttings. In the lawn-mower, therefore, it is not necessary that the cutting apparatus should project laterally, as in the grass-harvester, nor th at the grass while being out should be supported by guard-fingers, nor that the blades should have a draw out across guard-fin gers; and lawn-mowers have accordingly been constructed in various forms, with a main supporting-roller traveling in advance of or in rear of a fixed blade supported upon a secondary roller, against which fixed blade a rotating spiral cutter operated to sever the grass, the machine being pushed over the As instances of such lawn-mowers I may refer to the American patents of John Shaw, No.
a secondary support, either in advance or inrear of the main support, the cutting apparatus being sometimes in' front of the main and secondary supports, sometimes between the main and secondary supports, and, in one instance, in line with the axis of the main support. In this last instance there was a third support between the main and secondary supports. The objections to these modes of construction and to the modes of operation necessarily incident to such constructions are Well understood, and it is the object of my inven-- tion to obviate these objections, at the same time reducing the number of parts and so simplifying the construction and arrangement of the parts retained as to secure an improved mode of operation and greater facility in the management of the machine.
My improved lawn-mower consists of two supporting traction-Wheels, gearing arranged within the periphery of said wheels, a rotary spiral cutter in rear of the axis of said wheels and driven by the gearing within the periphcry of the wheels, a supporting-roller in rear of the axis of the spiral cutter, and a fixed straight cutter between the supporting-roller and the axis of the supportin g traction-wheels, between which straight cutter and the spiral cutter the shearing is effected, while the niachine is pushed forward by means of a rearwardly-projectiug handle or bail attached to the frame in advance of the fixed cutter, so that the machine is operated and its operation controlled as hereinafter more particularly described.
The following are among the special characteristics of my improvements: First, the
supporting traction-wheels are made to act inequally well on a curve, as when turning to the right or left, or in a straight line, as when being pushed directly forward; second, the frame which supports the cutting apparatus is made pivotal about the axis of the supporting traction-wheels, so as to enable the cutters to follow the inequalities of the ground independently of the traction-wheels, thereby emrise and fall with the inequalities of the ground independent of the traction-wheels, yet those wheels, and the gearing within their peripheries, tend to lift the frame of the cutting apparatus, so as in a great measure to prevent the fixed cutterfrom dragging upon the ground, and, at the same time, as the machine is pushed forward with a pressure naturally tending downward, the traction -whee]s not only receive the full thrust of thepower applied to the bail, but they first meet and surmount any obstruction, shielding the cutting apparatus therefrom at the same time that. they impart to the cutters the greatest percentage of the power transmitted through the gearing; fourth, the power is applied at the axis of the supporting traction-wheels, and the supportingroller is located behind that axis and in rear of the cutting apparatus, so that no sup port is required in rear of the roller, and the machine 1s not only made lighter and more compact and of fewer parts than heretofore, but the roller materially eases the drag that would occur on uneven ground, while at the same time it is of such small diameter as not .to obstruct the cut grass thrown back from also serve .to sustain the cutter-frame'when' the machine is turned upsidedown', as hereinbefore mentioned.
From theforegoingparticularsit will be seen that the broad distinctions between my improved lawn-mover and those heretofore known result from my novel method of arran gin g the supporting traction-wheels an d the entire driving mechanism in advance of the fixed cutter, the position of which determines the line of cut, and in applying the power in front of the cutting apparatus, and transmittin g it backward through the gearing to the cutting apparatus in rear of'the axis of the supporting traction-wheels; and this organization of the essential parts of the machine further enables me to make the frame on which the cutting apparatus is supported also inclose and protect the gearing which drives the cutting apparatus, such protection being particularly valuable in a lawn-mower, which, as already'mentioned, cuts the grass in very short pieces, and, by reason of the action of the rotary cutters, tends to throw these short pieces toward the gearing, which, if unprotected, would soon be clogged.
In'the accompanying drawings, which make part of this specificatioml have shown all of myimprovements embodied in one lawn-mowing machine. It is obvious, however, that some 7 parts of my invention maybe used without the others.
