A remotely-controllable, surface-referenced paravane for use in towing an object in a body of water at a controlled lateral offset from the pathway of the towing vessel is disclosed. The principal components of the paravane are a buoyant hull, a cambered hydrofoil shaped keel attached to the bottom of the hull and extending generally downwardly into the body of water, a remotely-controllable steering means, and a tow cable which connects the paravane to the towing vessel. Passage of the cambered hydrofoil shaped keel through the water generates a lateral force, similar to the lift generated by an airfoil, which causes the paravane to move laterally away from the pathway of the towing vessel in the direction of the lateral force. The remotely-controllable steering means is used to compensate for changes in the speed of the towing vessel or variations in wind, waves, or currents so as to maintain the lateral offset of the paravane within certain limits. The paravane may be constructed...
|US2589312||Jul 6, 1948||Mar 18, 1952||NONBUOYANT PARAVANE|
|US2960960||Jul 27, 1954||Nov 22, 1960|| FEHLNER|
|US2981220||Jul 27, 1954||Apr 25, 1961|| PEHLNER|
|US3434451||Jun 28, 1967||Mar 25, 1969||METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR UNDERWATER TOWING OF SEISMTC
|US3605674||Sep 8, 1969||Sep 20, 1971||UNDERWATER CABLE CONTROLLER|
|US3611975||Aug 15, 1969||Oct 1, 1971||PARAVANE DEVICE|
|US3613629||Dec 23, 1969||Oct 19, 1971||BUOYANT CABLE TOWING SYSTEM
STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST|
|US3921124||Mar 18, 1974||1975||MARSHALL DANN|
|US4027616||Dec 10, 1975||Jun 7, 1977||Mobil Oil Corporation||Protection means for depth control device|
|US4033278||Feb 25, 1976||Jul 5, 1977||Continental Oil Company||Apparatus for controlling lateral positioning of a marine seismic cable|
|US4063213||Jun 28, 1976||Dec 13, 1977||Texaco Inc.||Methods for accurately positioning a seismic energy source while recording seismic data|
|US4087780||Jun 28, 1976||May 2, 1978||Texaco Inc.||Offshore marine seismic source tow systems and methods of forming|
|US4130078||Sep 9, 1977||Dec 19, 1978||Institut Francais du Petrole||Floating device connected to a ship, for towing a submerged member with a lateral shift thereof with respect to the ship route|
|US4193366||Mar 27, 1978||Mar 18, 1980||Sailing boat and method of operating the same|
|US4323989||May 29, 1980||Apr 6, 1982||Shell Oil Company||Wide seismic source|
|US4350111||May 30, 1980||Sep 21, 1982||Laterally and vertically controllable underwater towed vehicle|
|US4463701||Feb 28, 1980||Aug 7, 1984||The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy||Paravane with automatic depth control|
|US4484534||Mar 17, 1983||Nov 27, 1984||Institut Francais du Petrole||Device for laterally shifting a towed assembly with respect to the trajectory of a towing vehicle|
|US4574723||Jan 14, 1985||Mar 11, 1986||VMW Industries, Inc.||Paravane handling system|
|US4890568||Aug 24, 1988||Jan 2, 1990||Exxon Production Research Company||Steerable tail buoy|
|US5000110||Sep 27, 1989||Mar 19, 1991||Towline depressor|
|US5443027||Dec 20, 1993||Aug 22, 1995||The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy||Lateral force device for underwater towed array|
|US5532975||Feb 8, 1994||Jul 2, 1996||Geco A.S.||Device and method for positioning of towing systems for use in marine seismic surveys|
|US5790472||Dec 20, 1996||Aug 4, 1998||Western Atlas International, Inc.||Adaptive control of marine seismic streamers|
|US5913280||Aug 28, 1997||Jun 22, 1999||Petroleum Geo-Services (US), Inc.||Method and system for towing multiple streamers|
|US6028817||Dec 30, 1997||Feb 22, 2000||Western Atlas International, Inc.||Marine seismic system with independently powered tow vehicles|
|US6055924||Aug 7, 1998||May 2, 2000||The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy||Foil assisted marine towing|
|US6226225||May 3, 1999||May 1, 2001||Western Geco||Expandable marine diverter|
|US6234102||May 28, 1999||May 22, 2001||Petroleum Geo-Services AS||Deflector|
|US6285956||May 3, 1999||Sep 4, 2001||WesternGeco, LLC||Marine Seismic tow system|
|US6453839||Jan 29, 2001||Sep 24, 2002||Hood Technology Corporation||Self stabilizing tow apparatus|
|US6532189||Nov 30, 2000||Mar 11, 2003||Westerngeco L.L.C.||Curved float for marine divertors|
|US6590831||Nov 4, 1999||Jul 8, 2003||Westerngeco L.L.C.||Method and apparatus for controlling and optimizing seismic data acquisition|
|US6655311||Jun 26, 2002||Dec 2, 2003||WesternGeco, L.L.C.||Marine seismic diverter with vortex generators|
|US6691038||Jun 15, 2001||Feb 10, 2004||WesternGeco L.L.C.||Active separation tracking and positioning system for towed seismic arrays|
|US6755144||Sep 11, 2002||Jun 29, 2004||Westerngeco AS||Towed line floater|
|US7047898||Jan 22, 2002||May 23, 2006||Petroleum Geo-Services AS||System for controlling streamers|
|US7080607||Mar 2, 2005||Jul 25, 2006||WesternGeco, L.L.C.||Seismic data acquisiton equipment control system|
|US7092315||May 27, 2004||Aug 15, 2006||Input/Output, Inc.||Device for laterally steering streamer cables|
|US7222579||Jun 16, 2006||May 29, 2007||WesternGeco, L.L.C.||Control system for positioning of marine seismic streamers|
