A Block-Cipher Cryptographic System utilizing a unique user supplied key to control the cryptographic function and including means for modifying an input data block prior to performing a key-controlled transformation operation thereon. Said means includes means for extracting a segment of data utilized in a prior cryptographic transformation of the system and combining said segment with the input data block. The means for combining comprises a transformation which is a discrete valued function which in the preferred embodiment is an exclusive-or. In the preferred embodiment of the invention a block of ciphertext data is combined with the just succeeding input data block by an exclusive-or operation prior to the key-controlled transformation operation which produces said ciphertext blocks.
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1. In a cryptographic system which includes a key-controlled block-cipher cryptographic process which comprises taking an input data block of fixed size, called a full-block and cryptographically transforming same into an output data block of the same fixed size as a function of a unique user supplied key, the improvement which comprises
- combining each new block of input data and initially transforming same by a mathematically invertible function which depends on a data word which existed during a previous key-controlled block-cipher cryptographic transformation and using said transformed data block as the input block to said key-controlled block-cipher cryptographic transformation.
2. A cryptographic method as set forth in claim 1 including using the output data block of a previous key-controlled block-cipher cryptographic transformation as said previously existing data word.
3. A cryptographic method as set forth in claim 2 including selecting the output data block of the immediately preceding key-controlled block-cipher cryptographic transformation as said previously existing data word.
4. A cryptographic method as set forth in claim 3 including using a predetermined constant in place of said previously existing data word during an encryption sequence when there is no available data word.
5. A cryptographic method as set forth in claim 4 wherein the invertible mathematical transformation utilized in combining a new input data block with a previously existing data word is a bitwise exclusive-or operation.
6. A cryptographic method as set forth in claim 3 including detecting that a data block that is shorter than the fixed full-block size required by the block-cipher cryptographic process, is to be transformed by the cryptographic system comprising;
- determining the length of the short-block,
- transforming a previously existing data word by the block-cipher cryptographic process, to produce a full output data block, then
- transforming said input short block into an output short block of the same size by a mathematically invertible function of said input short block, said function depending on said full output data word.
7. A cryptographic method as set forth in claim 6, including utilizing the cryptographically transformed output data block of the previous cryptographic transformation as the previously existing data word for said further block-cipher cryptographic process for producing said short output data block and further including the step of retaining said further cryptographically tranformed data word for use in the combining operation for the next input data block if one is present.
8. In a key-controlled block-cipher cryptographic system including input data chaining means for cryptographically transforming an input data block x.sub.i ' into an output data block y.sub.i under control of a unique user supplied key K whereby the output data block is cryptographically transformed in accordance with the relationship:
- y.sub.i = f.sub.K (x.sub.i ')
- and wherein x.sub.i ' may be retrieved in accordance with the relationship:
- x.sub.i ' = f.sub.K.sup.-1 (y.sub.i)
- the improvement which comprises means for chaining successive blocks (x.sub.i) of input data and performing an initial transformation thereon prior to said block-cipher cryptographic transformation defined by the relationship:
- x.sub.i ' = x.sub.i + u.sub.i
- where u.sub.i comprises a data word which was utilized in the block-cipher cryptographic system during a preceding transformation and wherein + comprises a logical element which performs a dyadic operation having a right inverse.
9. A key-controlled cryptographic system as set forth in claim 8 including exclusive-or circuit means for performing said + function and means for introducing a cryptographically transformed output block u.sub.i from a prior block-cipher cryptographic transformation to said exclusive-or means as one input thereto, means for supplying a current input block x.sub.i as the other output.
10. In a block-cipher cryptographic system including a key-controlled block-cipher cryptographic subsystem having means for cryptographically transforming an input of data block of a fixed predetermined length into a output block of the same length as a function of a unique user supplied key, the improvement which comprises an initial transformation system including means for combining each new block of input data in an initial transformation as a mathematically invertible function, said transformation depending on an output data block from a previous cryptographic transformation and means for supplying said data word to said combining means as each new input block is received, said combining means including logic means for performing said mathematically invertible function on said input data block which function depends on said supplied data word, and means for supplying said initially transformed input data block to the key-controlled cryptographic subsystem as the input data block thereto.
11. A key-controlled cryptographic system as set forth in claim 10 wherein said supplying means includes means for transferring the output data block of the immediately preceding cryptographic transformation to said combining means.
12. A key-controlled cryptographic system as set forth in claim 10 including means for detecting that an input block of a length shorter than said fixed predetermined length is to be transformed by the cryptographic system including means for determining the length of the short block, means for supplying a predetermined data word to said block-cipher cryptographic subsystem and causing a key-controlled cryptographic transformation to occur thereon, means for taking the cryptographically transformed output of said subsystem and selecting a portion thereof equal in length to the length of said short block, and supplying said two equal length blocks as the input to said combining means and means for gating the output of said combining means as the output of said cryptographic system for said short input block which is the same length as said short input block.
13. A key-controlled cryptographic system as set forth in claim 12 including means for selectively utilizing the cryptographically transformed output data block of the preceding key-controlled cryptographic transformation or a predetermined constant as the predetermined data word to be supplied to said cryptographic subsystem prior to combining with an input short data block and means for retaining said cryptographically transformed data word for use in a subsequent initial transformation.
14. In a block-cipher cryptographic system including a key-controlled block-cipher cryptograhic subsystem, having means for performing a cryptographic transformation on an input data block of a fixed predetermined size, said transformation being a function of a unique user supplied key, the improvement which comprises:
- an initial transformation subsystem including first register means for receiving an input block of data to be transformed;
- second register means for receiving a unique data block which existed at a prior time in the key-controlled block-cipher cryptographic subsystem;
- means for gating the output of said cryptographic subsystem onto a system output bus and selectively into said second register;
- logic means for effecting a mathematically invertible initial transformation on the contents of said first register means which is a function of the contents of said second register means;
- means for gating the output of said logic means into said cryptographic subsystem means as a input data block to be cryptographically transformed thereby; and
- means for selectively loading said second register means when a data word from a previous cryptographic transformation is not available.
15. A block-cipher cryptographic system as set forth in claim 14 including first means for determining that a block of data shorter than said fixed predetermined length has been received at the system input;
- second means for determining the length of said short block,
- means responsive to said first determining means for gating the current contents of said second register means directly to said cryptographic subsystem means where a cryptographicc transformation is performed thereon;
- means for reloading the second register means with the output of said cryptographic transformation;
- means under control of said second determining means for gating the short block contents of said first register and as many bits of the cryptographically transformed contents of said second register as there are bits in said short block to said logic means; and
- means for transferring the output of said logic means directly to said system output bus as the short block output of said block-cipher cryptographic system.
16. A block-cipher cryptographic system as set forth in claim 14 wherein said logic means comprises an exclusive-or circuit having as one input the N-bit contents of said first register means, and which has as a second input the N-bit contents of said second register means to produce an N-bit output word.