Two supporting traction-wheels, A A acting independently of each other, turn loosely on the axle B, and each is cast with aninwardly-projecting flange, a, and with an internal driving-gear, A A disk, 0, keyed onto the axle B, fits snugly inthe flange a of eacn wheel, and, while inclosing and protecting the gearing, allows the wheel still to turn on the axles Lugs F are secured to the disks 0, behind the axis of the wheels A A and project rearwardly and downwardly below and beyond the peripheries of the wheels, as seen in Fig. 3. The disks 0 and the lugs F, thus made piv otal about the axis of the supporting tractionwhcels, constitute the frame which supports the cutting apparatus,- On the outside of each of the lugs F is a curved guide, f, and on the under side of each lug is a recess or gain, in which is secured the fixed straight cutter E, extending across from one lug to the other, the front edge of this fixed cutterE defining the line of out. In the curved guides f are fitted correspondiugly-curved slotted arms g, which afford bearings for'a roller, G, of small diame ter, immediately behind the fixed cutter E, this roller sustaining the rear end of the pivotal frame at the height adjusted by means of screws f. In the upper ends of the lugs F the rotary spiral blade 1) is mounted on trunnions d. projecting through the lugs, and within the flanges a of the 'wheels A A, to prop erly support the spur pinions D, which mesh into the internal driving-gears, A behind the axis of the driving-wheels. These pinions, with the internal driving-gears, A, constitute the system of gearing in the machine, and this entire system is thus included within the pe ripheries of the supporting traction-wheels and covered by the disks (3.
The cutting-blades d Figs. 3 and 6, of the rotating cutter are thin steel strips, bolted to the spiral blade D in such manner that the strips may be set to project farther from the body D as their edges wear away. This con struction enables the blades d to be easily re-' moved, sharpened, and replaced. The relation of the cutter-bladesd to the forward edge of the fixed cutter E is such as to produce the proper cutting action between these blades, the
I 8.500 p 3 j line of cut defined by the front edge of the fixed blades being, in all cases, behind the axis of the supporting traction-wheels, and the powerbeing appliedin front of the cutting apparatus and transmitted backward through.
The handle or bail H projects backward from the axle of the wheels A A and its forked arms h are provided-with loops h, which fit the axle B, so that the tongue can be moved vertically about the axle. Lugs h on the arms h of the bail play in recesses of lugs I, which lugs are curved and slotted, and are adjustable v in guides 12' on the disk 0 by set-screws 'i, as
shown in Fig. 3, whereby the range of movement of the arms h is determined, the arms having aslight range of motion in the lugs 'I. These lugs I serve as a resistance to any downwardv pressure applied upon the handle, either to depress the cutting apparatusor to lift the 'traction-wheels, and also afl'ord resistance in the opposite direction when the handle is raised to lift the cutting apparatus; and when it is desired to trundle the machine across a space where no cutting is to be done, the bail can be reversed and the machine turned upside down, with the cutting apparatus supported above the axle upon the lugs I.
The supporting traction-wheels and the drivin gmechanism being thus arranged in advance of the cutting apparatus, and the power being applied at the axis of the supporting tractionwheels,'the machine is pushed forward with a pressure naturally tending downward, while. the small roller in rear of the cutting apparatus afl'ords'all the support required by it and by the pivotal. frame without obstructing the proper fall of the cut grass. p
In order that the gearing may stop when the machine is backed, I form a recess, k, in the shaft which drives the rotating cutter, (in this instance the trunnions d',L) or of a shaft on which the pinion is mounted, the inside being formed into ratchets,"as shown in Fig. 5. A
yoke or pawl, K, plays radially to the shaft, and
3 is pressed outward by a spring, is. Consequently when theshaft turns forward the pawl catches against the ratchets and drives the cutters, but slips over them when backed, in the' usual way. This is a useful device, as the pawl is out of sight, protected from injury, and yet is accessibleat any time merely by slipping the pinion from the shaft.
To form areceptacle for the cuttings, Ipro *which frame is pivotal about the axis vide a cover, L, of sheet metal, with eyes at its upper edge to receive a rod, 1, which-enters holeaiu the disks C, and thus forms a hinge for the cover. The cover is curved, as shown in Fifi. 3, so that its lower edge rests near the axle Another cover, M, is provided with points at its corners, so that they may be sprung into holes in the disks 0 and lugsF and securely hold the cover in place.
Having thus described the nature and object of my improvements in lawn-mowers, what 'I claim as new, and desire to secure by Lety ter's Patent, isv 1. A lawn-mower in which are combined two supporting traction -wheels, a supportin g-roller in rear of said wheels, a fixed blade in front of said supportin g-roller and in rear of the sup: porting traction-wheels, a-rotary spiral cutter, driving-gearing from which the power is transmitted' backward to the spiral cutter, and a rearwardly-projecting handle through which the propelling power is applied, theseparts beingcombined and operating in combination,
substantially as set forth.-
2. A lawn-mower in which are combined two supporting traction wheels, driving gearing within the periphery of said wheels, acutting apparatus operating in rear of the axis of said wheels, and a frame for the cutting apparatus having its front end pivotal about the axis of the supporting traction-wheels, substantially as and for the purposes set forth.
3. A lawn-mower in which are combined two supporting traction-wheels, a cutting appa- 1 ratus operating in rear of the axis of said wheels, a'frame for the cutting apparatus,
. EVERETT G. PASSMORE. Witnesses: V y 4 J SNowDEN BELL, J. WALTER DoUGLAss.