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* cited by examiner
METHOD FOR FABRICATING SEMICONDUCTOR STRUCTURES ON VICINAL SUBSTRATES USING A LOW TEMPERATURE, LOW PRESSURE, ALKALINE EARTH METAL-RICH PROCESS 5
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
This invention relates generally to a method for fabricating semiconductor structures and devices and more specifi- 10 cally to a method for fabricating semiconductor structures and devices on vicinal substrates using a low temperature, low pressure, alkaline earth metal-rich process.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 15
Semiconductor devices often include multiple layers of conductive, insulating, and semiconductive layers. Often, the desirable properties of such layers improve with the crystallinity of the layer. For example, the electron mobility 20 and electron lifetime of semiconductive layers improve as the crystallinity of the layer increases. Similarly, the free electron concentration of conductive layers and the electron charge displacement and electron energy recoverability of insulative or dielectric films improve as the crystallinity of 25 these layers increases.
For many years, attempts have been made to grow various monolithic thin films on a foreign substrate such as silicon (Si). To achieve optimal characteristics of the various monolithic layers, however, a monocrystalline film of high crys- 30 talline quality is desired. Attempts have been made, for example, to grow various monocrystalline layers on a substrate such as germanium, silicon, and various insulators. These attempts have generally been unsuccessful because lattice mismatches between the host crystal and the grown 35 crystal have caused the resulting layer of monocrystalline material to be of low crystalline quality.
If a large area thin film of high quality monocrystalline material were available at low cost, a variety of semiconductor devices could advantageously be fabricated in or 40 using that film at a low cost compared to the cost of fabricating such devices beginning with a bulk wafer of semiconductor material or in an epitaxial film of such material on a bulk wafer of semiconductor material. In addition, if a thin film of high quality monocrystalline 45 material could be realized beginning with a bulk wafer such as a silicon wafer, an integrated device structure could be achieved that took advantage of the best properties of both the silicon and the high quality monocrystalline material.
Epitaxial growth of monocrystalline oxide thin films on 50 silicon has numerous potential device applications, such as, for example, ferroelectric devices, high density memory devices, and next-generation MOS devices. Some of these oxides, such as BaO and BaTi03, were formed on silicon (100) using a BaSi2 (cubic) template by depositing one 55 fourth monolayer of Ba on silicon (100) using molecular beam epitaxy at temperatures greater than 850° C. See, e.g., R. McKee et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(7), p. 782-784 (12 Aug. 1991); R. McKee et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(20), p. 2818-2820 (15 Nov. 1993); R. McKee et al. Mat. Res. Soc. 60 Symp. Proc, Vol. 21, p. 131-135 (1991); U.S. Pat. No. 5,225,031, issued Jul. 6, 1993, entitled "PROCESS FOR DEPOSITING AN OXIDE EPITAXIALLY ONTO A SILICON SUBSTRATE AND STRUCTURES PREPARED WITH THE PROCESS"; and U.S. Pat. No. 5,482,003, 65 issued Jan. 9, 1996, entitled "PROCESS FOR DEPOSITING EPITAXIAL ALKALINE EARTH OXIDE ONTO A
SUBSTRATE AND STRUCTURES PREPARED WITH THE PROCESS." A strontium silicide (SrSi2) interface model with a c(4x2) structure was proposed. See, e.g., R. McKee et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(14), 3014 (5 Oct. 1998).
Growth of SrTi03 on silicon (100) using an SrO buffer layer has been accomplished. See, e.g., T. Tambo et al, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 37, p. 4454-4459 (1998). However, the SrO buffer layer was thick (100 A), and crystallinity was not maintained throughout the growth. Furthermore, SrTi03 has been grown on silicon using thick oxide layers (60-120 A) of SrO or TiO. See, e.g., B. K. Moon et al, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 33, p. 1472-1477 (1994). These thick buffer layers, however, would limit the application for transistors.
Accordingly, a need exists for a semiconductor structure that provides a high quality monocrystalline film or layer over another monocrystalline material and for a process for making such a structure.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
The present invention is illustrated by way of example and not limitation in the accompanying figures, in which like references indicate similar elements, and in which:
FIGS. 1, 2, and 3 illustrate schematically, in cross section, device structures in accordance with various embodiments of the invention;
FIG. 4 illustrates graphically the relationship between maximum attainable film thickness and lattice mismatch between a host crystal and a grown crystalline overlayer;
FIG. 5 illustrates schematically, in cross-section, a device structure in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the invention; and
FIG. 6 illustrates a process for producing device structures in accordance with various embodiments of the invention.
Skilled artisans will appreciate that elements in the figures are illustrated for simplicity and clarity and have not necessarily been drawn to scale. For example, the dimensions of some of the elements in the figures may be exaggerated relative to other elements to help to improve understanding of embodiments of the present invention.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIG. 1 illustrates schematically, in cross section, a portion of a semiconductor structure 20 in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. Semiconductor structure 20 includes a monocrystalline substrate 22, accommodating buffer layer 24 comprising a monocrystalline material, and may include an additional monocrystalline material layer 26. In this context, the term "monocrystalline" shall have the meaning commonly used within the semiconductor industry. The term shall refer to materials that are a single crystal or that are substantially a single crystal and shall include those materials having a relatively small number of defects such as dislocations and the like as are commonly found in substrates of silicon or germanium or mixtures of silicon and germanium and epitaxial layers of such materials commonly found in the semiconductor industry.
In accordance with one embodiment of the invention, structure 20 also includes an amorphous interface layer 28 positioned between substrate 22 and accommodating buffer layer 24. Structure 20 may also include a template layer 30 between the accommodating buffer layer and monocrystalline material layer 26. When present, the template layer helps to initiate the growth of the monocrystalline material