|US7261611||Apr 30, 2003||Aug 28, 2007||Aquatic surface skipping toy device|
|US7293520||Jun 16, 2006||Nov 13, 2007||WesternGeco, L.L.C.||Control system for positioning of a marine seismic streamers|
|US7423929||Aug 7, 2006||Sep 9, 2008||Input/Output, Inc.||Method for laterally steering streamer cables|
|US7450467||Mar 21, 2006||Nov 11, 2008||WesternGeco L.L.C.||Apparatus and methods for seismic streamer positioning|
|US7457193||Jul 21, 2006||Nov 25, 2008||PGS Geophysical AS||Seismic source and source array having depth-control and steering capability|
|US7660190||Dec 12, 2001||Feb 9, 2010||WesternGeco L.L.C.||Deflector devices|
|US7660192||May 12, 2005||Feb 9, 2010||Western Geco L.L.C.||Seismic streamer receiver selection systems and methods|
|US7822552||Nov 7, 2003||Oct 26, 2010||WesternGeco L.L.C.||Control devices for controlling the position of a marine seismic streamer|
|US7881152||Jul 18, 2008||Feb 1, 2011||WesternGeco L.L.C.||Active steering for marine sources|
|US7957220||Apr 15, 2004||Jun 7, 2011||WesternGeco L.L.C.||Active steering for marine seismic sources|
|US8085617||Oct 31, 2008||Dec 27, 2011||Sercel Inc.||System and method for reducing the effects of ghosts from the air-water interface in marine seismic exploration|
|US8228756||May 4, 2010||Jul 24, 2012||WesternGeco L.L.C.||Apparatus and methods for controlling position of marine seismic sources|
|US8230801||Oct 22, 2006||Jul 31, 2012||WesternGeco L.L.C.||Control system for positioning of marine seismic streamers|
1. A remotely-controllable paravane for use in towing an object in a body of water along a discrete pathway parallel to but laterally spaced from the pathway of the towing vessel, said paravane comprising:
- a buoyant hull having a longitudinal centerline;
- a keel attached to said buoyant hull and extending generally downwardly into said body of water, said keel having a pressure side, a reduced-pressure side, and a cambered hydrofoil shaped cross section, said cross section having a chord line, said keel being attached to said buoyant hull so that said chord line forms a positive angle of attack with said longitudinal centerline of said buoyant hull, whereby passage of said keel through said body of water generates a substantially lateral hydrodynamic force on said keel to move said paravane laterally away from said pathway of said towing vessel;
- remotely-controllable steering means attached to said buoyant hull, said steering means adapted to be remotely controlled from said towing vessel to control the course of said paravane; and
- a tow cable having a first end attached to said towing vessel and a second end attached to said paravane.
2. The remotely-controllable, paravane of claim 1, wherein said keel is located in front of said remotely-controllable steering means.
3. The remotely-controllable, paravane of claim 1 wherein said keel is located behind said remotely-controllable steering means.
4. The remotely-controllable, paravane of claim 1 wherein said remotely-controllable steering means comprises:
- a substantially vertical rudder; and
- a rudder control means adapted to control and adjust the angular position of said rudder about a substantially vertical axis.
5. The remotely-controllable, paravane of claim 1 wherein said remotely-controllable steering means comprises:
- a powered propeller nozzle suspended beneath said hull and oriented so as to provide a substantially horizontal thrust; and
- a control means adapted to control and adjust the angular position of said powered propeller nozzle about a substantially vertical axis.
6. The remotely-controllable, paravane of claim 1 wherein said cambered hydrofoil shaped cross section of said keel is configured so that said substantially lateral hydrodynamic force is directed toward the port side of said paravane.
7. The remotely-controllable, paravane of claim 1 wherein said cambered hydrofoil shaped cross section of said keel is configured so that said substantially lateral hydrodynamic force is directed toward the starboard side of said paravane.
8. The remotely-controllable paravane of claim 1 wherein said tow cable is divided into first and second strands near said paravane, and wherein said first and second strands are attached to said paravane, respectively, at first and second vertically spaced apart points on said pressure side of said keel to assist in maintaining said paravane in a substantially upright position during tow.
9. The remotely-controllable paravane of claim 8, said paravane further comprising upper and lower tow cable attachment blocks attached to said pressure side of said keel, respectively, at said first and second vertically spaced apart points, and wherein said first and second strands of said tow cable are attached, respectively, to said upper and lower tow cable attachment blocks.
10. The remotely-controllable paravane of claim 9 wherein said upper and lower tow cable attachment blocks each has a plurality of longitudinally spaced attachment locations thereon, said first and second strands being adapted to be attached to said upper and lower tow cable attachment blocks at any of said longitudinally spaced attachment locations so as to vary the effective angle of attack of said keel during tow.